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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-workshop proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Web-Based Learning, ICWL 2010, held in Shanghai, China, in December 2010. The 36 revised full papers and 8 short papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 192 submissions. They deal with topics such as e-learning platforms and tools, technology enhanced learning, Web-based learning for oriental languages, mobile/situated e-learning, learning resource deployment, organization and management, design, model and framework of e-learning systems, e-learning metadata and standards, collaborative learning and game-based learning, as well as practice and experience sharing, and pedagogical issues.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

International Workshop on Story-Telling and Educational Games

Educational Game Design for Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language by Effective Learning Environment, Flow, Motivation

With the rapid development of the online games, the educational game has been demonstrated as a potential learning tool which can enhance learning motives [1]. Now the educational game represents a new interesting development in the field of education. In this paper, we first introduce the effective learning environment, flow, motivation (EFM) model which is a user-centered game design model, and then design the educational game for teaching Chinese as a foreign language based the EFM model’s idea. This educational game creates engaging and immersive learning experience for delivering learning outcomes, it attempts to provide a new study way and new study experience to the foreigners.

Yi Zhang, Liming Shan, Shixiang Li

A Narrative Architecture for Story-Driven Location-Based Mobile Games

Dramatic improvements in smartphones over the last few years have positioned them as a major platform for interactive media content. In addition to being much more portable than laptop computers, smartphones also support a sophisticated combination of GPS, sensors and communications interfaces that allow extracting context information related to their environment, such as location, orientation and weather data. This combination of mobility and context-sensitivity opens up interesting possibilities in relation to interactive narrative, and for example allows audience immersion into an interactive story to be improved by placing the content in physical locations that are of direct relevance to the story. In this paper, we present a general-purpose narrative architecture that allows a considerable range of story-based game and guide content to be expressed in location-aware manner. We also present a case study of an actual location-aware augmented reality game, which demonstrates the architecture in a commercial setting and shows that it is sufficiently lightweight to run on the current generation of smartphones.

Katsiaryna Naliuka, Tara Carrigy, Natasa Paterson, Mads Haahr

A Story on Internet Safety: Experiences from Developing a VR Gaming Environment

This work presents the authors’ on-going experience in implementing an online VR platform targeted to young pupils with the aim to achieve an in-depth understanding regarding Internet safety risks, protective measures and actions, primarily within the school and family environment. We a) outline design and technical considerations with respect to ‘SimSafety’ development, b) present technical prospects and limitations related to the provision of conceptually ‘rich’ activities to support our educational goals and c) briefly discuss SimSafety’s pilot application so far, under the “story telling” paradigm.

Maria Fountana, Dimitris Kalaitzis, Eftychios Valeontis, Vasilis Delis

Story Telling for Cultural Knowledge Sharing

We present the development of learning resources using multiple contributors. The resources are to assist learning a specific set of cultures, those of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Australia, using stories uploaded onto a web site. The work is aimed at cultural preservation through non-linear digital stories, and re-presenting it in educational settings.

By enabling the community contributors to tag their artefacts according to themes, relationships, location and language we can provide a way for the learner-user to select relevant stories to their learning experience. The three learning environment interfaces, combined with the contributor’s tagging of their story, provides the interconnection between stories and the learning path for the users.

Cat Kutay, Peter Ho

Digital Storytelling for Competence Development

The acquisition of complex knowledge and competences raises difficult challenges for the supporting tools within the corporate environment, which digital storytelling presents a potential solution. Traditionally, a driving goal of digital storytelling is the generation of dramatic stories with human significance, but for learning purposes, the need for drama is complemented by the requirement of achieving particular learning outcomes. This paper presents a narrative engine that supports emergent storytelling to support the development of complex competences in the learning domains of project management and innovation. The approach is based on the adaptation on the Fabula model combined with cases representing situated contexts associated to particular competences. These cases are then triggered to influence the unfolding of the story such that a learner encounters dramatic points in the narrative where the associated competences need to be used. In addition to the description of the approach and corresponding narrative engine, an illustration is presented of how the competence “conflict management” influences a story.

