Self-stabilization is a versatile approach to fault-tolerance since it permits a distributed system to recover from any transient fault that arbitrarily corrupts the contents of all memories in the system. Byzantine tolerance is an attractive feature of distributed systems that permits to cope with arbitrary malicious behaviors.
We consider the well known problem of constructing a breadth-first spanning tree in this context. Combining these two properties prove difficult: we demonstrate that it is impossible to contain the impact of Byzantine processes in a strictly or strongly stabilizing manner. We then adopt the weaker scheme of
topology-aware strict stabilization
and we present a similar weakening of strong stabilization. We prove that the classical
+ 1 protocol has optimal Byzantine containment properties with respect to these criteria.