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## Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the JSAI-isAI 2012 Workshops LENLS, JURISIN, ALSIP, MiMI, which tool place on November/December 2012, respectively, in Miyazaki, Japan. The 17 contributions in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 42 submissions.They are an excellent selection of papers that are representative of topics of AI research both in Japan an in other parts of the world. LENLS (Logic and Engineering of Natural Language Semantics) is an annual international workshop on formal semantics and pragmatics; its topics are the formal and theoretical aspects of natural language. JURISIN (Juris-Informatics) deals with juris-informatics. This workshop brings together people from various backgrounds such as law, social science, information and intelligent technology, logic and philosophy, including the conventional “AI and law” area. MiMI (Multimodality in Multispace Interaction) focuses on how multispace is managed in socially, temporally, and sequentially complex environments.

## Inhaltsverzeichnis

### Hungarian Pre-verbal Focus and Exhaustivity

With respect to exhaustivity and focusing strategies Hungarian is a particularly interesting language. The most well-known characteristic of Hungarian is that it has a special position for the focused constituent directly in front of the finite verb. Hungarian uses both movement and intonation (accent) to mark focus. The focused constituent moves to a pre-verbal focus position that is often associated with an exhaustive/identificational semantics. According to several approaches, in Hungarian, focus marking by movement is primary, while the prosodic considerations are claimed to be secondary. There are two important questions about focusing in Hungarian. Firstly, an explanation of the focus movement is required, and secondly, in connection with this, we have to explain interpretational effects, with special attention to exhaustive listing. This paper investigates the semantic-pragmatic interpretation of structural focus in Hungarian an provides an analysis via obligatory implicatures.
Kata Balogh

### Logical Polysemy and Subtyping

This paper aims at providing a type-theoretical analysis of accidental/logical polysemy with a solution to the problems of copredication constructions discussed in Asher (2011). The main idea consists of 1) a generalization of subtyping which denotes an injection and allows it to be used in functional composition rules, as in CCG, and 2) a certain interaction between subtyping and type polymorphism which plays an important role in achieving compositionality.
Daisuke Bekki, Nicholas Asher

### Treebank Annotation for Formal Semantics Research

This paper motivates and describes treebank annotation for Japanese and English following a scheme adapted from the Annotation manual for the Penn Historical Corpora and the PCEEC (Santorini 2010). The purpose of this annotation is to create a syntactic base from which meaning representations can be built automatically on a corpus linguistics scale (thousands of examples). Advantages of the adopted annotation scheme are highlighted. Most notably, marking clause level functional information is essential for deterministically building meaning representations beyond the predicate-argument structure level. Also an internal syntax where phrasal categories are fundamentally similar is of great assistance. Finally, the paper demonstrates how scope information is simple to add when bracketed syntactic structure is inherently flat.
Alastair Butler, Ruriko Otomo, Zhen Zhou, Kei Yoshimoto

### On the Semantic Relation between Nominal and Quantity Expressions in Japanese

This paper demonstrates that the semantic relation between a nominal expression (NE) and a quantity expression (QE) is different in (i) QE no NE CM, (ii) NE QE CM, and (iii) NE CM QE, where CM is a case marker or postposition. Drawing on [5], it develops a type-theoretic language for describing these three distinct relations by using translation through monad.
J. -R. Hayashishita, Daisuke Bekki

### Accessibility for Plurals in Continuation Semantics

This paper accounts for the semantics of plurality, in particular, the accessibility relation for plural anaphora. Two types of discourse antecedents formations, inherited from the classical treatment [16], namely summation and abstraction, are studied in detail. Solutions for each phenomenon are provided respectively by introducing two new functions $$\mathfrak{Sum}$$ and $$\mathfrak{Abs}$$, for obtaining the semantic interpretations. The technical background in this paper is based on a recently proposed dynamic semantic framework [10], which pertains a style of the traditional Montague Grammar and the principle of compositionality, without adding any new concept to classical logic.
Sai Qian, Maxime Amblard

