A combination of revisions of European Treaties and national constitutional reforms have — as a general rule — led to a strengthening of parliaments in the EU since the Single European Act (Hrbek 2010). However, initially, treaty reforms primarily benefited the EP, whereas national reforms and more recent treaty reforms have also considered the role of national parliaments. European integration has thus been a particularly great challenge for regional parliaments. Regions are less well-represented in EU policy-making than member states. In addition, the dominant actors in regional interest representation, both in intrastate coordination and in Brussels, are regional governments. As a result, until the Treaty of Lisbon, the role of regional parliaments in EU policymaking was mainly limited to controlling their regional executives, which were themselves often playing a subordinated role in the EU policy processes.
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