Edgar Santos, Claudia Ribeiro, Manuel Fradinho, João Pereira

Community Adaptive Educational Games

This paper presents an adaptive architecture for educational games which are evolved and optimized in order to fulfill the educational goals while reflecting the specific requirements and features of the user community. The approach is based on an online genetic framework where typical genetic operators like crossover and mutation are designed to evolve a population of games, and the online fitness driving the evolution is given by a metric of user behavior/performance, evaluated on the actual community of users. The evolutionary structure adapt can also be applied for continuous game adaptation in dynamical domains where the user community and/or the educational goals are changing over the time.

Clement Leung, Yuanxi Li, Jiming Liu, Alfredo Milani

International Workshop on Cognitive-Based Interactive Computing and Web Wisdom

Hybrid Filtering-Based Personalized Recommender System for Revitalization of Jeju Water Industry

Information filtering is one of the core technologies in a recommender system for personalized services. Each filtering technology has such shortcomings as new user problems and sparsity. Moreover, a recommender system dependent on items decreases reusability. In order to solve these problems, we developed a personalized recommender framework with hybrid filtering. This framework consists of reusable and flexible modules for recommended items. Further, this framework improves the productivity of programming. As an application of this framework, we implemented a personalized tourist recommender system and analyzed it. Also, we applied the system to Jeju beer recommender system. The results show the performance of the framework proposed in this paper.

Jungwon Cho, Eui-young Kang, Hanil Kim, Hyungchul Kim, Youngseok Lee, Seungdo Jeong

Modelling Text File Evaluation Processes

Text file evaluation is an emergent topic in e-learning that responds to the shortcomings of the assessment based on questions with predefined answers. Questions with predefined answers are formalized in languages such as IMS Question & Test Interoperability Specification (QTI) and supported by many e-learning systems. Complex evaluation domains justify the development of specialized evaluators that participate in several business processes. The goal of this paper is to formalize the concept of a text file evaluation in the scope of the E-Framework – a service oriented framework for development of e-learning systems maintained by a community of practice. The contribution includes an abstract service type and a service usage model. The former describes the generic capabilities of a text file evaluation service. The later is a business process involving a set of services such as repositories of learning objects and learning management systems.

José Paulo Leal, Ricardo Queirós

Duplicate Page Detection Algorithm Based on the Field Characteristic Clustering

The speed and accuracy for the cognitive based interactive-computing is crucial in an information retrieval system of web wisdom. In this page, we propose a new duplicate detection algorithm based on the field characteristic clustering after the analysis of the common duplicate detection algorithm and finding their existing drawbacks. By using the field knowledge to build the characteristic string and taking advantage of the improved k-means clustering algorithm, we shorten the time in the comparison process for the duplicate detection. Finally, through the experiment to compare the performance of the traditional SCAM, DSC with this algorithm on the time consumption, the rate of accuracy and the recalling rate quality. The result shows this algorithm overcome the time and storage consumption when compared with the traditional SCAM algorithm. On comparison with another DSC algorithm, it improves the drawback of the inaccuracy brought by the use of shingles to representing a page in the duplicate detection process. We conclude the duplicate detection algorithm based on the field characteristic clustering raise its precision and recall rate in the field of web duplicate page detection and will improve the speed and accuracy in an information retrieval system of web wisdom.

Feiyue Ye, Junlei Liu, Bing Liu, Kun Chai

A Load-Balance Based Resource-Scheduling Algorithm under Cloud Computing Environment

The algorithm for scheduling resources under clouding computing environment is different from that under traditional distributed computing environment because of the high scalability and heterogeneity of computing resources in cloud computing environment. In this paper, a resource-scheduling algorithm based on dynamic load balance is presented. The different data-processing power of nodes in cloud is considered in this algorithm, as well as different data-transferring power and transfer delay between nodes in cloud. The algorithm selects the “best” node to fulfill the task in order to improve the efficiency of cloud computing and minimize the average response time of tasks. And the simulation results show that the algorithm distinctly reduces the average response time of tasks.

