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The term "Office Automation" implies much and means little. The word "Office" is usually reserved for units in an organization that have a rather general function. They are supposed to support different activities, but it is notoriously difficult to determine what an office is supposed to do. Automation in this loose context may mean many different things. At one extreme, it is nothing more than giving people better tools than typewriters and telephones with which to do their work more efficiently and effectively. At the opposite extreme, it implies the replacement of people by machines which perform office procedures automatically. In this book we will take the approach that "Office Automation" is much more than just better tools, but falls significantly short of replacing every person in an office. It may reduce the need for clerks, it may take over some secretarial functions, and it may lessen the dependence of principals on support personnel. Office Automation will change the office environment. It will eliminate the more mundane and well understood functions and will highlight the decision-oriented activities in an office. The goal of this book is to provide some understanding of office . activities and to evaluate the potential of Office Information Systems for office procedure automation. To achieve this goal, we need to explore concepts, elaborate on techniques, and outline tools.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Integration

Frontmatter

1. User Interface Design

Abstract
User interface design is one of the most important and one of the most difficult aspects of designing a computer system. It is the contact point between the user and the system and determines to a large extent the usefulness and effectiveness of the system. In this paper, we examine the tools and techniques used for designing user interfaces. As user interface design is to a large extent an art, our goal is to highlight important issues in user interface design and not to prescribe a recipe for designing user interfaces.
A. Lee, F. H. Lochovsky

2. Document Management Systems

Abstract
Document management is a major activity in an office, and one that is readily amenable to computerization. A great deal of research and development has been done on facilities for editing, formatting, filing, retrieving and mailing documents in office systems. However, there has been a lack of attention to the integration of such facilities. In this paper, we discuss our view of what a document management system should be, and what facilities it should provide. An integrated document management system, Officeaid, is used as an example, throughout the paper, to illustrate our approach.
C. C. Woo, F. H. Lochovsky, A. Lee

Filing

Frontmatter

3. A Multimedia Filing System

Abstract
This paper outlines an Office Filing System for multimedia documents. The system uses signature techniques for fast filtering. It uses miniatures, voice excerpts and a game environment for effective browsing and selection of the desired documents. Some implementation issues, user reactions and future directions are discussed.
D. Tsichritzis, S. Christodoulakis, A. Lee, J. Vandenbroek

4. Office Filing

Abstract
We discuss issues related to the development of a multimedia information system for an office environment. Multimedia documents are composed of text, image, voice, and attribute information. We describe the multimedia document structure and its internal representation. Information may be extracted from digitized documents for the purpose of enhancing content addressibility and achieving better compression. Content addressibility in this environment is achieved by specifying conditions on attributes, text, images, and document presentation format. An access method based on signatures is outlined for attributes, text, and image objects. Query reformulation, multimedia document formation, and communication are also discussed in this environment.
S. Christodoulakis

Mailing

Frontmatter

5. Etiquette Specification in Message Systems

Abstract
We outline an environment in which communication roles between persons, and the associated rules, can be specified. Such an environment can serve for the specification of an etiquette of communication which is enforced by the electronic message system. The rules of communication are important in providing a management approach for an organization.
D. Tsichritzis, S. J. Gibbs

6. Intelligent Message Systems

Abstract
An intelligent message is an active object that interacts with its recipients and, on the basis of the responses that it collects, decides whether to route itself to further recipients or terminate. A prototype system has been developed in a single-machine environment. When intelligent messages are implemented in a distributed environment using multiple copies, problems arise in coordinating the actions of these copies and in communicating between them. Solutions to these problems are proposed.
John Hogg

Procedure Specification

Frontmatter

7. Office Procedures

Abstract
This paper outlines an effort to introduce automation into forms-oriented office procedures. The system allows its users to specify a set of operations on electronic forms. Actions are triggered automatically when certain events occur, for example, when forms or combinations of forms arrive at particular nodes in the network of stations. The actions deal with operations on forms. The paper discusses the facilities provided for the specification of form-oriented automatic procedures and sketches their implementation.
J. Hogg, O. M. Nierstrasz, D. Tsichritzis

8. An Object-Oriented System

Abstract
Applications in Office Information Systems are often very difficult to implement and prototype, largely because of the lack of appropriate programming tools. We argue here that “object” have many of the primitives that we need for building OIS systems, and we describe an object-oriented programming system that we have developed.
O. M. Nierstrasz

Modelling

Frontmatter

9. Conceptual Modelling and Office Information Systems

Abstract
In this paper we explore the relevance of an area of computer science known as conceptual modelling to the design of office information systems. It is our position that office information systems and data modelling share a number of problems in common and should mutually benefit from any exchange of ideas. We begin by first reviewing conceptual modelling. In the second section we then look at three office information systems from a conceptual modelling perspective. Finally we describe the rationale behind a conceptual model intended specifically for office information systems.
S. J. Gibbs

10. A Model for Multimedia Documents

Abstract
The problem of a model for representing multimedia documents and supporting operations on documents is addressed. Particular attention is given to the concept of type, since multimedia documents do not fit the static schema definition of database models. A syntax directed approach is proposed for the model. Three levels of specification for a multimedia document are discussed. The layout level describes the document presentation. The logical level describes the document internal structure. The conceptual level describes the document semantic composition. The layout structure and the logical structure are compatible with the Office Document Architecture currently undergoing standardization (ISO, ECMA, CCITT).
F. Rabitti

Analysis

Frontmatter

11. Properties of Message Addressing Schemes

Abstract
Message addressing schemes are an abstract framework for dealing with the naming and addressing problem in electronic mail systems. We use this model to analyze three important properties of a naming and addressing mechanism — completeness, serializability and time-independence. The importance of these properties is illustrated with examples.
P. Martin

12. Message Flow Analysis

Abstract
Message management systems with facilities for the automatic processing of messages can exhibit anomalous behaviour such as infinite loops and deadlock. In this paper we present some methods for analyzing the behaviour of these systems by generating expressions of message flow from the procedure specifications. Message domains are partitioned into state spaces, and procedures can be interpreted as automata effecting state changes. Blocking of procedures and procedure loops can then be detected by studying the resulting finite automaton and Petri net representations of message flow.
O. M. Nierstrasz

Performance

Frontmatter

13. Access Methods for Documents

Abstract
We describe and compare access methods for documents in an office environment. We discuss the operational requirements of an office, and we survey methods for formatted data and for text retrieval, in an attempt to find an integrated method for both. Comparison of these methods indicates that the signature file method is suitable for the office environment. We examine this method in more detail, and we compare several signature extraction techniques.
C. Faloutsos, S. Christodoulakis

14. Text Retrieval Machines

Abstract
Various approaches to text retrieval machines for large text database are surveyed. Signature processors for supporting superimposed coding are first described. Text processors for pattern matching are then categorized and discussed. Finally, various designs for multiple response resolution, an important but often ignored issue in associative memory and processors, are reviewed.
D. L. Lee, F. H. Lochovsky

Epilogue

Frontmatter

15. Objectworld

Abstract
An environment is outlined in which programming objects collect and disseminate information, using analogies from the animal world. Objects have their own rules of behaviour. They coordinate their activities by participating in events. Objects get born, move around, communicate and receive information and, finally, die.
D. Tsichritzis

Backmatter

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