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Über dieses Buch

This volume is the result of an international collaboration, which started with a conference at Smadalaro Gfrrd in Sweden. The workshop was supported by the National Science Foundation of the USA (INT-9215114) and by the Swedish National Road Administration, the Swedish Council for Building Research, the Swedish Transport and Communications Research Board and the Swedish Council for Planning and Coordination of Research. This support is gratefully acknow­ ledged. The collaboration started as a bilateral u.S.-Swedish endeavour but was soon widened to other scholars in Europe, Asia, Australia and South-America. Network Infrastructure and the Urban Environment is a policy area of growing importance. Sustainable cities and sustainable transport systems are necessary for attaining a sustainable development. The research and policy field, represented in this volume, comprises a number of challenging contrasts: - the contrast between infrastructure investments, mobility and environmental sustainability; - the contrast between policy contexts, modelling traditions and available decision support systems in various parts of the world; - the contrast between available best practice methods and the majority of models applied in planning; the contrast between static models of cross-sectionary equilibria and dynamic models of disequilibrium adjustments; and the contrast between state-of-the-art operationalland-use/transport models and new demands for land-use/transportlenvironment models due to changing policy contexts. Bridging some of these gaps constitutes important research tasks, that are discussed in the twenty-two chapters of this book. A number of emerging research directions are identified in the introduction and summary chapter.



Network Infrastructure and the Urban Environment: Introduction and Summary

1. Network Infrastructure and the Urban Environment: Introduction and Summary

Transportation and communications networks together with the built environment constitute a major share of a society’s infrastructure. The amount of investment in this area in any country, particularly in developed countries, is immense. The impact of infrastructure on economic efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness, as well as on people’s welfare is also tremendous. But there is a negative side to this as well, especially to the expansion of transportation networks and the accompanying increased motorised mobility. Air emissions, the use of nonrenewable resources, accidents and congestion are a few examples of issues that have been raised in the growing public debate. Sustainability, apart from the fact that it is not easily defined, has become a key concept in transport policy forming. A proper understanding of the role of infrastructure for welfare—including positive and negative externalities—and economic growth will be a decisive factor for a successful urban and regional policy that can balance different objectives in an appropriate way.
Lars Lundqvist, Lars-Göran Mattsson, Tschangho John Kim



2. Infrastructure and Economic Milieu: Swedish Contributions 1960-1995

Production and economic growth have at every point in time an uneven distribution across countries, regions, and zones within regions. Such differentials can be interpreted as a consequence of attributes of the economic milieu of each region. We shall call them location attributes. For each type of economic activities one can identify certain constellations of attributes that support these activities better than other location attributes. Some milieu properties are gifts of nature, others are created by means of investments in physical and human capital with a fixed or semi-fixed location. This chapter intends to present Swedish contributions to this field of research during the period 1960–1995. Much of this work has not been published in English and is remained unknown outside Sweden. Our aim is to outline the profile of a rather coherent series of research efforts.
Börje Johansson

3. The Changing Context of Transportation Modeling: Implications of the New Economy, Intermodalism and the Drive for Environmental Quality

Over the last decade and a half, there has been a dramatic transformation of the environment in which transport infrastructure planning takes place. This transformation derives from three developments which have been gathering steam over the decade—first a structural change in the industrial production and market order and two broad changes in the policy and institutional context of transportation planning in the U.S.
T. R. Lakshmanan

4. Excess Commuting in U.S. Metropolitan Areas

Most social scientists in U.S. universities (not to mention federal, state and local government agencies) believe that workers in U.S. metropolitan areas make excessive use of cars for commuting.
Edwin S. Mills