Haihua Chang, Xinhuai Tang

Research on Semantic Web Reasoning Based on Event Ontology

Ontology is one of the key technologies in Semantic Web. And the traditional ontology is only used to describe the concepts and the relations between them which neglected to describe dynamic knowledge. However, the Semantic Web offers services, which allow their users to effect changes in the world. In this paper, the dynamic knowledge in Semantic Web is described by a 3-tuple formal definition of action with temporal information which defined in event. And an Action-TBox and an Action-ABox are also proposed at the background of event ontology. Based on this formalism, several inference services of dynamic knowledge are discussed.

Wenjie Xu, Wei Liu, Jianfeng Fu, Zongtian Liu

Building the Association Catalog for Books Based on Association Linked Network

Current library catalogs, such as author catalog, title catalog and so on, index the books from one aspect but cannot reflect the relations among relevant book classifications. In this paper, the association relations among book classifications are mined from a large amount of borrowing logs of readers. Based on the mined relations, the Association Linked Network of book classifications is built to present the association relations among book classifications. A new type of library catalog named Association Catalog for books (ACB) is proposed based on the association linked network of book classifications. By means of ACB readers can also get the books about the related disciplines, which are closely related to this book. The experiment results show that ACB can help the readers retrieve the related books in interdisciplinary learning and researching.

Xiao Wei, Wei Wu, Jiyan Xu, Zheng Xu

Factors Affecting Lifelong Learners’ Intention to Continue Using E-Learning Website: An Empirical Study

In an era of rapid change, with a need for lifelong learning, this study aimed to explore the behaviors of lifelong learning by proposing an integrated theoretical framework for the lifelong learners’ usage behavior on web-based e-learning. The research model draws on TAM and integrates with TPB to predict the lifelong learners’ intention to continue using e-learning. Subjects were randomly selected from the members of the SME Online University in Taiwan and analyzed using partial least squares structural model (PLS). Results showed that course flexibility, course quality, system functionality and system response significantly affect learners’ perceptions. Both the perceived usefulness and perceived ease-of-use have positive effects on users’ intentions of continued use of the e-learning website. Additionally, our research findings indicated that for lifelong learning, learners’ perceived behavioral control should be considered in the model for their planned behavior of e-learning activities.

Hsiu-Li Liao, Su-Houn Liu, Shih-Ming Pi, You-Jie Chou

Requirements of Chinese Teachers for Online Student Tracking and a Comparison to Their Western Counterparts

Effective teaching requires teachers to know their students and to adapt their teaching accordingly, regardless of taking place in China or in Western countries. This raises requirements on online learning environments: they need to track online learners’ actions and present these to the teachers. This paper investigates whether the requirements differ between Western and Chinese teachers. We address this question via the analysis of a questionnaire that investigates requirements collected from Chinese teacher who have been in online teaching field for several years. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the requirements and compare the results to the formal survey research on the requirements of student tracking system conducted by Western researchers. We found that several requirements differ significantly. The results of this work are significant as they inform the design of online learning environments in general and online learning data analysis in particular.

Xiaohong Tan, Carsten Ullrich, Oliver Scheuer, Erica Melis, Ruimin Shen

Model-Based Cognitive Diagnosis of Students’ Test Performance in an E-Learning Environment

Cognitive diagnosis is the process of inferring a cognitive state from observations of performance. This paper considers the problem of cognitive diagnosis as an instance of model-based diagnosis, as studied in artificial intelligence for many years. The model-based cognitive diagnosis we present runs on a model of students’ courses in terms of knowledge items that they may learn, tests them and helps them to understand their faults in cognition, and thus improve their learning performance in an E-learning environment. To do so, courses are formally defined as set of knowledge items with requirement constraints, knowledge items are associated with a set of exam questions. Moreover, diagnostic algorithms are used to help a student understand what knowledge item within a course the student does not master, the root reason of his/her test errors, and the recommendations like what should be done next. Experimental results show that the group of students with such understanding can improve their testing performance greatly in an E-learning environment.

