Skip to main content
main-content

Über dieses Buch

This book examines noise-monitoring technologies and tools for registering the threshold of development of the latent period of the transition of a facility or product into an emergency state and controlling the dynamics of this development. It also describes how the use of noise technology can improve the accuracy of the results of traditional methods employed in the analysis of noisy signals. Dr. Aliev analyzes the varieties and stages of the generation and development of defects preceding accidents of technical facilities and devices.
He shows that registration of the beginning of the latent period in the transition to an emergency state, based on the results of traditional data analysis technologies used in monitoring systems, is sometimes belated due to the impossibility of analyzing the noise correlated with the useful signal.
The volume further includes algorithms and technologies for computing estimates of correlation functions, spectral characteristics, and other characteristics of noise.

Aimed at professionals and students from a range of fields, including facility and product design engineering, computer science, computational mathematics, control and management systems, geophysics, construction, energy, and medicine, the book provides numerous examples of noise-control intelligent systems. These include implementations at oil and gas production facilities, drilling rigs, and offshore fixed platforms, as well as within transportation, aviation, power engineering, seismology and medicine.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Specifics and Difficulties of Control of the Beginning of Accident Initiation and Development Dynamics

Abstract
Types and stages of initiation and development of defects caused by fatigue, corrosion, contamination, overheating, overload, scuffing, wear, etc., and preceding accidents of technical facilities are considered. It is shown that they manifest themselves in the form of noise in the signals received at the outputs of the sensors and introduce an additional error in the results of processing by traditional analysis technologies in control systems. However, despite the difference in the process of defect initiation and development for different facilities, their common characteristic is that the beginning of the latent period of changes in their state manifests itself in the signals in the form of noises containing valuable diagnostic information. At the same time, development dynamics of an accident in its latent period affects the duration of the correlation time and the cross-correlation function between the useful signal and the noise. The chapter also considers the specifics of the data support to ensure solving the problem of control of the beginning of initiation and development dynamics of accidents. Models of signals received at the outputs of sensors in the latent period of accidents of control objects are analyzed.
Telman Aliev

Chapter 2. Correlation Technology for Noise Control of the Beginning and Development Dynamics of the Latent Period of Accidents

Abstract
The shortcomings of traditional technologies for correlation analysis of noisy signals at the beginning of the latent period of transition into an emergency condition are analyzed. It is shown that the noise correlated with the useful signal that appears during this period causes additional errors. At the same time, development dynamics of an accident in its latent period affects the duration of the correlation time and the degree of correlation between the useful signal and the noise. Noise technologies are proposed for calculating the estimates of the noise variance and the cross-correlation function between the useful signal and the noise, both for the case when the useful signal is correlated with the noise, and for the case when there is no correlation between them. Also proposed is the relay correlation technology for noise control of the development dynamics of accidents and the noise signaling of the beginning of the latent period of accidents at control objects. The possibility of improving the accuracy of the results of existing methods for analyzing noisy random signals with the use of these technologies is considered.
Telman Aliev

Chapter 3. Algorithms for Forming Correlation Matrices Equivalent to Matrices of Useful Signals in the Latent Period of Object’s Emergency State

Abstract
The chapter analyses the difficulties that arise in the formation of correlation matrices for input and output signals in the latent period of an emergency state of industrial facilities, showing that due to significant errors in the estimates of their elements caused by the noise correlated with the useful signal , the use of traditional methods in most cases does not ensure adequate results of solving of many applied problems. In many real industrial facilities, input and output variables are usually various physical quantities and additional errors arise during the formation of normalized correlation matrices, which also disrupts the adequacy of the obtained results. Technologies for forming correlation matrices equivalent to the correlation matrices of useful signals are proposed. This also eliminates the errors caused by the normalization of elements of equivalent normalized correlation matrices. In addition, the possibility of forming correlation matrices of noisy signals equivalent to the matrices of their useful signals by correcting the samples of the analyzed signals by means of samples of equivalent noises is considered. It is also shown that equivalent matrices, in addition to controlling the beginning and dynamics of changes in the emergency state of facilities, also improve the adequacy of the results of solving identification and management problems in various areas of industry, power engineering, transport, etc.
Telman Aliev

Chapter 4. Spectral Technology for Noise Control of the Beginning and Development Dynamics of the Latent Period of Accidents

Abstract
The causes of additional errors in the estimates of the spectral characteristics of noisy signals due to the noise emerging in the latent period of facility’s emergency state are analyzed. Algorithms and technologies for replacing non-measurable samples of the noise with their approximate equivalent values are proposed, showing the possibility of using them to calculate the estimates of the spectral characteristics of the noise both for the case when a correlation is present between the useful signal and the noise and for the case when there is no such correlation. It is shown that the use of the obtained estimates of the spectral characteristics of the noise makes it possible to increase the reliability of the results of traditional technologies of spectral analysis of noisy signals. It is also shown that using the algorithms for calculating equivalent samples of the noise, it is possible to create a technology of relay spectral noise analysis and a technology of sign spectral noise analysis, which are easy to implement in terms of hardware in control systems. According to the results of the experiments for the control of the beginning of the latent period of transition into an emergency state for sucker rod pumping units, compressor stations, drilling rigs, etc., the application of these technologies is effective primarily for facilities with a cyclic mode of operation.
Telman Aliev

Chapter 5. Application of Technology and System of Noise Control on Fixed Offshore Platforms and Drilling Rigs

