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Über dieses Buch

This book contains the reports of selected projects involving natural language commu­ nication with pictorial information systems. More than just a record of research results, however, it presents concrete applications to the solution of a wide variety of problems. The authors are all prominent figures in the field whose authoritative contributions help ensure its continued expansion in both size and significance. Y. C. Lee and K S. Fu (Purdue University, USA) survey picture query languages which form an interface between the pictorial database system and the user and support infor­ mation retrieval, data entry and manipulation, data analysis and output generation. They include explicit picture query languages that augment alphanumeric data query langua­ ges as well as languages and command sets which are implicitly embedded in a pictorial information system but perform similar functions. It is worth mentioning that some forms of query languages can be transformed from a given set of natural language senten­ ces by using ATN (Augmented Transition Networks), which consequently allows for na­ turallanguage communication with information system.



Query Languages for Pictorial Database System

To store, retrieve, and manipulate a variety of pictorial data of huge volume, a pictorial database system is highly desirable. As the interface between the pictorial database system and its user, a picture query language is to support information retrieval, data entry and manipulation, data analysis, and output generation.
Y. C. Lee, K. S. Fu

The Design of SWYSS, a Dialogue System for Scene Analysis

SWYSS (Say What You See System) is a natural language dialogue system tor scene analysis. It is designed in such a way as to support the analysis of natural scenes, especially in a top-down manner. Although SWYSS has originally been concieved of as a full-fledgeo system tying together scene analysis and natural language processing, it has been constrained recently to comprise several modules that can serve as an interface to a scene analysis system that outputs a geometric (possibly labelled) scene description.
SWYSS uses a phrase-structure grammar augmented with dependency rules to produce a dependency structure for natural language inputs not constrained to complete and well-formed sentences. Dependency structures are translated into ‘deep structures’, i.e. expressions of a logic-oriented Deep Structure Language (DSL), thereby resolving anaphora and handling ellipsis. Deductive retrieval and linguistic interpretation of geometric scene descriptions are performed by evaluating FUZZY procedures derived from deep structures and eventually yielding an augmented deep structure that is input to a natural language generation component.
Michael Hussmann, Peter Schefe

Language-Picture Question-Answering Through Common Semantic Representation And its Application to the World of Weather Report

This paper presents some methodologies for constructing systems which can understand both natural languages and pictorial patterns, and describes an application system of the weather report world.
The methodologies concern the preliminary analyses of linguistic and pictorial data, and the configuration of the understanding system. The data analyses are performed systematically by corresponding pictorial data to linguistic ones from the viewpoints of syntax and semantics. The understanding system which we intend consists of six divisions: Sentence Analysis Division, Picture Analysis Division, Meaning Analysis Division, Meaning Synthesis Division, Sentence Synthesis Division, and Picture Synthesis Division. All these divisions are connected through the medium of meaning representation common to language and picture.
The application system is titled as ISOBAR(an Information understanding System Of BAsic weather Report). It can accept both linguistic and pictorial inputs. Also it produces either linguistic or pictorial, or both, output according to the commands which it receives. The most remarkable point of the system is that the performance of the system is based on the semantic processing of the input. As ISOBAR’s world is limited within the weather report of Japan and Far East Asian areas with associated weather charts, the semantic background of the system is very narrow, and is quite a specific one. But the methodologies and algorithms in the system may be valid for more complicated and general systems. ISOBAR has two operating modes in principle. One is the accumulation of meteorological information, and the other is its retrieval. According to the experimental outcomes, the performance of the system is almost good except for the computing cost of the picture processing procedures. Finally, the problems for the future research are remarked.
Masao Yokota, Rin-ichiro Taniguchi, Eiji Kawaguchi

ILIAD — a High Level Dialogue System for Picture Analysis

ILIAD is a comprehensive digital picture analysis system that interacts with the user, through a high level language. The system is constructed to be a general tool for picture processing and picture analysis in different environments. It runs on a general purpose computer but it also contains provisions for utilizing different kinds of special hardware.
The high level language makes ILIAD programmable at monitor level. This means that different picture processing algorithms can be programmed directly using the PASCAL like command language.
The ILIAD system includes a procedure facility. A procedure is a self contained piece of ILIAD code stored in a special library or an external independent program that communicates with ILIAD via certain parameter transfer functions. Using such procedures a hierarchical structure of procedures can be built. This means that each picture processing problem can be expressed in such a structure, which simplifies the use of the system. Thus the experienced user can use the full system while a novice user may restrict himself to preprogrammed procedures which are simpler to use.
The system has been implemented on a VAX 11/780 under the operating system VMS and on a PDP 11/55 using RSX-11M. It is mainly programmed in PASCAL and is thus transportable to other computers. The design of the system was influenced by experiences gained from earlier picture analysis systems.
In this paper the first section, a general introduction, is followed by a short overview of the ILIAD system in section two. The reader who only needs a brief description of the system may restrict study to these two sections. The rest of the paper gives a more detailed description of the ILIAD language and its implementation. In the last two sections, an example of an application is given and some possible future developments are discussed.
O. Eriksson, E. Bengtsson, T. Jarkrans, B. Nordin, B. Stenkvist


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