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Über dieses Buch

This book addresses presents recent developments of novel planar inter digital sensors for food inspection. It covers the fundamentals of sensors, their design, modelling and simulations, fabrications, characterizations, experimental investigations and analyses. This book will be useful for the engineers and researchers especially higher undergraduate, postgraduate students as well as practitioners working on the development of Electromagnetic Sensors.



Chapter 1. Planar Interdigital Sensors

The planar interdigital sensing approaches have long been employed. There are different terms for interdigital sensors which include interdigitated electrodes, microelectrodes, interdigital transducers (IDTs), interdigitated array microelectrode (IDAM), interdigitated electrode structures (IDES) and others.
Mohd Syaifudin Abdul Rahman, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay, Pak-Lam Yu

Chapter 2. Novel Planar Interdigital Sensors

In this chapter, the sensor designed, modeling, simulation analysis and fabrication process will be discussed. New type of planar interdigital having unique configuration with different number of electrodes configuration will be introduced. The readers will get a good idea about design and modeling stages required to make a novel sensors. The different fabrication process involves different substrates and fabrication method will be highlighted. The main purpose of this chapter is to provide some fundamentals in the development of planar interdigital sensors.
Mohd Syaifudin Abdul Rahman, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay, Pak-Lam Yu

Chapter 3. Experimental Investigation: Impedance Characterization

This chapter will highlight the experimental investigations for impedance characterizations of the fabricated sensors of different configurations. The experiments includes; characterization in air, characterization with sodium chloride (NaCl) and different pH buffers, characterization with different peptides (sarcosine and proline) and characterization with standard LPS O111:B4 purchased from Sigma. The objectives are to measure and characterize the developed sensors according to impedance spectroscopy (IS) method. There are three important measurement parameters involved. The parameters which have been taken from measuring instruments are frequency, f, impedance, Z and phase angle, θ. These parameters were converted into real part and imaginary part for analysis of impedance characteristics.
Mohd Syaifudin Abdul Rahman, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay, Pak-Lam Yu

Chapter 4. Coating and Immobilization of Sensors

The selectivity of the sensors to certain bio-molecules has been discussed in this chapter. This includes testing of different types of coating materials, different coating methods, and immobilization of specific bio-molecules on coated sensors. A new structure, which is different than the conventional interdigital structure, has been adopted for higher sensitivity. The configuration of the electrode structure chosen was 1_5 configuration (five negative electrodes between two positive electrodes) as shown in Fig. 4.1 The analysis of this configuration has been reported in [1]. FR4 sensors were chosen since they were easily fabricated. These sensors were tested with different coating materials. A new type of silicon based interdigital sensor, which has a basic structure of 1_5 configuration, was also fabricated and coated.
Mohd Syaifudin Abdul Rahman, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay, Pak-Lam Yu

Chapter 5. Experimental Investigation: Endotoxins

The selectivity, stability and sensitivity of coated sensors with APTES and immobilization of PmB and their responses to endotoxins are very important. Detailed analysis of the sensing results obtained from impedance spectroscopy (IS) method has been presented. Analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been used for the analysis. The discussions mainly focused on the new silicon sensors and improved type of these sensors towards endotoxin detection.
Mohd Syaifudin Abdul Rahman, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay, Pak-Lam Yu

Chapter 6. Food Sample and Analysis

Several experiments and analysis of sensing responses towards food samples has been conducted. The evaluations of sensors for non-contaminated food and contaminated foods with endotoxins have been carried out. Several food samples have been chosen for this experiment which includes skimmed milk, drinking water, cucumber, beef and chicken meat. The silicon sensors of 1_5 configuration with 3-layers of coating were prepared for the experiments. These sensors were then immobilized with Polymyxin B, PmB.
Mohd Syaifudin Abdul Rahman, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay, Pak-Lam Yu

Chapter 7. Conclusions

Planar interdigital sensing approach has been widely used for various applications. The book contained the contribution of the research works towards the development of novel interdigital sensor for bacterial endotoxin detections. The important research components from literature reviews, design, analysis and fabrications, experimental procedures, characterizations, coating and immobilization, selectivity and sensitivity, and statistical analysis have been discussed thoroughly.
Mohd Syaifudin Abdul Rahman, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay, Pak-Lam Yu
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