Rong Chen, Junjie Xu, Yingjie Song, Wu Deng, Yanheng Li

Issues of Interaction in Pure-Online English Learning Environment through Perspectives of Cognitive Constructivism and Social Constructivism: A Case Study for Non-formal Learning

Most previous studies on the use of Internet technology and computers for second language learning have been conducted in blended learning environments. Although much research has been undertaken into interactions in online learning, little work has focused on online English learning, let alone the pure-online (ie non-blended) English learning environment with no face-to-face element. This paper investigates the English-language learning interactions in one of our projects that has been running for ten years continuously in cooperation with the BBC and British Council. Our pure-online English-language learning environment for non-formal learning is at in2english.com.cn. This study further aims to explore how the interactions work in such an environment, and investigates the related issues and peculiar characteristics of the interactions in practice.

Yanhui Han

The Virtual Learning Commons Architecture Based on Semantic Technologies

Virtual Learning Commons (VLC) is a new web-based virtual learning environment to support learning, teaching, research and knowledge sharing by integrated digital library, e-learning system, social network, academic support tools, and so on. In this paper, a new semantic based VLC architecture is proposed, which reveals the logical relationship among the virtual environments, the functional levels, the virtual service organization, and other components. The five-layer structural model is described in detail. Finally, a prototype system of the semantics-based VLC is implemented. The case study shows that the proposed semantics-based architecture and structural model have great theoretical and practical value in guiding the construction of VLC.

Shuhuai Ren, Jialin Cao

International Workshop on WebGIS and Location Based Web Service

OCL-Based Testing for E-Learning Web Service

As testing has been playing an important role in guaranteeing quality of Web service in respect of E-learning, the traditional testing of Web services presents its inability such as time-consuming and flawed testing procedures as opposed to desired measures in quickly and thoroughly scanning Web services for detects. To reduce testing cost and enhance testing efficiency, our testing measure for E-learning Web services is to describe services with an annotation mixed with the Object Constrain Language (OCL) and Semantic Annotations for WSDL and XML Schema (SAWSDL), parse OCL pre-conditions and OCL post-conditions, and generate test cases with class division and boundary values. An experimental case indicates the feasibility of the proposed approach.

Jin Liu, Xiaoming Lu, Xiguang Feng, Jianxun Liu

The Application of Moodle in Computer English Teaching

With the rapid development of China’s software outsourcing industry, it is essential for IT industry to recruit IT professionals with adequate English proficiency, which undoubtedly brings English for computer a booming era. But the current computer English teaching method is teacher-centered and is criticized as deaf and dump English. In view of the problems of traditional English teaching and the advantages of E-learning, the new published College English Curriculum Requirements proposes suggestions on using the Web as a medium to improve English teaching and learning in higher education. Moodle is one of the fastest growing free, open-source virtual learning environments. This paper mainly focuses on how Moodle can be effectively used in a college computer English teaching classroom. First of all, the current computer English teaching situation will be introduced. Next the reasons for choosing Moodle at our school are presented. Then the design and implementation of Moodle based computer English teaching environment will be introduced. Finally, the author concludes the paper and proposes future work.

Yihai Chen, Huaikou Miao

A Web Services Matchmaking Engine for AFlow

The web service composition plays more and more important role in SOA environment nowadays. Composing Web services on user’s demand will prove to be essential. AFlow is such an automated web service composition system. In this paper, we first represent our separation model for web service modeling and give an overview to the AFlow. After giving web service definitions and matchmaking rules, we give the description of our web services matchmaking engine. Finally we give the analysis and give the experimental comparison, which shows our method has a better performance and scalability.

