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This book provides new insights on the study of global environmental changes using the ecoinformatics tools and the adaptive-evolutionary technology of geoinformation monitoring. The main advantage of this book is that it gathers and presents extensive interdisciplinary expertise in the parameterization of global biogeochemical cycles and other environmental processes in the context of globalization and sustainable development. In this regard, the crucial global problems concerning the dynamics of the nature-society system are considered and the key problems of ensuring the system’s sustainable development are studied. A new approach to the numerical modeling of the nature-society system is proposed and results are provided on modeling the dynamics of the system’s characteristics with regard to scenarios of anthropogenic impacts on biogeochemical cycles, land ecosystems and oceans. The main purpose of this book is to develop a universal guide to information-modeling technologies for assessing the function of environmental subsystems under various climatic and anthropogenic conditions.



Chapter 1. Information-Modeling Technology for the Environmental Monitoring

The methods of the local environment diagnostics do not provide complex assessment for an environmental element (i.e., natural objects or process states), especially in the case when this environmental element occupies extensive space. Any technical means for the data collection of the environment allow production of information that is characterized as episodic in time and fragmentary in space. In particular, the microwave remote-sensing systems that are widely used to equip the flying laboratories and the natural-resources satellites supply the data sets that are geographically distributed.
Vladimir F. Krapivin, Costas A. Varotsos, Vladimir Yu. Soldatov

Chapter 2. Remote-Sensing Technologies and Data Processing Algorithms

Remote sensing of the land covers, atmosphere and World Ocean aquatories is based on the registration of background or reflected and scattered electromagnetic radiation.
Vladimir F. Krapivin, Costas A. Varotsos, Vladimir Yu. Soldatov

Chapter 3. Environmental Decision-Making

Environmental decisions are made based on different kinds of information. In a specific decision-making situation the choice of the appropriate tool depends on the decision context. In fact, there are numerous available tools which provide decision support. Adoption and substantiation of decisions are essential parts of the whole set of tasks related to artificial intelligence.
Vladimir F. Krapivin, Costas A. Varotsos, Vladimir Yu. Soldatov

Chapter 4. Ecoinformatics Problems of the World Ocean

A more detailed description of the production processes in the ocean ecosystems is needed in order to increase the reliability of assessing the role of the World Ocean in the global carbon cycle .
Vladimir F. Krapivin, Costas A. Varotsos, Vladimir Yu. Soldatov

Chapter 5. Ecoinformatics Problems of Global Climate Change

Climate is the average pattern of weather over the long term. The earth’s climate has warmed and cooled for millions of years, since long before people appeared on the scene. The unprecedented growth of interest in the problems of climate observed during the last decades has stimulated both scientific and applied developments which have considerably advanced our understanding of the causes of present climate changes, the laws of paleoclimate.
Vladimir F. Krapivin, Costas A. Varotsos, Vladimir Yu. Soldatov

Chapter 6. The Arctic Environmental Problems

Arctic region is currently undergoing unprecedented warming and drying, as well as dramatic changes in human use. Global climate change science includes important themes related to the understanding of annual and inter-annual balances of carbon, methane, water and other greenhouse gases and their stability.
Vladimir F. Krapivin, Costas A. Varotsos, Vladimir Yu. Soldatov

Chapter 7. Tropical Cyclogenesis and Ecoinformatics Methods

Undoubtedly, the state of the ocean-atmosphere system (OAS) plays an important role in the life of many countries. For instance, the tropical cyclones as hazardous state of the OAS occupy a specific position on the potential damages caused by hurricanes, where the risks for economic losses and victims are very high.
Vladimir F. Krapivin, Costas A. Varotsos, Vladimir Yu. Soldatov

Chapter 8. Ecoinformatics and Soil-Plant Formations

As mentioned above, the field of ecoinformatics provides concepts, methods and standards in order to guide management and analysis of ecological data with particular emphasis on exploration of co-occurrences of organisms and their linkage to environmental conditions and taxon attributes (Boden et al. 1994; Dengler et al. 2011; Fang et al. 2001; Rastetter et al. 2003). This chapter reflects on the development of ecoinformatics and explores its importance for future global change research with special focus on vegetation-plot data. Vegetation covers including forests are the most impacted by the anthropogenic reconstruction and revision.
Vladimir F. Krapivin, Costas A. Varotsos, Vladimir Yu. Soldatov

Chapter 9. Operational Diagnostics, Estimation of the Scale of Damage and Aftermath Reduction of the Stressful Natural Processes

Risk of losses resulted from human factors, inadequate or failed internal processes and systems, or external events is closely connected with aftermath weakening of the damage reduction. This problem is important when stressful hydrophysical and hydrochemical processes occur.
Vladimir F. Krapivin, Costas A. Varotsos, Vladimir Yu. Soldatov

Chapter 10. Ecoinformatics Problems in the Future World

As it was mentioned by Krapivin and Shutko (2012) that ecoinformatics is the science of information in ecology and environmental science.
Vladimir F. Krapivin, Costas A. Varotsos, Vladimir Yu. Soldatov


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