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The sharp break that began with contemporary globalization followed the double defeat of colonization and of hegemony. The demise of bipolarity led to the end of a protective mechanism that enabled the old powers to hold onto their illusions, their privileges and an outmoded superiority, as they still held sway over the international agenda through the cold war and detente. Defeat on one side, disengagement on the other: the new relationship to the other was becoming an issue. There were three reactions to these challenges, all three expressed through an evolving American foreign policy, grappling more than any of the others with the uncertainties of power. These responses were formed over the course of the last successive presidencies: controlling the entire world, governing it from afar, or withdrawing into the domain of its national interests. George W. Bush was thus the champion of neoconservatism, Barack Obama that of neoliberalism, and Donald Trump of neonationalism. The other powers would align themselves in their own way with these urgently devised inventions.
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- Neoconservatism, Neoliberalism, Neonationalism
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