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1. Introduction

SHEMAT (Simulator for HEat and MAss Transport) is an easy-to-use, general purpose reactive transport simulation code for a wide variety of thermal and hydrogeological problems in two and three dimensions. Specifically, SHEMAT solves coupled problems involving fluid flow, heat transfer, species transport, and chemical water-rock interaction in fluid-saturated porous media. It can handle a wide range of time scales. Therefore, it is useful to address both technical and geological processes. In particular, it offers special and attractive features for modeling steady-state and transient processes in hydro-geothermal reservoirs. This makes it well suited to predict the long-term behavior of heat mining installations in hot aquifers with highly saline brines. SHEMAT in its present form evolved from a fully coupled flow and heat transport model (Clauser 1988) which had been developed from the isothermal USGS 3-D groundwater model of Trescott and Larson (Trescott 1975; Trescott and Larson 1977). Transport of dissolved species, geochemical reactions between the solid and fluid phases, extended coupling between the individual processes (most notably between porosity and permeability), and a convenient user interface (developed from Processing Modflow (Chiang and Kinzelbach 2001)) were added during several research projects funded by the German Science Foundation (DFG) under grant CL 121/7 and the German Federal Ministries for Education, Science, Research, and Technology (BMBF) under grant 032 69 95A-D and for Economics and Technology (BMWi) under grant 0327095 (Bartels et al. 2002, Kühn et al. 2002a).
Christoph Clauser, Jörn Bartels

2. Numerical Simulation of Reactive Flow using SHEMAT

SHEMAT handles the following classes of problems:
one individual process:
  • groundwater flow;
  • conductive heat transport;
  • diffusive species transport;
  • chemical reactions;
two coupled processes:
  • groundwater flow combined with heat transport;
  • groundwater flow combined with species transport;
three or four coupled processes:
  • groundwater flow combined with species transport and chemical reactions;
  • prescribed flow, species and heat transport combined with chemical reactions;
  • combined groundwater flow, heat and species transport, and chemical reactions.
Jörn Bartels, Michael Kühn, Christoph Clauser

3. Pre- and Post-Processing with “Processing SHEMAT”

Processing SHEMAT (PS) is a graphical user interface for the finite difference code SHEMAT. PS is based on an interface for MODFLOW, Processing MODFLOW version 5.0, by Chiang and Kinzelbach (2001).
Michael Kühn, Wen-Hsing Chiang

4. Advanced Features

Compared to other reactive transport codes SHEMAT offers special and advanced features in respect to the (1) simulation of chemical reactions at elevated temperature and high ionic strength of the solution, and (2) coupling of reaction, flow, and transport via a novel and calibrated fractal relationship between porosity and permeability.
Michael Kühn, Hansgeorg Pape

5. Tutorial for “Processing SHEMAT”

This step-by-step tutorial guides you through the setting up of a model with Processing SHEMAT (PS) explaining in detail how to:
  • design the model grid and assign properties and boundary conditions;
  • run the simulations for groundwater flow, heat transfer and solute transport;
  • use the geochemical reaction module;
  • visualize the results with the Result Viewer.
Heinke Stöfen, Michael Kühn

6. Applications

This chapter presents applications of SHEMAT to seven entirely different problems which demonstrate the versatility of SHEMAT and the utility of its special features and capabilities, in particular in respect to chemical reactions and the mutual coupling of processes:
  • transient 2-D coupled flow, transport, and chemical reaction in a reactive transport laboratory core flooding experiment on the 10-1 meter scale (section 6.1);
  • transient 1-D coupled flow, transport, and chemical reaction in a reactive transport laboratory core flooding experiment on the 100 meter scale (section 6.2);
  • transient 2-D coupled flow, heat transfer, transport, and chemical reaction around an injection well in a geothermal hot water reservoir on the 101 meter scale (section 6.3);
  • transient 3-D coupled flow, heat transfer, solute transport, and chemical reaction in a coastal geothermal aquifer on the 103 meter scale (section 6.7);
  • steady-state 2-D coupled flow, heat, and salt transport (including density driven thermohaline convection) in a vertical cross section of the Rhine graben on the 104 meter scale (section 6.5);
  • steady-state and transient 2-D heat transfer of magmatic intrusions in a volcanic caldera on the 105 meter scale (section 6.4);
  • steady-state 2-D heat transport in a vertical cross section of the north-American continental crust on the 106 meter scale (section 6.6).
Jörn Bartels, Li Zhen Cheng, Christoph Clauser, Suzanne Hurter, Michael Kühn, Volker Meyn, Daniel Pribnow, Giorgio Ranalli, Wilfried Schneider, Heinke Stöfen


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