5. Household Commuting: Implications of the Behavior of Two-Worker Households for Land- Use/Transportation Models

Single-worker households (and one worker’s commuting trade-offs) populate the world of urban economic theory. Alonso (1964) elaborated the locational choices facing “an individual”; it made no difference if that individual was a member of a multi-worker household because all individual workers would commute to the same city center. More complex models (e.g. White, 1977) assume two work sites (the CBD and a “suburban ring”) with all females commuting to the nearby suburban ring. Women’s worktrip times would tend to be longer if by transit (their value of time is less than that of men) but shorter if by private automobile (because they generally earn less, and here they tend to economize on the monetary costs of commuting). Alonso (1980) wrote about the rise of the two-worker household in the U.S. and speculated that, “… when there are several commuters rather than only one per household, and when non-working time is more valuable, … locational factors may play a stronger role, …. this factor may result in more concentrated development to reduce travel time. The most convenient point to two distant suburban work places may in many cases be a location more near the center.” (Alonso, 1980, p. 550). This view is challenged by Giuliano (1989) and Giuliano and Small (1993). Empirically, although the proportion of multi-worker households continues to expand, more concentrated development has not occurred.
Peter Gordon, Yu-chun Liao, Harry Richardson

Dynamics and Equilibria in Network Modelling: New Theoretical and Methodological Developments


6. Disequilibrium Network Design: A New Paradigm for Transportation Planning and Control

In a very broad sense, the network design problem (NDP) is a topic that has captured the attention of many researchers. This is mainly due to the immense importance of strategic capital investment decisions involving transportation infrastructure. For the purposes of this paper we limit the scope of the network design problem to highway systems. Design related decisions relevant to highways include a rich and wide variety of strategic (e.g., new right of way), tactical (one way street assignment, HOV assignment) and operational (traffic signalization, ramp metering) decisions that typically arise in transportation planning.
Terry L. Friesz, Samir Shah, David Bernstein

7. Infinite Dimensional Formulations of Some Dynamic Traffic Assignment Models

Traffic assignment models attempt to determine the usage of each route and/or link in a transportation network, given information about the number of trips being taken between various locations, the characteristics of the network, and the characteristics of the vehicles on the network. Though the term “assignment” seems to connote a prescriptive process in which vehicles are assigned to particular routes, there are both descriptive/positive and prescriptive/normative traffic assignment models.
David Bernstein, Terry L. Friesz

8. Introduction to Projected Dynamical Systems for Traffic Network Equilibrium Problems

It is now well-known that a plethora of equilibrium problems, notably, network equilibrium problems, can be uniformly formulated and studied as finite-dimensional variational inequality problems. Indeed, it was precisely the traffic network equilibrium problem, as stated by Smith (1979), and identified by Dafermos (1980) to be a variational inequality problem, that gave birth to the ensuing research activity in variational inequality theory and applications in transportation science, regional science, operations research, and, more recently, in economics.
Anna Nagurney, Ding Zhang

9. Worker and Workplace Heterogeneity and Residential Location: A Historical Perspective on Stockholm

Most studies of the role of transportation in residential location assume that an individual’s human capital and labor force experience are of no relevance to the location of his or her worksite and to the tradeoff between commuting and housing costs. Recent models often assume a polycentric metropolitan area and do recognize non-central workplace concentrations, but concentrations are undifferentiated by industry or occupation. Traditional traffic models rely upon the number of jobs and workers in different subareas, distance costs, income and sometimes age and family type to explain an observed commuting pattern. It is implicitly assumed that all workers are equally attracted to all kinds of jobs and that, moreover, all workers have the same chance of getting any job.
Björn Hårsman, John M. Quigley

10. Parameter Estimation for Combined Travel Choice Models

Parameter estimation for individual travel choice models of the logit type has become a relatively routine exercise with the availability of modem statistical software (Ben- Akiva and Lerman, 1985; Oppenheim, 1995). For example, relatively complex mode choice models with nested submode models are now widely applied. Models which combine trip assignment with other steps of the travel forecasting procedure, however, remain an academic curiosity, despite their successful application to planning problems in Chicago and Stockholm (Boyce et al., 1992; Abrahamsson and Lundqvist, 1998). These combined models present estimation problems, moreover, which have not been addressed in the context of logit model estimation.
David E. Boyce, Yu-Fang Zhang