Zhongwei Yang, Zhaoteng Song, Xin Li, Xinhuai Tang, Xiaozhou Yuan, Delai Chen

A Mobile Course Coordinator System

The rapid progress of IT technologies has enabled users to access ‘any service, anytime, anywhere’, and wireless Internet services have enabled users to access Internet services even while traveling. Cellular phones have evolved to smart phones, and act as computers. Users can now access service categories that offer new possibilities and which are accessed and used in ways different from traditional services anytime, anywhere. Previous academic administration management systems had migrated from wired to wireless technology but were restricted to specific equipment, as such systems were not based on industry standards. The course coordinator plays a significant role in managing the curriculum and counseling students on academic matters, with a view to fostering their academic progress. However, the coordinator does not have the time to advise individual students on the details of which fields and courses they should pursue. This paper proposes a mobile course coordinator system (MCCS) to help students to choose and access the courses necessary for their major fields of study. When students apply, the MCCS recommends the most suitable subjects, using an inference engine that considers not only course sequences but also the student’s information. The performance of the MCCS in tests was very good, coinciding 89.5% of the time with an expert’s recommendations. In particular, our method was more effective than the Intelligent Online Academic Management System (IOAMS) in related research. Students can use their personal cellular phones to track their courses and receive course recommendations from the MCCS.

Youngseok Lee, Jungwon Cho, Seungdo Jeong, Sungjae Han, Byung-Uk Choi

A Research of the Internet Based on Web Information Extraction and Data Fusion

This paper proposes a strategy to personalized the Internet searching, which would help to filter, extract and integrate the massive information from the web based on the specific user requirements in the hopes that it can relieve them from the tedious process of manually selecting and retrieving the relevant information as well as the confusion caused by the inconsistencies of the information. The strategy proposed in this paper has been applied to the searching of the laptop product information and the result shows a much less human effort involved and a much more accurate price range.

Yajun Jiang, Zaoliang Wu, Zengrong Zhan, Lingyu Xu

Internet GIS and System Dynamic Modeling in Urban Public Safety and Security Studies: A Conceptual Framework

Urban space has been a focus of various studies for centuries. In the awake of recent events, it becomes important to understand and model urban safety and security, and disseminate urban safety and security information to the decision-makers, the general public, and other interested parties in an efficient and dynamic way. This study embarks on such a task of proposing a system dynamic methodology based modeling technique, and an Internet GIS based information dissemination framework to address such an issue. In particular, we propose to establish a set of “urban safety and security information indicator system”. Based on the actual scenario of Shanghai, such indicator system includes information from the urban socioeconomic development, urban crime and violence, urban tenure insecurity, and natural and manmade disasters. We will discuss its general framework and then give a thorough review of Internet GIS and its applicability to the urban safety and security domain. We conclude our research with proposed future works including data collection, modeling and simulation, and dissemination network creation.

Danlin Yu, Jingyuan Yin

The Detection of Scene Features in Flickr

Detecting events from web resources has attracted increasing research interests in recent years. Flickr is one of Web resources, which is used to share photos. Complex event detection on Flickr includes the detection of tourist features, user’s interest, and so on. With the increasing user requirements of efficient and personalized services, the detection of scene features in Flickr is urgently needed. In this paper we propose a novel method to detect tourist features of every scene, and its difference in different seasons as a probabilistic combination of tags. The use of topic models enables the automatic detection of such patterns, which can translate unstructured tag information into structured event form. The experimental evaluation using real datasets in Flickr show the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.

Chunjie Zhou, Pengfei Dai, Jianxun Liu

QoS-Based Probabilistic Fault-Diagnosis Method for Exception Handling

Fault-diagnosis is an essential prerequisite for exception handling. There are several attempts to apply it in the decentralized systems like Web Service. However, few of them discuss the fault-diagnosis technics along with QoS. In this paper, we base our work on an existing framework, and employ the Bayesian Network which takes QoS under consideration to operate a probabilistic analysis. We aim to evaluate the precedence of each diagnosis returned after the diagnostic procedure with a posterior probability and thus provide more support for exception handling.