### Modelling Comparative Concepts in Conceptual Spaces

The conceptual spaces approach has emerged as a new and powerful way of thinking about concepts. In earlier work, the present authors have addressed the question of how to model vague concepts in the conceptual spaces framework. That in turn was instrumental in Decock’s and Douven’s account of a graded membership relation in further work. In this paper, we make use of the account of graded membership to present a way of modelling comparative concepts in conceptual spaces. Finally, Dietz’ alternative account of comparative concepts is contrasted with the presented Decock–Douven type account.
Lieven Decock, Richard Dietz, Igor Douven

### Winning Strategies in Politeness

This paper proposes a strategic analysis of politeness strategies stated in terms of game theory. After reviewing some facts about lexical strategies for linguistic politeness, we turn to our game-theoretic account, which involves treating polite and impolite acts as action choices in an indefinitely repeated game. We show that such games have winning strategies and that these strategies can be of differing degrees of complexity in a mathematical sense. Finally, we outline some avenues for future work.
Eric McCready, Nicholas Asher, Soumya Paul

### Public Announcements under Sheaves

The goal of this article is to bring together the frameworks of model-update semantics for (propositional) public-announcement logic [9] and of sheaf semantics for first-order modal logic [2,10,14], and to thereby obtain a sheaf semantics for first-order public-announcement logic. The first attempt to extend dynamic epistemic logics to the first order was made by Kooi [15], who introduced terms to refer to epistemic agents, and an extension of public-announcement logic to the first order was briefly given by Ma [18]; both of these extensions used constant domains for interpreting first-order vocabulary. (A first-order extension of dynamic logic was given in [12,13], also with constant domains.) This article pushes ahead with these extensions by employing a sheaf structure, providing a progress toward a more flexible and useful treatment of first-order notions.
Kohei Kishida

### Yablo’s Paradox, a Coinductive Language and Its Semantics

We generalize the framework of Barwise and Etchmendy’s “the liar” to that of coinductive language, and focus on two problems, the mutual identity of Yablo propositions coded by hypersets in ZFA and the difficulty of constructing semantics. We define a coding as a game theoretic syntax and semantics, which can be regarded as a version of Austin semantics.
Shunsuke Yatabe

### The Relationship between Stress and Conflict Handling Style in an ODR Environment

Up until now, most approaches to Online Dispute Resolution focused on ”traditional” problems such as the generation of solutions, the support to negotiation or the definition of strategies. Although these problems are evidently valid and important ones, research should also start to consider new potential issues that arise from technological evolution. In this paper we analyse the new challenges that emerge from resolving conflicts over telecommunications, namely in what concerns the lack of contextual information about parties. Specifically we build on a previous approach to stress estimation from the analysis of interaction and behavioural patterns. From the data gathered in a previous experiment we now trained classifiers that allow to assess stress in real-time, in a personalized and empirical way. With these classifiers, we were able to study how stress and conflict coping strategies evolve together. This paper briefly describes these classifiers, focusing afterwards on the results of the experiment.
Paulo Novais, Davide Carneiro, Marco Gomes, José Neves

### Modelling Legitimate Expectations

Legitimate expectation in the context of culpa in contrahendo is an important legal concept for the study of good faith and the duty to negotiate with good care. However when wanting to model it and reason about it, one finds that most existing legal formalisations do not directly account for the concept. In this paper we present a formal model that can explicitly model and reason about legitimate expectations by extending the formal InstAL legal framework. We demonstrate our extensions with the help of a private law case study which has gained wide popularity in Japanese law.
Marina De Vos, Tina Balke, Ken Satoh

### A Study of Ex Ante Law Enforcement in Norm-Governed Learning Agents

We investigate ex ante law enforcement within a population of norm-governed learning agents using a probabilistic rule-based argumentation framework. We show that this formal framework can advantageously complete a traditional analysis based on expected utilities, in particular when hyper-rational or omniscient agents are not assumed. This has significant implications for the design of self-organising electronic institutions, where the cost of monitoring and enforcement of laws and norms has to be taken into consideration.
Régis Riveret, Dídac Busquets, Jeremy Pitt, Giuseppe Contissa, Antonino Rotolo, Giovanni Sartor