11. Discrete Spatial Price Equilibrium

In this paper we consider how the flow of a single commodity is distributed between regional markets in a transportation network. We assume that there is an unlimited number of price-taking ’shippers’ who can enter the market and ship a single unit of commodity between some supply and demand points whenever there is a profit to be made. A common assumption made for this problem is that the shippers in the system behave rationally. In this case, a shipment of the commodity will usually take place only if the procurement costs at the supply market plus the transportation costs are less than, or equal, to the price obtained for the commodity at the demand market. If perfect competition prevails, no shipments will be made if procurement costs plus transportation costs are greater then the price obtained at the demand market. These are the equilibrium conditions defining a spatial price equilibrium model. The classical way to derive the conditions, according to Samuelson (1952) and Takayama and Judge (1971), is to formulate a mathematical program, and to obtain the equilibrium conditions as the optimal conditions of the mathematical program.
Sven Erlander, Jan T. Lundgren

12. Integration of Freight Network and Computable General Equilibrium Models

Over the past 30 years very significant progress has occurred in the understanding and modeling of passenger trip making behavior over networks. Yet, corresponding advances in understanding and modeling of freight transportation decision making over inter-regional, inter-modal networks have not occurred. In fact the most recent large scale U.S. freight network model is able to predict equilibrium network link volumes agreeing with Federal Railway Administration (FRA) density codes (reported data describing annual tonnages on every physical link of the rail system) with a frequency of only about 60% (Friesz et al., 1981; 1983a; 1983b; 1985). This is poor performance since density codes denote upper and lower bounds for link volumes; the difference between those upper and lower bounds is frequently of the same order of magnitude as the predicted volumes themselves. Poor as this accuracy is, it is substantially greater (about three times greater) than that reported for earlier models (Bronzini, 1980) and was achieved by straight-forward extensions of the urban passenger network modeling paradigm. Still greater accuracy may be obtained from a model designed specifically for freight applications from the outset.
Terry L. Friesz, Zhong-Gui Suo, Lars Westin

13. A Spatial Computable General Equilibrium Approach for Measuring Multiregional Impacts of Large Scale Transportation Projects

In economically lagging regions, infrastructure, transportation infrastructure in particular, is seen as an essential prerequisite for economic development. Even in industrialized regions, where the existing infrastructure’s performance is deteriorating due to increasing inadequacy to cope with enlarging travel demand or superannuated transportation systems, there is still interest in the effects of new or improved transportation infrastructure. At the same time, governments are concerned with the cost of providing and maintaining infrastructure when there are pressures to reduce public expenditure. This requires governments or planners to give a rigorous explanation about the needs of the infrastructure that, in turn, implies a need for more accurate assessment of the incidence of the wider economic benefits from the infrastructure.
Toshihiko Miyagi

Integrated Analysis of Activity Location and Transportation in Urban and Regional Systems


14. Applied Models of Urban Land Use, Transport and Environment: State of the Art and Future Developments

The idea that computer models of urban land use and transport might contribute to more rational urban planning was bom in the 1950s and culminated in the 1960s. The ‘new tools for planning’ (Harris, 1965) were thought to be a major technological breakthrough that would revolutionise the practice of urban policy making. However, the diffusion of urban models faltered soon after the pioneering phase, for a variety of reasons (see Batty, 1994; Harris, 1994). The most fundamental reason was probably that these models were linked to the rational planning paradigm dominant in most Western countries at that time. They were perhaps the most ambitious expression of the desire to ‘understand’ as thoroughly as possible the intricate mechanisms of urban development, and by virtue of this understanding to forecast and control the future of cities (Lee, 1973). Since then the attitude towards planning has departed from the ideal of synoptic rationalism and turned to a more modest, incrementalist interpretation of planning that has at least partly determined the failure of many ambitious large-scale modelling projects.
Michael Wegener

15. Results from Implementation of Integrated Transportation and Land Use Models in Metropolitan Regions

The general notion that operating agencies should attempt to integrate transportation and land use planning has long been espoused by both practicing planners and scholars. Some of the earliest work on the methodological aspects of this goal, as related to computer modeling of the processes, was sponsored by the U.S. Federal Highway Administration in an attempt to resolve what they then labeled as “the problem of premature obsolescence of highway facilities”. The earliest successful attempt to develop a modeling approach to these issues demonstrated that there were important interactions which most traditional planning methods overlooked (Putman, 1973). At the same time, this early study was unable to resolve important conceptual and computational problems of how to fully implement such integrated, or combined, model approaches. Part of the problem had to do with then available theory, and part with then available computer technology. The general problem had been formulated earlier (Beckmann et al., 1956), but the relevance of that work was not known to the transportation and land use modeling community. In 1973 the cost, at academic computing rates, of just one trip assignment model run was in excess of $200 (US), and most computer runs had to be submitted for overnight processing.
Stephen H. Putman

