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Über dieses Buch

This book is useful both for those who want to get initial information on the measurement of the antenna parameters, and for specialists directly involved in the experimental determination of the antenna parameters from the results of measuring the amplitude-phase distribution in the near zone of the antennas. Currently, the near-field method is the most common one for antenna measurements. In most books, an academic approach is given to the issue under consideration and it is difficult to use them for the direct organization of measurements. In many others, specific narrow issues are considered that are accessible to understanding only by highly qualified engineers/readers. The purpose of this book is to get rid of the above disadvantages by offering the reader a more accessible exposition and formulas by which appropriate computer programs can be written with minimal effort. The contents of this book allow interested specialists to be not only users of the near-field measuring facilities, but also help in understanding the principles of their work. This book is intended for engineers and specialists whose activities are related to experimental testing of radio characteristics of complex antenna systems, especially near-field measurements, and is also useful as a textbook for senior students in the field of “radioelectronics” and “radiophysics.”

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Radio Characteristics of Antennas

Abstract
The tasks solved by antennas in radio systems are listed. The structure of electromagnetic fields excited by the antenna in the near and far zones is considered. The definitions of the internal and external parameters of transmitting and receiving antennas are given.
Vadim Serafimovich Kalashnikov, Maxim Yurievich Ponomarev, Oleg Yurievich Platonov, Victor Vasilievich Shubnikov, Mark Ilyich Rivkin, Artem Yurievich Shatrakov, Yury Grigorievich Shatrakov, Oleg Ivanovich Zavalishin

Chapter 2. Methods of Measurement of Radio Characteristics of Antennas (Brief Overview)

Abstract
A brief review of the methods for the measurement of the radio characteristics of antennas in the far and near zones of the studied antennas and a comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of these methods are given. Recommendations are given for choosing a measurement method depending on the type of antenna being studied and the required amount of information about its parameters.
Vadim Serafimovich Kalashnikov, Maxim Yurievich Ponomarev, Oleg Yurievich Platonov, Victor Vasilievich Shubnikov, Mark Ilyich Rivkin, Artem Yurievich Shatrakov, Yury Grigorievich Shatrakov, Oleg Ivanovich Zavalishin

Chapter 3. Planar Near-Field Antenna Measurements: Calculation Expressions

Abstract
The electrodynamic fundamentals of the amplitude-phase methods for measuring antenna parameters are considered. The basic mathematical apparatus based on the Kirchhoff equations and the wave equation is presented, which allows one to calculate the antenna parameters from the results of measuring the amplitude-phase distribution of the field on a flat scanning surface. Based on the theory of scattering matrices, formulas are derived for probe compensation when calculating the radiation pattern based on the results of measurements of the amplitude-phase field distribution. Options for solving the wave equation using the discrete Fourier transform and using direct matrix multiplication are considered. It is shown that, when using modern computers, the second option is preferred. Recommendations are given on writing efficient and fast program code in MATLAB, which allows one to implement direct matrix multiplication variant of calculation. A review of the errors in measuring the amplitude-phase field distribution during scanning on a flat surface is carried out.
Vadim Serafimovich Kalashnikov, Maxim Yurievich Ponomarev, Oleg Yurievich Platonov, Victor Vasilievich Shubnikov, Mark Ilyich Rivkin, Artem Yurievich Shatrakov, Yury Grigorievich Shatrakov, Oleg Ivanovich Zavalishin

Chapter 4. Planar Near-Field Facility: Electrical and Mechanical Parts, Software

Abstract
Various types of scanners with a flat scanning surface are considered. A generalized structural diagram of the scanner construction is given and all its elements are examined in detail with an analysis of possible realizations. Various probe designs, their advantages and disadvantages are described. Various options for building software for communication with a receiver (vector network analyzer) are considered. Attention is paid to the issues of alignment of measurement objects, as well as to instrumental errors and the time budget of the measurement.
Vadim Serafimovich Kalashnikov, Maxim Yurievich Ponomarev, Oleg Yurievich Platonov, Victor Vasilievich Shubnikov, Mark Ilyich Rivkin, Artem Yurievich Shatrakov, Yury Grigorievich Shatrakov, Oleg Ivanovich Zavalishin

Chapter 5. Spherical Near-Field Antenna Measurements

Abstract
The formulas and the block diagram of the algorithm for calculating antenna far-field based on the results of measuring its amplitude-phase distribution on the spherical surface are presented. A brief description of modern probe designs and links to relevant sources are provided. Formulas are given for calculating the field in the antenna aperture based on the results of measuring its amplitude-phase distribution on the spherical surface and the results of applying these formulas to process the experimental data. Various kinematic schemes of the facility with a spherical scanning surface are described and the advantage of one of them is substantiated.
Vadim Serafimovich Kalashnikov, Maxim Yurievich Ponomarev, Oleg Yurievich Platonov, Victor Vasilievich Shubnikov, Mark Ilyich Rivkin, Artem Yurievich Shatrakov, Yury Grigorievich Shatrakov, Oleg Ivanovich Zavalishin

Chapter 6. Antenna Testing

Abstract
The role of tests in solving problems of determining the stability of the radio characteristics of antennas under various operating conditions is considered. Recommendations on the organization of mechanical and climatic tests are given. A description of flight tests of onboard antennas is given and an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of this type of test is performed. The features of methods for measuring the radio characteristics of antennas on aircraft models are considered.
Vadim Serafimovich Kalashnikov, Maxim Yurievich Ponomarev, Oleg Yurievich Platonov, Victor Vasilievich Shubnikov, Mark Ilyich Rivkin, Artem Yurievich Shatrakov, Yury Grigorievich Shatrakov, Oleg Ivanovich Zavalishin
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