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Trade unionism and co-determination emerged during the conflict between capitalists and labour. Since the Chinese Constitution states that China is ‘led by the working class’ and since the culture of the Chinese aerospace industry is family-oriented, we approach the function of the All China Federation of Trade Union and the Staff and Workers Representative Congress within its local context. Though the twin institutions have encountered ebb and flow during China’s political changes, their perceived weakness from a Western perspective has no significance for aerospace conglomerates’ re-combinative innovation. Chinese economic reform has, however, enabled aerospace conglomerates AVIC, CASC, CASIC and COMAC to gradually involve the new generation of employees, which has served to underpin their intrinsic motivation that could further China’s aerospace ambition.
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The supervisory board could also dismiss members of the management board (if necessary).
Though employee representative could be found on the supervisory board, the Chinese corporate governance has placed the supervisory board on the same level as the management board.
This interim Constitution or the Common Program of 1949, was succeeded by the 1954 Constitution, the 1975 Constitution, the 1978 Constitution and the most recent 1982 Constitution.
Li ( 2014) pointed out that the Revolutionary Committee was composed of representatives from the Chinese Communist Party, the workers’ representatives as well as the People’s Liberation Army.
Shanghai Trade Union Federation has also recently opened a centre to provide advice and guidance in relation to collective bargaining for Shanghai businesses and employees in 2015; it should also be noted that the union had negotiated wages for those working in global firms such as Carrefour in 2012. (See “Shanghai’s First Collective Wage Bargaining Work Station”, ACFTU, 27 July 2015 and “Trade union negotiates pay increase for Carrefour employees in Shanghai”, China Labour Bulletin, 20 August 2012.)
The concept of democratic management in China derives from the Leninist ideology. Democratic management is, therefore, guided by a small group of elite leadership that could offer help in the selection of grassroots representatives.
The Trade Union Law of the People’s Republic of China 1992 (amended 27 October 2001).
The Confucian ideal of gentlemen ( junzi) endorsed virtuous (e.g. benevolence, integrity, knowledge and righteousness) for its own sake, which distinguished the gentlemen from the little men ( xiaoren).
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