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Über dieses Buch

This book provides readers with insight into an alternative approach for enhancing the reliability, security, and low power features of integrated circuit designs, related to transient faults, hardware Trojans, and power consumption. The authors explain how the addition of integrated sensors enables the detection of ionizing particles and how this information can be processed at a high layer. The discussion also includes a variety of applications, such as the detection of hardware Trojans and fault attacks, and how sensors can operate to provide different body bias levels and reduce power costs. Readers can benefit from these sensors-based approaches through designs with fast response time, non-intrusive integration on gate-level and reasonable design costs.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Effects of Transient Faults in Integrated Circuits

Abstract
In the context of reliable and secure integrated circuit (IC) system applications, this chapter generally discusses the effects of transient faults induced by environmental and intentional perturbation sources. The first section briefly analyzes the transient faults induced by environmental perturbation events during the IC lifetime, and the next section synthesizes the consequences of transient faults due to intentional perturbation events, which indeed create very similar transient voltage modifications in IC systems. Furthermore, the electrical-level effects of transient faults in ICs and the consequent failures arisen from the different types of transient-fault effects on synchronous circuits (clocked systems) and asynchronous circuits (clockless systems) are also detailed in the following sections.
Rodrigo Possamai Bastos, Frank Sill Torres

Chapter 2. Effectiveness of Hardware-Level Techniques in Detecting Transient Faults

Abstract
Transient faults might induce soft errors in integrated circuits. Typically, fault and error detection during the normal integrated circuit (IC) system operation is called concurrent error detection (CED). Several CED techniques have been proposed with the intent to design more reliable computing systems. These techniques mainly differ in their detection capabilities and in the constraints they impose on the system design. This chapter evaluates and compares different techniques regarding their effectivenesses in detecting transient faults arisen in combinational logic blocks, and resulting in soft errors (SEs).
Rodrigo Possamai Bastos, Frank Sill Torres

Chapter 3. Architectures of Body Built-In Current Sensors for Detection of Transient Faults

Abstract
Among hardware-level techniques for fault and error detection, the Body Built-In Current Sensors (BBICS) offer a compact and effective alternative for detecting single, short-duration, long-duration, and multiple (and simultaneous) transient faults. This kind of sensor combines the high fault detection effectiveness of costly fault-tolerance schemes (e.g. duplication with comparison) with the low-area and low-power overheads of less effective mitigation techniques such as time redundancy approaches. In addition, these sensors are perfectly suitable for IC system design flows based on CMOS standard cells of commercial libraries. This chapter firstly presents the fundamentals and the history of built-in current sensors, after it classifies and describes the different state-of-the-art BBICS architectures. Moreover, this chapter defines what we call as the reference sensitivity of a sensor (or a memory element) in detecting single transient faults, and it compare state-of-the-art BBICS architectures in terms of their sensitivity in detecting transient faults and area overhead.
Rodrigo Possamai Bastos, Frank Sill Torres

Chapter 4. Enhancing the Design of Body Built-In Sensor Architectures

Abstract
This chapter presents strategies for improving the characteristics of Body Built-In Current Sensors (BBICS). First, the concept of the modular BBICS (mBBICS) is discussed. Its principal characteristic is the separation of the sensing part of the sensor, called head, and the circuitry for generation of the flag, called tail. This division enables higher flexibility, improved robustness and lower costs in terms of area and power dissipation. Next, three universal strategies for enhancing the sensibility and improving the costs of BBICS are presented. All three strategies are applied exemplarily for the modular Body Built-In Current Sensors in order to demonstrate its utilization. Finally, both sensor types, i.e. the standard mBBICS and the improved mBBICS, are subjected to extensive analysis.
Rodrigo Possamai Bastos, Frank Sill Torres

Chapter 5. Noise Robustness of Body Built-In Sensors

Abstract
The increasing amount of noise sources in current systems requires a detailed analysis of noise susceptibility of integrated circuits. This is all the more important for analog sensors measuring substrate effects. This chapter presents the investigation of the noise tolerance of Body Built-In Current Sensors that enable the detection of radiation induced transient faults. The analysis is based on extracted layout data, including the substrate profile and different kind of generic noise sources. Therefore, external as well as internal noise source are considered and acceptable noise level are presented.
Rodrigo Possamai Bastos, Frank Sill Torres

Chapter 6. Body Built-In Cells for Detecting Transient Faults and Adaptively Biasing Subcircuits

Abstract
Integrated circuit (IC) system reliability, security, and power issues are highly associated and related to the operating frequency, voltage, and body bias level. Modern strategies of reliability, security, and power management that considers adaptive body biasing (ABB) are either able to reduce soft error rate by forward body biasing or increase it by applying reverse body biasing. Hence, ABB strategies demand additional mechanisms to compensate and mitigate the effects of radiation-induced transient faults that may generate soft errors. This chapter discusses a special cell that merges and optimizes the abilities of a body built-in current sensor (BBICS) with the level-shifter (LS) function of body-bias generators. Jointly considered, BBICS and LS form thus a single body built-in cell that is fundamental for ABB strategies to: (1) detect short-to-long-duration transient faults; (2) control transistor threshold voltage, thereby eventually compensating alterations induced by aging or process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) variations; (3) optimize IC system trade-off between power and delay. The design of a single built-in cell with multiple purposes allows further reducing the already low area overhead imposed by the BBICS and LS circuitries.
Rodrigo Possamai Bastos, Frank Sill Torres

Chapter 7. Automatic Integration of Body Built-In Sensors into Digital Design Flows

Abstract
This chapter discusses aspects of the integration of Body Built-In Current Sensors (BBICS) into digital integrated circuit systems. The first challenge to be addressed is the automatic integration of the sensors in digital designs. The related flow is introduced and elaborated by means of an exemplary design. The second challenge to be addressed is the processing of the output data of BBICS on higher layers. Therefore, this chapter presents a light-weight RISC processor that is able to roll back to a secure state enabling a low-cost solution against radiation-induced transient faults.
Rodrigo Possamai Bastos, Frank Sill Torres

Chapter 8. Body Built-In Sensors for Testing Integrated Circuit Systems for Hardware Trojans

Abstract
Over the last years with the fast technology enhancement, integrated circuit (IC) companies tend to outsource phases of their production chains in order to reduce time-to-market and development costs. Despite the outsourcing benefits through the world, serious security concerns today affect all phases of IC-design flows. Malicious third-party suppliers may, for instance, intentionally cause operational disturbances, disable functions, alter layout masks, and even leak sensitive information from original circuits, all by including mechanisms defined as hardware Trojans (HT). This chapter classifies state-of-the-art testing techniques that analyze side-channel signals for detecting HT. In the following, a body built-in sensor-based technique for detection of HT is detailed by highlighting its three main innovative contributions: (1) current pulses are injected into body terminals of IC system subcircuits; (2) built-in current sensors are connected to body terminals for identifying (or not) the injected currents, providing digital signatures of the subcircuit substrates; (3) resulting digital signatures allow indirect analysis of the impedance of subcircuit substrate, which is modified with the presence of HT, opening a new category of side-channel analysis-based techniques.
Rodrigo Possamai Bastos, Frank Sill Torres

Backmatter

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