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In this chapter we discuss converter circuits that are used in power electronic circuits and systems to change the voltages from one dc level to another dc level. Once again, switching devices will be used to process energy from the input to the output. Since the input here is dc, which comes from a post-filtering stage, these devices are normally operated at much higher frequencies than the line frequency, reaching as high as a few hundred kilohertz. This is why such converter circuits are known as high-frequency dc-dc switching converters or regulators. The term regulator is used since the circuit’s main commercial application is in systems that require a stable and regulated dc output voltage. Depending on whether or not an output transformer is used, high-frequency dc-dc switching converters are classified as isolated or non-isolated. In this chapter and in the next, the emphasis will be on the steady-state analysis and design of several well-known second- and fourth-order dc-dc converters, each having its own features and applications. We will consider those topologies that do not use high-frequency isolation transformers as part of their power stage. Moreover, a large number of applications require output electrical isolation and multiple outputs that cannot be achieved using the basic topologies discussed in this chapter. The isolated and magnetically coupled topologies will be discussed in Chap. 5. Such topologies are the most popular in the power supply industry and are used in various types of electronic equipment whose design requires outputs with electrical isolation and multi-outputs.
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