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Über dieses Buch

· Explains how to use nuclear process heat for industrial applications, especially process heat for hydrogen production

· Illuminates the issue of waste heat in nuclear plants, offering a vision for how it can be used in combined-cycle plants

· Undertakes the thermal analysis of intermediate heat exchangers throughout the life cycle, from the design perspective through operational and safety assurance stages

This book describes recent technological developments in next generation nuclear reactors that have created renewed interest in nuclear process heat for industrial applications. The author’s discussion mirrors the industry’s emerging focus on combined cycle Next Generation Nuclear Plants’ (NGNP) seemingly natural fit in producing electricity and process heat for hydrogen production. To utilize this process heat, engineers must uncover a thermal device that can transfer the thermal energy from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant in the most performance efficient and cost effective way possible. This book is written around that vital quest, and the author describes the usefulness of the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) as a possible solution. The option to transfer heat and thermal energy via a single-phase forced convection loop where fluid is mechanically pumped between the heat exchangers at the nuclear and hydrogen plants is presented, and challenges associated with this tactic are discussed. As a second option, heat pipes and thermosyphons, with their ability to transport very large quantities of heat over relatively long distance with small temperature losses, are also examined.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Energy Resources and the Role of Nuclear Energy

Energy is broadly defined as the ability to produce a change from existing conditions. Thus, the term energy implies that a capacity for action is present. The evaluation of energy is done by measuring certain effects that are classified by descriptive names, and these effects can be produced under controlled conditions. For example, mass that is located at a certain position may have a potential energy; if same mass is in motion, then it may possess kinetic energy; or if its characteristics of composition such as temperature or pressure changes, then it is undergoing an energy process called internal energy. Internal energy can be measured by the release of an amount by the change in potential energy experienced by an external load.
Bahman Zohuri

Chapter 2. Large-Scale Hydrogen Production

Industry’s dependence on and demand for raw materials such as hydrogen are growing fast, and access to raw materials is high on the list of priorities of most industrial countries around the globe. But the question of where hydrogen comes from and how we can produce it for new applications besides the traditional ones is an important ones in industry. We have come to realize that hydrogen is an excellent source of renewable energy that can meet the fast growing energy demands of industrialized countries, during both on-peak and off-peak hours. The so-called sustainable routes of economic growth are still too expensive. The reformation of hydrocarbons using steam is the most feasible route today.
Bahman Zohuri

Chapter 3. Hydrogen Production Plant

Research is going forward to produce hydrogen based on nuclear energy. Hydrogen production processes necessitate high temperatures that can be reached in fourth generation nuclear reactors. Technological studies are now under way that aim to define and qualify components that in the future will enable us to retrieve and transfer heat produced by these reactors. Hydrogen combustion turbine power could be one of the solutions to our future energy needs, particularly when it comes to on-peak demand for electricity, but until recently the problem with hydrogen power was its production for use as an energy source. Although hydrogen is the most common element in the known universe, actually capturing it for energy use is a process that itself usually requires some form of fuel or energy.
Bahman Zohuri

Chapter 4. A New Approach to Energy Conversion Technology

A nuclear reactor produces and controls the release of energy from splitting the atoms of uranium. Uranium-fueled nuclear power is a clean and efficient way of boiling water to make the steam that drives turbine generators. Except for the reactor itself, a nuclear power station works like most coal- or gas-fired power stations.
Bahman Zohuri

Chapter 5. Evaluation of Next Generation Nuclear Plant Intermediate Heat Exchanger Operating Conditions

An initial and preliminary analysis to determine the operating conditions for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) that will transfer heat from the reactor primary system to demonstration hydrogen production plants was discussed in Chap. 3. In this chapter, we will expand on that point. The Department of Energy, under the leadership of the Idaho National Laboratory, is currently investigating two primary options for the production of hydrogen using a high-temperature reactor as the power source. These options are high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) and SI thermochemical hydrogen production processes. However, since the SI process relies entirely on process heat from the reactor, while the HTE process relies primarily on electrical energy, with only a small amount of process heat required, the design of the IHX is dictated by the SI process heat requirements. Therefore, the IHX operating conditions were defined assuming 50 MWt would be available for the production of hydrogen using the SI process.
Bahman Zohuri

Chapter 6. Heat Exchangers

A number of technologies are being investigated for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) that will produce heated fluids at significantly higher temperatures than current-generation power plants. The higher temperatures offer the opportunity to significantly improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the energy conversion cycle. One of the concepts currently under study is the molten salt reactor. The coolant from a molten salt reactor may be available at temperatures as high as 800–1000 °C. At these temperatures, an open Brayton cycle combined with a Rankine bottoming cycle appears to have some strong advantages. Thermodynamic efficiencies approaching 50 % appear possible. Requirements for circulating cooling water will be significantly reduced. However, to realistically estimate the efficiencies achievable, it is essential to have good models for the heat exchangers involved as well as the appropriate turbomachinery. This study concentrates on modeling all power conversion equipment from the fluid exiting the reactor to the energy released to the environment.
Bahman Zohuri

Chapter 7. Effective Design of Compact Heat Exchangers for Next Generation Nuclear Plants

A number of technologies are being investigated for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) that will produce heated fluids at significantly higher temperatures than current generation power plants. The higher temperatures offer the opportunity to significantly improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the energy conversion cycle. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. Energy is the elixir of life for the world’s economy and for individual prosperity. Efforts being made for greater energy efficiency – especially in industrial countries – have indeed proved effective, as evidenced by the fact that energy consumption throughout the world is growing slower than gross domestic products. At the same time, however, the hunger for energy in quickly growing economies is leading to shifts in energy mixes – which drives undesired CO2 emissions upward. In the conversion of primary energy to final and useful energy, technology from universities and national laboratories plus industry toward the design of the NGNP has made key contributions to the efficient handling of the resources of our planet.
Bahman Zohuri

Backmatter

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