Zhen Zhu, Wanchun Dou

International Workshop on Knowledge and Data Engineering in Web-Based Learning

A Knowledge-Driven Approach to Web-Based Learning for Formal Algorithm Development

The paper reports an effort to construct a Web-based environment for teaching/learning algorithm design. The semantic web version of PAR platform, a practical platform for formal algorithm development, consists of structural knowledge models for effectively organizing and managing learning concepts in the domains of problem specification, algorithm calculation, algorithm reuse, and program transformation, and provides effective learning paths for synthesize and transmit these concepts meeting the requirements of Web users. The e-learning PAR platform has been successfully applied in undergraduate and graduate courses, and demonstrated its effectiveness in improving algorithm learning.

Yujun Zheng, Haihe Shi, Jinyun Xue

The Research and Implementation of Web Subject Fusion Based on Information Fusion

This paper proposes web information fusion concept, and uses it by means of evidence reasoning and dynamic clustering algorithm to fusion web subjects, access to the effective expression of the relevant web pages, so that when Internet users use search engine, the search engine will reduce large numbers of redundant and bad pages, and feedback more useful information to users.

Feiyue Ye, Jiayong Du

Education-Oriented People-to-People Association Network (E-PAN)

With the analysis on education management in the existing system, we conclude that the resource silo and the lack of resource standards are the major problems faced with the development of e-education. Therefore an education-oriented people to people association network, a short term as “E-PAN”, is proposed to enhance education resource management and provide more personalized educational services. On the other hand, the E-PAN shows the main features of user agent and user modeling, which enable the pairing of resource providers and resource receivers to establish the learning activities. The E-PAN layered architecture and basic elements are described in detail, and several application scenarios are presented in the following.

Wenhao Zhu, Ben Yang, Jiaoxiong Xia, Wu Zhang, Minjie Bian

Designing Personalized Learning Difficulty for Online Learners

With the rapid development of information and education technology, online learning system become more and more important in improving learners’ grade. To provide personalized, flexible learning examination and efficiently keep students’ confidence, the key problem is how to control the learning difficulty. In this paper, we present personalized learning difficulty-based online learning system (PLD-OLS) which can adaptively provide learning examination with reasonable difficulty for learners. In this method, each exercise is appended a hex string which represents the learners’ understanding degree based on exercise difficulty. With the procedure of learning, this string will be automatically changed to represent the current understanding degree of learners. In addition, according to this novel representation, the learning state can be achieved by merging all hex strings to help customize learning examination with personalized learning difficulty for learners’ re-learning. Learning results demonstrate that PLD-OLS can efficiently control the learning difficulty and improve learning effect of learners.

Guangli Zhu, Wenjuan Liu, Shunxiang Zhang

Capacity-Building in Nonprofit Organizations: Is There a Blended Learning Paradigm for the Sector?

Blended learning models are widely-used, successful training vehicles for e-learning and workplace training, in corporate as well as higher education environments. Increasingly, Web 2.0 applications, imbedded within blended learning models, are being recognized for their utility in these settings. Concern for the sustainability and relevance of nonprofit organizations has sharpened the interest in building effective capacity-building models for the sector. Can Web 2.0 technologies enhance capacity-building models in the Third Sector? Because blended learning is a remarkably adaptable and fluid model, its potential for transforming capacity-building models in the nonprofit sector is thought to be significant. This paper introduces the concept of transformational approaches to capacity-building and asks if blended learning paradigms that incorporate interactive next-generation technologies might strike a responsive chord in the sector. The authors present research to date on blended learning and capacity-building to lay the foundation for the introduction of one blended learning model for training and education in the nonprofit sector. While the authors suggest that blended learning, as it is evolving, is the key to driving innovation in capacity-building models, they recognize that tailoring blended learning to the audience is critical in achieving success. It is suggested that for optimal results, capacity-building efforts should be built on holistic approaches to the integration of individual self-actualization goals with mechanisms for organizational and sector empowerment, using the technologies imbedded with blended learning.

