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The new Hungarian Civil Code incorporates some new particular agreements in Book 6 (Law of Obligations) Part 3 (Particular Agreements). This article reports on four of these newly incorporated particular agreements: the intermediary agreement, the (bank) guarantee, the health insurance contract and trusts. The new Hungarian Civil Code re-implements the private law rules of Council Directive 86/653/EEC among the norms of the commercial agency agreement, which is a special intermediary agreement. According to the new regulations, the (bank) guarantee is a collateral contract and not just a collateral commitment for securing contracts as it was before. The structure of the regulation of insurance agreements has been reviewed by the legislator and the health insurance contract is regulated in a separate chapter after the chapter on indemnity insurance and the chapter on insurance of fixed sums. Trusts, which were previously unknown in Hungarian law, have been incorporated by the new Hungarian Civil Code to offer a new option for property management but they can help to realise other economic or legal aims, too.
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The NHCC entered into force on 15th March, 2014.
Section 67 of the Act CLXXVII of 2013 on the Transitional and Authorizing Provisions Connected to the Promulgation of the Act V of 2013 on the Civil Code.
The Supreme Court of Hungary had the same conclusion in judgement 2/2005 PJE: Act CXVII of 2000 is not applicable to real estate agencies because of the lack of continuous authority.
See Article 1 of the Directive.
Section 1, para 2.
Translation of the ComplexJogtár online, WoltersKluwer group.
See Section 6:288 and 6:293. para 1.
But these special acts contains just a few private law rules, most of their norms are public law rules.
“Unless otherwise provided by this Chapter—the regulations governing mandate must apply to intermediary agreement.” See Sections 6:292.
See Section 6:291 Para 2.
See judgement BH2011.251 of the Hungarian Supreme Court.
Act CXVII of 2000 prescribed the written form for all commercial agency agreements in Section 4, which has been a mandatory rule.
See Article 13.
See Articles 17 and 18.
Act CXVII of 2000 contains different regulations. For example, according to Section 3 Para 1 of Act CXVII of 2000, if the agent is entitled to represent the principal then he or she is entitled to accept the consideration due (receive the purchase price).
However, the NHCC contains a special norm in Section 6:438: if the guarantor is a consumer, his or her guarantee must be regarded as a contingent surety agreement.
E.g. see Article 19 of United Nations Convention on Independent Guarantees and Stand-by Letters of Credit http://www.uncitral.org/pdf/english/texts/payments/guarantees/guarantees.pdf.
Sections 6:433 and 6:434.
See Section 5:407 in Vékás 2010, p. 1044 and the Section 5:392, para 2 of the Act CXX of 2009.
We do not know why the NHCC does not follow the international models which regulate this question; see e.g. Article 16 of United Nations Convention on Independent Guarantees and Stand-by Letters of Credit.
“Indemnity insurance” means insurance under which the insurer is obliged to indemnify against loss (suffered on the occurrence of an insured event) in the manner and to the extent specified in the contract, or to perform another service. “Insurance of fixed sums” means insurance under which the insurer is obliged to pay a fixed sum of money (on the occurrence of an insured event). See Section 6:439, para 2.
Section 6:487, Sentence 1.
The Spanish act on insurance contract (Ley 50/1980, de 8 de octubre, de Contrato de Seguro) uses also the word “illness” and the commentaries say that it means deterioration of health, see Badillo Arias 2011, p. 1637.
E.g. the German act on insurance contract (Versicherungsvertragsgesetz, VVG), the Austrian act on insurance contract (Versicherungsvertragsgesetz, VersVG) or the Spanish act on insurance contract.
See e.g. the VVG, the VersVG or the Spanish act on insurance contracts. These acts distinguish the indemnity insurance and the insurance of a person.
“An express declaration of trust is a manifestation of the settlor’s consent to the creation of the equitable interests. Express trusts arise because the settlor wants them to arise”. See Birks 2000, p. 280.
Section 6:310, para 1.
The gratuitous form is exceptional.
See Section 6:330.
Section 5:147, para 5.
Section 6:311, para 4.
If they had the right to give instructions to the trustee then their instructions could be open to dispute because of their conflict of interest and this situation must be avoided.
Badillo Arias JA (ed) (2011) Ley de Contrato de Seguro [Act on Insurance Contract]. Aranzadi, Cizur Menor (Navarra)
Birks P (ed) (2002) English Private Law, Volume I. Oxford University Press, Oxford
Casadesus-Masanell R, Spulber DF (2005) Trust and Incentives in Agency. Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal 15(1):45–104
Fenyves A, Kronsteiner F, Schauer M (eds) (1998) VersVG-Novellen—Versicherungsvertragsgesetz Die Novellen ‘92, ‘94 und ‘96 [VersVG Amendments—Act on Insurance Contract Amendment of ‘92, ’94 and ‘96]. Springer, Vienna
Illés I (2011) Mire jó a bizalmi vagyonkezelés? [What Does the Trust Serve for?]. Jogtudományi Közlöny (66)11:550–556
Langheid T, Wandt M (eds) (2009) Münchener Kommentar zum Versicherungsvertragsgesetz, Band 3 [Munich Commentary of the Act on Insurance Contract, Volume 3]. C.H. Beck, Munich
Molnár H (2009) Gondolatok a kereskedelmi ügynökök kompenzációs jogáról a Lonsdale ügy kapcsán [Thoughts on the commission agent’s right for compensation in connection with the Lonsdale case]. Themis 22–40
Sándor I (2013) Gondolatok a bizalmi vagyonkezelés szabályozásáról az új Ptk.-ban [Thoughts about the Regulation of the Trust in the New HCC] http://ptk2013.hu/szakcikkek/sandor-istvan-gondolatok-a-bizalmi-vagyonkezeles-szabalyozasarol-az-uj-ptk-ban/2355 Accessed 18 November 2013
Vékás L (ed) (2010) Szakértői Javaslat az új Polgári Törvénykönyv tervezetéhez [Expert Proposal to the Project of the New Civil Code]. Complex, Budapest
Vékás L (ed) (2013) A Polgári Törvénykönyv magyarázatokkal [The Civil Code with Commentaries]. Complex, Budapest
Wellmann Gy (ed) (2013) Polgári Jog Kötelmi Jog Harmadik, Negyedik, Ötödik és Hatodik Rész—Az új Ptk. magyarázata VI/VI. [Civil Law Law of Obligations Part 3, 4, 5 and 6—The Commentary of the New HCC 6/6]. hvgorac, Budapest
- New Particular Agreements in the New Hungarian Civil Code
- Chapter 10
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