Abstract
Causes of numerous accidents on fixed offshore platform s are analyzed. It is revealed that the noise of noisy signals received by sensors of control systems in many cases contain valuable diagnostic information related to the beginning of platform’s transition into the latent period of an emergency state. Taking into account this peculiarity, the structural principle of intelligent into an emergency state is proposed. It is also shown that most of the accidents on drilling rigs occur during drilling as a result of delayed measures on their prevention on the driller’s part. To signal the beginning of the latent period of failures of drilling rigs, a subsystems of noise control of the beginning of the latent period of transition of offshore oil platforms technology and a toolkit for determining the moment of the appearance of a correlation between the useful signal and the noise is proposed, which will allow the driller to take timely measures to eliminate possible accident situations. This allows eliminating, to a great extent, the relationship between the occurrence of accidents and the driller’s health, fatigue, and qualifications.
Telman Aliev

Chapter 6. The Use of Noise Control Technology and System at Oil and Gas Production Facilities

Abstract
It is shown that the known systems of control and diagnostics of sucker rod pumping units of oil wells do not always succeed in early detection of the initiation of defects, at which negative consequences do not manifest themselves. This is due to the fact that in these systems, information about this is generated only at the beginning of a pronounced malfunction. A technology is proposed for forming the set of combinations of reference informative attributes from the estimates of noise characteristics and the normalized correlation functions of the load signal received from load cell mounted on the hanger of a sucker rod pumping unit. It is shown that each of them is indicative of one of the possible technical conditions and can therefore be used to solve problems of control, identification, and management of the oil production process. The possibility of controlling the start of the vibration state of compressor stations based on the estimates of the noise variance and the cross-correlation function between the noise and the useful signal obtained from the vibration sensors installed in the most informative elements of a station is also shown. Some results of the integration of the proposed systems into real-life facilities are given, showing that both the system for identifying the beginning of the latent period of changes in the technical condition of sucker rod pumping units and the system for monitoring the beginning of changes in the vibration state of compressor stations can find wide industrial application.
Telman Aliev

Chapter 7. Possibilities of the Use of the Technology and System of Noise Control of the Beginning of the Latent Period of Accidents on Technical Facilities

Abstract
The specifics of the emergence of accidents at power plants and the difficulties of their prediction are analyzed. It is shown that traditional technologies of analyzing the signals obtained from the sensors of these stations do not allow one to extract diagnostic information contained in the noise. Therefore, control systems cannot register the beginning of the latent period of changes in the technical condition of power plants. To eliminate this drawback, it is proposed to connect the subsystems of noise control of the beginning of the latent period of accidents to the existing system. This will improve the safety of operation of power plants. It is shown that the technologies and systems of noise control should also be used to create an intelligent system of preflight noise monitoring of aircraft’s technical condition. The chapter also considers the possibility of using the technology for analyzing and extracting diagnostic information from the noise and the corresponding hardware in railway safety systems in seismically active regions by creating and using an intelligent noise control subsystem for the control of the technical condition of individual train cars and railway tracks, bridges and tunnels.
Telman Aliev

Chapter 8. Using Noise Control Technologies and Systems in Construction and Seismology

Abstract
One of the possible solutions to the problem of monitoring the beginning of the initiation of anomalous seismic processes by carrying out of noise analysis of seismic-acoustic signals received from earth’s deep strata is considered. The diagram of the station for noise monitoring of the beginning of seismic processes is proposed in which bores of suspended oil wells (1500–5000 m) are used as communication channels to receive seismic information from earth’s deep strata. Experiments on shallow wells (40–200 m) have shown that they also reliably receive seismic-acoustic information, although within a shorter radius of reception of seismic-acoustic signals. The chapter analyzes the results of the experiments with the intelligent seismic-acoustic system for identifying the area of the focus of an expected earthquake based on the network consisting of seismic-acoustic stations built on six deep and four shallow wells. It has been established that only with the application of the noise technology, the beginning of seismic processes is reliably detected based on the estimates of the correlation function between the useful seismic-acoustic signal and its noise. The combinations of seismic-acoustic stations vary depending on their location and direction. If seismic processes from one direction are recorded by 3–5 stations, then completely different combinations of stations respond to them from the opposite direction. Due to this, the system can be used by seismologists as a tool for identifying the area of the focus of an expected earthquake based on the combinations of stations that respond to seismic processes.
Telman Aliev

Chapter 9. Possibilities of Using Noise Control Technology in Medicine

Abstract
The possibility of using laptops and smartphones to control the state of the heart by analyzing the noise of its sounds is considered. The results of heart control experiments using the proposed noise technologies are presented. The experiments were carried out by means of a Lithmann 3200 stethoscope connected to a laptop via Bluetooth. It is shown that the results of numerous experiments on monitoring the change in the state of heart activity, some of which are given in the corresponding tables, confirmed the expediency of using the proposed technology by users of laptops and smartphones. To enhance the reliability of these results, technology has also been developed to monitor the state of the heart based on the spectral characteristics of the noise of its sounds. Experiments have shown that by duplicating these technologies it is possible to enhance the reliability and validity of monitoring results.
Telman Aliev

Backmatter

Weitere Informationen

Premium Partner

    Marktübersichten

    Die im Laufe eines Jahres in der „adhäsion“ veröffentlichten Marktübersichten helfen Anwendern verschiedenster Branchen, sich einen gezielten Überblick über Lieferantenangebote zu verschaffen. 

    Bildnachweise