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The book covers novel technologies, including high pressure, antimicrobials, and electromagnetism, and their impact.



Environmental Aspects


1. Waste and Its Rational Management

The management of waste is an issue that has affected societies, where people have lived in organized and in sufficient numbers to cause stress to local resources. In the past, in most countries, and presently in poorer countries, domestic and industrial waste could be dealt with by removal to nonengineered dumps, where it could be buried, eaten by animals, and burned. In the second half of the twentieth century, awareness of environmental consequences led to the development of waste management policy and practice intended to safeguard both public and occupational health and to ensure that environmental resources are used rationally. Such policies have evolved to take on board the social, economic, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. The chapter discusses the major types of waste and the means of its control.
Anna McElhatton, Anton Pizzuto

2. Implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points System in the Food Industry: Impact on Safety and the Environment

The hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) system has been applied extensively in industrial processes, especially for microbiological control in the food industry. In this chapter, a comprehensive description of the HACCP principles and practices is presented, taking into account the positive impact of the implementation of the system for food safety assurance and the environment. Furthermore, the relationship between the cost and benefits of the implementation of the system is evaluated, especially in small or medium-sized companies, where the use of HACCP is still restricted.
Sueli Cusato, Paula Tavolaro, Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira

3. Food By-products for Biofuels

The rise in global energy usage, together with the disappearance of fossil fuel reserves, has highlighted the importance of developing technologies to harness new and renewable energy sources. In addition to sustainability, climate change is another major issue that has driven the search for clean carbon-neutral fuels.
Cecilia Hodúr, Zsuzsanna László, Giovana Tommaso

4. Integrated Management Methods for the Treatment and/or Valorization of Olive Mill Wastes

The olive tree, originally from Persia and Egypt, has been cultivated for thousands of years (Kapellakis et al. 2008). The Phoenicians and the Greeks contributed to spreading its cultivation in the Mediterranean region, and with the discovery of the new world in the fifteenth century, the olive tree was propagated in areas of the American continent with Mediterranean-like climate conditions. The value of olive oil as a staple, pharmaceutical, and fuel has been greatly appreciated by many since the Roman era (Chazau-Gillig 1994).
Katerina Stamatelatou, Paraskevi S. Blika, Ioanna Ntaikou, Gerasimos Lyberatos

Safety and Quality Considerations


5. Safety Considerations of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods

“Let food be the medicine and medicine be the food” was embraced 2,500 years ago by Hippocrates, the father of medicine, and therefore the conception that foods might provide therapeutic benefits is not new. Recent knowledge, however, supports the hypothesis that, besides fulfilling nutrition needs, diet may modulate various functions in the body and may exhibit detrimental or beneficial roles in some diseases (Hasler 2002).
Semih Otles, Ozlem Cagindi

6. Consumer Behavior: Determinants and Trends in Novel Food Choice

In recent years, several food technologies emerged giving rise to new products on the market. These so called novel foods are based on sound scientific research, but their success on the market depends on how they are perceived by the actors in the food supply chain, and especially by consumers. Thus, the aim of this chapter is to provide of review determinants and trends in consumer food choice regarding the following novel food technologies: biotechnology, food fortification (functional food), ultra high pressure, pulsed electric field, food irradiation, ohmic treatment, and nanotechnology.
Mona Elena Popa, Alexandra Popa

Novel Process Technologies with a Green/Environmental Slant


7. Recent Advances in the Microencapsulation of Oils High in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

This chapter summarizes fundamental aspects of the most common microencapsulation techniques used for the encapsulation of oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. These techniques comprise spray-drying, extrusion, and coacervation. Recent patents and scientific findings are critically reviewed as are energetic aspects of the most important process steps, emulsification and spray-drying. Analysis of consumer trends reveals that the market development lags behind corresponding forecasts, and possible reasons are discussed.
S. Drusch, M. Regier, M. Bruhn

8. Biocontrol of Foodborne Bacteria

Through the ages humans have used protective cultures in the manufacture of meat (salami) and milk (cheese) products through the serendipitous inclusion of lactic acid bacteria. The early producers of these fermented foods were unwittingly harnessing biocontrol, the use of a biological means to control a “pest” (in this case foodborne pathogens), to ensure food safety. In more recent times the deliberate inclusion of an array of biocontrol agents has been considered for pathogen control; those described in this chapter include bacteriophages, Bdellovibrio, protective cultures/competitive exclusion/antimicrobial metabolites, plant-derived products, and inhibitors of quorum sensing. Although most of these approaches are in their comparative infancy, some are available as commercial products and currently in use, for example, bacteriophages controlling Listeria monocytogenes.
Lynn McIntyre, J. Andrew Hudson, Craig Billington, Helen Withers

9. Plant Extracts as Natural Antifungals: Alternative Strategies for Mold Control in Foods

Because of their ability to grow in almost all food products, molds can generate off-flavors and spoilage, and can also produce mycotoxins. A wide range of chemical fungicides have been added to extend the shelf life of foods. However, there is a problem with the effective use of these chemicals in areas where the fungi have developed resistance. To overcome this problem, higher concentrations of these chemicals are used, but this increases the risk of a high level of toxic residues in the product. Plants may be a source of antifungals since they have had to synthesize compounds to resist infections by fungi present in their environment. Thus, there has been growing interest in the possible use of plant extracts as natural antifungals, which are less damaging to human health and the environment. Hurdle technology which involves simultaneous multiple preservation approaches has generally met with success in controlling fungal pathogens and maintaining food quality during storage. A combination of preservation treatments allows the required level of protection to be achieved.
Virginia Fernández Pinto, Andrea Patriarca, Graciela Pose

