The subject of this book is civil engineering material and nanotechnology. Recent advances in nano-synthetic technologies and nanocomposite technologies as well as nano-surface modification technologies are driving the progressive exploitation of advanced nanomaterials. In view of their unique structures and mutual synergy, these advanced nanomaterials are expected to alleviate the dispersion issue of traditional nanomaterials in cement-based composites, improve their nanocomposite effectiveness and efficiency as well as impart new properties and functionalities to cement-based composites, thus boosting the development of new-generation cement-based nanocomposites. Based on the authors’ latest research accumulations and achievements, this book presents the fundamentals, fabrications, characterizations, performances and applications of the new-generation cement-based nanocomposites. It features numerous illustrations and data graphs as well as summary tables to visually describe the topics. This book is dedicated to students, researchers, scientists and engineers in the field of civil engineering materials and nanotechnology. The readers can find information on progress of civil engineering materials and nanotechnologies, cutting-edge research ideas and findings and practical guidance for developing sustainable and multifunctional cement-based nanocomposites.