M. T. Cole, B. J. Garner

Formal and Informal Lifelong Learning in a Virtual Communities Platform

The paper presents our experience as designers, developers and administrators of an e-learning system used by the Faculty of Economics of the University of Trento and from the Autonomous province of Trento (Italy). We recently managed the evolution of the system towards the provision of a new Personal Learning Space to the users. In this moment the platform is in a phase of complete redevelopment and the final objective will be the adaption of the typical approaches of the web 2.0 and social networks into an e-learning formal platform. In particular one of the objectives will be to integrate an informal learning metaphor into a classic formal one. The term informal learning has been used in education field, in particular in the adult education, for several reasons; one of them is providing to the learners a greater flexibility in the learning process. This approach highlights that the lessons from the others could have a great social significance, but implies that the education agencies (e.g. the universities or the training institutions) have the capability to increase the socialisation level into the learning environment. Following the informal learning approach is necessary to focus the attention to the learning that takes place in the spaces surrounding the activities that take place in a much wider variety of settings than the formal education and training. This approach is not a substitute of the formal learning but could be complementary, integrating the personal experiences and the learning exchanges with the other participants. We will introduce the problems related to the integration of these two different logics into a single e-learning platform (learning spaces and social networks), and how to connect these two worlds into one single architecture. The system that we have developed, named On Line Communities, provides the idea of virtual communities as pillars of the interaction mechanisms provided by the platform to the users.

Luigi Colazzo, Andrea Molinari, Nicola Villa

Groupized Learning Path Discovery Based on Member Profile

With the explosion of knowledge nowadays, it is urgent for people to learn new things quickly and effectively. To meet such a requirement, how we can find a suitable path for learning has become a crucial issue. Meanwhile, in our daily life, it is important and necessary for people from various backgrounds to achieve a certain task (eg. survey, report, business plan, etc.) collaboratively in the form of the group. For these group-based task, it often requires members to learn new knowledge by using e-learning system. In this paper, we focus on addressing the problem on discovering an appropriate study path to facilitate a group of people rather than a single person for effective learning under e-learning environment. Furthermore, we propose a group model to capture the expertise of each member. Based on this model, a groupized learning path discovering (GLPD) algorithm is proposed in order to help a group of learners to grasp new knowledge effectively and efficiently. Finally, we conduct a practical experiment whose result verifies the soundness of our approach.

Xiuzhen Feng, Haoran Xie, Yang Peng, Wei Chen, Huamei Sun

Semantic Annotation of Educational Resources through Linked Data

In this paper a context-based algorithm to semantically annotate e-learning contents is presented. This algorithm explores the DBpedia graph and uses both syntactic and semantic analysis techniques to identify the RDF triples which annotate the relevant terms that characterize the educational content. This algorithm has been applied to annotate learning fruits which are learning pills presented as web books that provide links to access to complementary and relevant information about the course.

Estefanía Otero-García, Juan C. Vidal, Manuel Lama, Alberto Bugarín, José E. Domenech

Mining Association Rules of Optional Courses for Course Coordinator

In the aspect of the faculty, a course coordinator plays a significant role in managing the curriculum and counseling students on academic matters and fostering their progress in the course. However, the course coordinator cannot afford to advise students on which fields of their faculty fit them and which courses they have to take. We searched for relationships between subjects, using association rules, by mining data about the courses already taken by students, and compared these to existing course trees. And we wish to do so that can utilize to taking a course tree enactment or when revise reference data using subject information that association rule through this research. This information could be used for updating course trees.

Youngseok Lee, Jungwon Cho, Seungdo Jeong, Sungjae Han, Byung-Uk Choi

Agile Team Learning Model Based on Fast Task Mining

Team learning needs explicit shared task and certain environment. In this paper, we presents an agile team learning model based on fast task mining (ATLM) that can be used with network environment and without more guidance. This model can improve the precision of knowledge acquisition and shorten the learning period. The learning process presented in ATLM can be applied in school education, corporate training, and spontaneous learning.

Xiaobo Yin, Guangli Zhu, Li Feng

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