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Über dieses Buch

This book examines classical and modern interpretations of education in the context of contemporary Okinawa as a site of neoliberal military-industrial development. Considering how media educate consumers to accept the plans and policies of the powerful, it questions current concepts of development and the ideology that informs national security policies. The book closely examines the signs, symbols, and rhetorical manipulations of language used in media to rationalize and justify a kind of development, which is the destruction of the environment in Henoko. Through careful analysis of public relations literature and public discourse, it challenges the presupposition that Okinawa is the Keystone of the Pacific and necessarily the only location in Japan to host U.S. military presence. Forced to co-operate in America’s military hegemony and global war-fighting action, Okinawa is at the very center of the growing tension between Beijing and Washington and its clients in Tokyo and Seoul. The book represents a case study of the discourse used in society to wield control over this larger project, which is a more developed and militarized Okinawa . Considering how history is given shape through external power structures and discourse practices that seek control over both historical and contemporary narratives, it reveals how public attitudes and perceptions are shaped through educational policies and media.



Chapter 1. Introduction

This chapter introduces readers to the major themes and goals of the book. It begins with a reference to the present social world within and outside Okinawa with its profusion of alternative facts and rationalizations appearing in the public discourse. It introduces the idea that cultural signs, symbols, and discourse practices in Okinawa reflect powerful incentives to rationalize the social processes of McDonaldization with its influence on reproduction of the socioeconomic and political order. The chapter presents readers with questions to consider as the book unfolds. The book asks how the Japan-US agreement, known as the Special Action Committee on Okinawa (SACO), has served to construct legitimacy and popular consent and how further base construction involving the destruction of a marine environment has managed to pass as reasonable.

Miyume Tanji, Daniel Broudy

Method, Theory, and Context


Chapter 2. Critical Discourse Analysis of Public Relations

This chapter serves to ground the book in definitions and explanations of the research methods used to systematically analyze corporate and government propaganda. Similar historical examples throughout the chapter illustrate how methods in contemporary propaganda campaigns are reflected in past efforts made by dominant centers of power and their supporters. The authors describe their work within the Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) tradition and draw upon classical rhetoric, social semiotics, and cognitive linguistics to clarify their examinations of how textual and symbolic representations of power work to manufacture consent and marginalize dissenting voices, ideas, and ideologies. The chapter closes with an acknowledgment of how their methods present limitations that might lead to precise conclusions.

Miyume Tanji, Daniel Broudy

Chapter 3. Why McDonaldization in Okinawa? Social Relations of Production in the Neoliberal Playground

This chapter reviews the key concepts of neoliberalism, especially the universal neoliberal principle that purports to achieve a kind of utopian self-regulating market that in practice requires concrete forms of state intervention in accordance with varying and specific historic and geographic conditions. We then explain how the concept of rationalization and George Ritzer’s ‘McDonaldization of society’ thesis potentially shed light on the processes of manufacturing popular consent to the implementation of neoliberal reforms. In Okinawa, the Futenma Replacement Facility (FRF) construction plan is integrated in the Okinawan version of neoliberalization, which can be understood more clearly through the lens of McDonaldization.

Miyume Tanji, Daniel Broudy

Chapter 4. Processes of Conditioning: Propaganda in Education and Media Systems

This chapter includes a brief history of the emergence of modern propaganda and a critique of its major categories as they relate to contemporary Okinawa. Discussions explain what propaganda is, how it works, and how it serves to create popular consent to the central government’s US military realignment in Okinawa. Also included are descriptions of how education and media systems serve as vehicles of state and corporate propaganda. Included in the chapter are critiques of recent changes to Japan’s educational law that aim to consolidate educational decision-making processes at the top of institutions which appear to reflect a contemporary undercurrent of authoritarianism in broader society. Closing the chapter is a discussion of how mass media serve to complete and reinforce the propaganda cycle.

Miyume Tanji, Daniel Broudy

Chapter 5. Rationalizing Processes of Unnatural Selection

This chapter begins by revisiting Max Weber’s concept of rationalization, examining its roots, and analyzing their connection to contemporary processes of site selection for large construction projects in Japan. While the Henoko selection process comprises the major focus of the chapter, other related examples of rationalization in Japanese political bureaucracy also appear. Enlisted in the effort to describe these processes is Harry Frankfurt’s elaboration of the concept of ‘bullshit.’

Miyume Tanji, Daniel Broudy

Propaganda, Processes, and Analysis


Chapter 6. McDonaldizing as a Force for Militarizing Okinawan Society

This chapter explores the concept of efficiency in Ritzer’s model as it appears in Okinawa’s gubernatorial election propaganda. The chapter begins with a reflection on central government ideas and plans for increasing efficiency in socioeconomic processes nationwide and narrows to critical analysis of Okinawan applications of efficiency as regards the development of Henoko. Then it explicates gubernatorial election rhetoric and propaganda represented in images, symbols, and textual predictions of the future after the Governor’s so-called 21st Century Vision has been fully realized.