### Detecting Conflicts in Legal Systems

When acting in different jurisdictions (e.g. under the laws of different countries) at the same time, it can be of great value for individuals to be able to determine whether disparities among the laws of these different systems exist and allowing them to identify the consequences that may follow from these disparities. For individuals, it is typically not of interest to find all the ways in which these legal systems differ, but rather to establish whether a particular course of action may have different legal interpretations, depending on the jurisdiction. In this paper we present a formal and computational framework that, given specific scenarios (descriptions of courses of action), can automatically detect whether these scenarios could lead to different outcomes. We demonstrate our approach by means of a private international law case-study where a company drafts a contract clause after examining the consequences in the available jurisdictions.
Tingting Li, Tina Balke, Marina De Vos, Ken Satoh, Julian Padget

### Summarization of Legal Texts with High Cohesion and Automatic Compression Rate

We describe a method for extractive summarization of legal judgments using our own graph-based summarization algorithm. In contrast to the connected and undirected graphs of previous work, we construct directed and disconnected graphs (a set of connected graphs) for each document, where each connected graph indicates a cluster that shares one topic in a document. Our method automatically chooses the number of representative sentences with coherence for summarization, and we don’t need to provide a priori, the desired compression rate. We also propose our own node/edge-weighting scheme in the graph. Furthermore, we do not depend on expensive hand-crafted linguistic features or resources. Our experimental results show our method outperforms previous clustering-based methods, including those which use TF*IDF-based and centroid-based sentence selection. Our experimental results also show that our method outperforms previous machine learning methods that exploit a variety of linguistic features.
Mi-Young Kim, Ying Xu, Randy Goebel

### Discussion Analysis Using Temporal Data Crystallization

This paper introduces a discussion analysis tool which extracts topic flow and important utterances from a discussion record based on word occurrences. We have proposed a discussion analysis method called Temporal Data Crystallization (TDC). This method divides the entire discussion record hierarchically at points where the topic changes, and analyzes some features of flow of topics for each period. In this paper, we showed the effect of hierarchical division by analyzing an example discussion record. Then, we introduced the extension of TDC by considering nonverbal information such as actions, facial expression, loudness of voice, and so on.
Masaki Sugimoto, Takahiro Ueda, Shogo Okada, Yukio Ohsawa, Yoshiharu Maeno, Katsumi Nitta

### Transforming Space into Place: Some Interactions in an Urban Plaza

This paper is concerned with relationships between space, place, and social interaction, exploring possibilities of moving from the analysis of the spatial organization of encounters and interacting ensembles to an understanding of how, in and through their interaction in a space, people transform it into a jointly experienced, meaningful, and memorable place. This exploration is conducted through the analysis of interactions of four different interacting units in a single space, the front of a church in a city in Colombia. They include a person talking on a cell-phone, a pair of children, a group of children, and a loving couple.
Jürgen Streeck

### Hands and Knowledge

Gesture as an Epistemic Engine in Reminiscence Therapy
Conversation analyses have revealed that information imbalances between speakers and hearers are represented in their speech and drive the epistemic engine to equalize the imbalances. Considering multi-modal communication, however, information can also be conveyed by body movements and reveal the unspoken imbalances in detail. Group reminiscence therapy is used to treat elderly people who are developing dementia, but it is a conversation process in which the epistemic engine involves cultural differences among the participants. In the present study, detailed analyses of conversation during therapy showed that speakers can use gestures to show their epistemic status and the information imbalance between the participants; hearers can imitate the speaker’s gestures to show their understanding in the conversational sequence; unspoken epistemic differences can be revealed by the difference between the gestures of the speaker and hearer; and other participants can observe the difference visually and update a gesture to point out the unspoken difference. I discuss the multi-modal structure of an epistemic engine in reminiscence therapy and its implications for the care given to dementia patients.
Hiromichi Hosoma

### Management of Intersubjectivity and Progressivity through Simultaneous Gestural Matching

By analyzing the storytelling sequence in a communicative retelling task, this article investigates how participants manage two potentially competing orientations (intersubjectivity and progressivity of storytelling) through Simultaneous Gestural Matching (SGM) between the teller and hearer. Participants of talk-in-interaction have their own space to exhibit their understanding of the conversation visually through nonverbal behaviors such as gestures and posture. SGM is the spatiotemporal coordination of these nonverbal behaviors. Detailed analysis of talk-in-interaction demonstrates that SGM enables participants to show visual, public display of their understanding and thereby contributes to creating intersubjectivity among participants without disrupting the progressivity of storytelling in a manner that is sensitive to the structure of the activity.
Ayami Joh

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