16. Improved Logit Formulations for Integrated Land Use, Transport and Environmental Models

Integrated land use and transport models have been a matter of interest for a long time. It is almost universally accepted that the interaction between activities is the driving force behind transport demand, and in turn, accessibilities shape land uses and prices. In spite of this, such integrated models have developed slowly, and transport policies are, by and large, still evaluated in their own terms.
Tomás de la Barra

17. Modelling Land-Use and Transport Interaction: Policy Analyses Using the IMREL Model

In some respects there is a renaissance in large-scale urban models—maybe somewhat unexpectedly. There are many reasons for this, both on the supply and the demand side. A brief retrospection could help to get this into perspective.
Christer Anderstig, Lars-Göran Mattsson

18. A Combined Model for Analysing Network Infrastructure and Land-Use/Transportation Interactions

Urban areas accommodate a rapidly growing share of the global population. The major problems of current and future societies, therefore, to a large extent need solutions on the urban scene. These problems include poverty, resource consumption and pollution. The concept sustainable development (emanating from the report of the Brundtland commission, WCED (1987)) summarises the joint emphasis on development and sustainability: “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. The development goal (standard of living adequate for health and well-being) has to be reconciled with the sustainability goal (“the planetary capital” in terms of natural systems, renewable and non-renewable resources should not be depleted).
Lars Lundqvist

19. Development of a Compact Urban Simulation Model

Recent research, such as in Wegener (1996), is revealing that quite radical policies may be required if the transport sector in most Western cities is to do its share in meeting the 2005 Greenhouse targets, to which most national governments have committed themselves. On the other hand, during recent years, planners have acquired their skills in implementing integrated land-use/transport models in an atmosphere of quite gradual change. Thus, with reliable guidelines not available for handling this new situation, and with the large data requirements and computational effort needed for each test run of the integrated models, a fresh approach is called for. In response, an urban simulation model SUSTAIN (Sustainable Urban STructure And Interaction Networks) is being developed to act as a preliminary design/sensitivity analysis tool to streamline subsequent application of one of the integrated models. The package evolved from some preliminary analysis in Roy (1992), itself stimulated by early work in Sweden by Marksjö (1970) and investigations by Anderson et al. (1986).
John R. Roy, Leorey O. Marquez, Michael A. P. Taylor, Takayuki Ueda

20. An Interactive Computer System for Land- Use Transport Analysis

Computer-based modelling provides a range of tools for the analysis of urban and regional systems. The study of these systems has been central to the evolution of modem regional science and the availability of computer technology has allowed many models to be built and computations performed that would have otherwise been impossible. The computer has therefore opened up many opportunities for regional scientists. The question that is posed therefore concerns the usefulness of the classical modelling methods and the expectation placed on the emergent modelling generation.
Geoffrey G. Roy, Folke Snickars

21. A Combined Economic Activity and Transportation Model: A Solution Procedure and Application to Multi-Regional Planning

In this paper, an integrated economic activity and transportation equilibrium model is developed in which the interaction between the public and private sectors are explicitly represented by simultaneously minimizing transportation costs, production costs, and import and export costs. The assumed role of the public sector is to develop highways that connect import and export ports zones to the locations where the private sector produces most economically. In the proposed model, the optimum amounts and locations of production, interzonal traffic flows, and port volumes are determined.
Paul F. Hanley, Tschangho John Kim

22. Road Infrastructure and Corridor Development

The impacts of network infrastructure are usually studied for spatial units such as cities or regions. Cities can be conceived as nodes in a network, the development of which is influenced by the quality of links (roads, railways, canals) and of transport nodes (airports, seaports). Thus, one can study the effect of changes in transport links (e.g. high speed rail) on the relative position of cities (Bruinsma and Rietveld, 1993).
Sytze A. Rienstra, Piet Rietveld, Maarten T. H. Hilferink, Frank R. Bruinsma
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