Miyume Tanji, Daniel Broudy

Chapter 7. Predictability as a Means of Manufacturing Consent

This chapter focuses on various media serving the hegemonic order. Communications appearing in the Washington Times and on YouTube illustrate how new media can help reinforce or frame dominant narratives. The alternative media depicts Okinawan protesters as unpredictable, highlighting their deviation from norms of predictability, one of the four aspects in McDonaldized social relations of production. Framing anti-base protesters as professional (paid) demagogues, who are not even locals, serves as a way to legitimize the FRF in Henoko. The misleading expressions and images, selectively used to depict the protesters, are used to construct silent public consent to the FRF construction in Okinawa as the only avenue to reduce the danger of the Futenma Airfield.

Miyume Tanji, Daniel Broudy

Chapter 8. Communication and Control Over ‘Unstable’ Actors

Control over unpredictable aspects of human behavior is an important element of social relations in McDonaldized societies, which involves substituting human resources for non-human technologies. We argue that organic intellectuals have helped influence public opinion regarding the FRF construction through signs, symbols, ideas, and images which inculcate fear and loathing. This chapter focuses on the philosophy, strategies, and aims of Kamaduu gwa tachi no tsudoi as an example of protesters misrepresented yet possessing a significant political effect: their intentions of invigorating public debate among concerned citizens, regarding the actual human cost of maintaining the Japan-US alliance, have been erased. Importantly, Kamaduu (a women’s anti-base group) play a central role in clarifying how colonialism continues and violates daily the dignity of Okinawans for Yamato (mainland Japan’s) need for the security alliance.

Miyume Tanji, Daniel Broudy

Chapter 9. Calculability as a Quantifier of Future Profits Added to the Present

This chapter introduces the concept of calculability within the context of colonial dispossession. Discussions reflect on calculability, which emphasizes the quantitative aspects of products sold (portion size, cost) and service offered (the time it takes to get the product). This refers to the belief that more is better. If there is a lot of a product, then it must be good. One can grasp the extent of the importance of calculability in Okinawa (as conceived by the central planners) when one examines the plans devised for future economic development of the spaces cleared by the eventual return of land presently occupied by MCAS Futenma. The central aim appears in the realization of an alternative form of colonization disguised as healthcare development.

Miyume Tanji, Daniel Broudy

Historical and Contemporary Forms of Resistance


Chapter 10. Political Economy and Identity of “All Okinawa” Resistance

“Okinawan identity” is often asserted as the bedrock of the “All Okinawa” coalition in the 21st century. This chapter argues, rather, that Okinawan identity, predicated upon the memory of collective suffering during the Battle of Okinawa, has long been harbored in the expression of kenmin, in line with the post-war bifurcated nationalism, which has recently swung toward detachment from Japan. We claim that Okinawa’s exposure to an increasingly neoliberalized economy has enabled some conservative Okinawans to reassert Okinawan identity, which they have suppressed under the Okinawan Developmental Promotion System. We stress Okinawa’s jichi (self-governance) has been so far positively connected to market liberalization and deregulation, translated into local autonomy, which suggests possible confusion of Okinawans’ self-governance with market governance.

Miyume Tanji, Daniel Broudy

Chapter 11. Time as a Defense of the Environment: A Fight Against McDonaldized Forms of Progress

This chapter presents a philosophical reflection on resistance movements throughout Okinawa. It considers how time, as measured by technological advances in timekeeping and its resulting capitalist calculations of the social world, distorts human values and creates unnatural and potentially dangerous conceptions of the natural world. The chapter explores the demands that consumers generally make in the market and, paradoxically, the demands that the market makes on citizens as participants. It addresses the tensions between indigenous concepts of time and industrial concepts. With nothing but time on their side, protestors who confront what they perceive to be unjust business activities and development projects appear to use time as a defensive weapon against environmental assaults.

Miyume Tanji, Daniel Broudy

Chapter 12. Conclusion

This chapter closes the book with a reflection on the SACO arrangement, its subsequent modifications, and the propaganda needed to obscure from public view the bureaucratic processes and actions that had set the arrangement into motion. Discussion includes consideration of how the processes at work in Okinawa reflect developmental projects now underway across many parts of the world where neoliberalization policies are enacted. The chapter introduces a brief discussion of Socratic dialogues that focus on the responsibilities of the individual in society and the demands that citizenship puts on the people who must remain conscious and engaged in the interest of maintaining a functional democracy in the face of threats.

Miyume Tanji, Daniel Broudy


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