10. Reduction of Mycotoxin Contamination by Segregation with Sieves Prior to Maize Milling

The strategies for reducing mycotoxin concentrations in maize are currently under development. Some approaches are directed toward resistance to infection or infection reduction in the grain, whereas others are aimed at detoxification of contaminated maize. To diminish contamination by natural mycotoxins, there are some strategies which imply grain handling.
The focus of this chapter is on the sieving process, with the purpose of analyzing the potential reduction of mycotoxin contamination in the cleanup step before maize storage.
Ana M. Pacin, Silvia L. Resnik

11. Rational Use of Novel Technologies: A Comparative Analysis of the Performance of Several New Food Preservation Technologies for Microbial Inactivation

Many of the modified (for improving food quality) traditional preservation procedures and the radically new ones (high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, ultraviolet light, ozone, ultraviolet light pulses, electric pulses, etc.) are effective in inactivating only vegetative cells of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi. So, emerging preservation procedures have to be included as components or hurdles in combined preservation systems to ensure food safety. The lethality of a stress factor is strongly affected by the presence/intensity of other lethal/inhibitory factors.
Within the framework of hurdle technology, a huge amount of scientific literature has been published in the last 15 years, indicating the enormous popularity and potential of the concept in the development of emerging combined technologies to aid in producing minimally processed foods.
Microbial cell physiological responses in relation to emerging factors in combination with other constraints are complex and are not fully understood, as in the case of many traditional preservation factors. Predictive modeling in emerging technologies allows quantification of the influence of various hurdles on the microbial behavior, allowing the interaction effects between them – antagonistic, synergistic or additive– to be precisely discerned.
This chapter compares the ability of selected emerging technologies to reduce microbial populations. Inactivation/decline kinetic patterns of microorganisms in treatments with conventional/unconventional lethal agents combined with other environmental stress factors are discussed and analyzed on the basis of a rigorous kinetic analysis of survival data.
Stella M. Alzamora, Jorge Welti-Chanes, Sandra N. Guerrero, Paula L. Gómez

12. Emerging Technologies to Improve the Safety and Quality of Fruits and Vegetables

Consumers’ demand for increased quality standards has spurred the search for new and less aggressive processing technologies´, which permit greater retention of natural taste. As a consequence, minimal processing techniques emerged with the objective of replacing traditional preservation methods with the intention of extending shelf-life, without the detrimental effects caused by severe heating. Non-thermal methods have emerged as attractive alternatives to conventional thermal processing methods. They constitute challenging processes aiming at reducing pernicious effects of thermal methods, by preserving quality and nutritional attributes of fruits and vegetables, and yielding safe and less-perishable products. Ozone, UV-C irradiation and ultrasounds treatments are promising techniques for the fruits and vegetable industry. The application of such technologies may yield products with limited losses of color, flavor, texture and nutrients, while retaining the desired shelf-life and safety. However, the efficiency related to each safety or quality indicator depends on the product/indicator under consideration.
Elisabete M. C. Alexandre, Teresa R. S. Brandão, Cristina L. M. Silva

13. Novel Technologies for the Preservation of Chilled Aquatic Food Products

Most fish and other aquatic species give rise to products of great economic importance in many countries. The demand for such products has been increasing steadily over the last century and shows no signs of lessening, as fishing and farming actually constitute a basic source of food for all populations of the world.
Carmen A. Campos, María F. Gliemmo, Santiago P. Aubourg, Jorge Barros Velázquez

14. Use of Natural Preservatives in Seafood

Seafood products are known to be especially susceptible to both microbiological and biochemical spoilage pathways. Accordingly, efficient and hygienic preservation processes should be applied immediately after capture/slaughter to preserve product freshness and quality. The development of effective processing treatments to extend the shelf life of fresh fish products is a must.
Carmen A. Campos, Marcela P. Castro, Santiago P. Aubourg, Jorge Barros Velázquez

15. Edible Films: Use of Lycopene as Optical Properties Enhancer

Edible films are thin layers of biopolymers sourced from renewable sources which contain colorless, low molecular weight components called plasticizers. Color in edible films is generally derived from the color of the biopolymer. Gelatin-based films, for example, are almost transparent and colorless. Products thus retain their characteristics, and when colored the films may also contribute to the product’s visual appeal and may enhance the appearance of the package.
Rosemary A. de Carvalho, Carmen Silvia Fávaro-Trindade, Paulo J. A. Sobral

16. Clean Strategies for the Management of Residues in Dairy Industries

The transformation of raw milk into dairy products is one of the most important activities of the dairy industry worldwide. Along with the production of pasteurized and sterilized milks for direct consumption, a variety of processes are used for the production of cheeses, butter, cream, ice-creams, yogurts and other fermented milks. As a consequence, the processing of milk usually generates huge amounts of waste products, such as whey and buttermilk. These products have high nutrient and economic values; therefore they can be used as ingredients for others milk products such as flavored milk beverages, chocolates, candies, cookies, processed cheeses, ice cream, and powdered milk. Because of their intrinsic composition, dairy wastewaters cannot be discharged into septic systems, state waters or direct dumping; appropriate treatment is required before release into the environment. There are many alternatives for the treatment of this type of effluent, all based in a sequence of processes and operations presented as functions of physical-chemical characteristics of dairy waste effluent. The selection of some processes requires careful and must be based on, consideration of technical, economical, and social aspects.
Giovana Tommaso, Rogers Ribeiro, Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira, Katerina Stamatelatou, Georgia Antonopoulou, Gerasimos Lyberatos, Cecilia Hodúr, József Csanádi


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