Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
Traffic safety applications using vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication is an emerging and promising area within the intelligent transportation systems (ITS) sphere. Many of these new applications require real-time communication with high reliability, meaning that packets must be successfully delivered before a certain deadline. Applications with early deadlines are expected to require direct V2V communications, and the only standard currently supporting this is the upcoming IEEE 802.11p, included in the wireless access in vehicular environment (WAVE) stack. To meet a real-time deadline, timely and predictable access to the channel is paramount. However, the medium access method used in 802.11p, carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA), does not guarantee channel access before a finite deadline. In this paper, we analyze the communication requirements introduced by traffic safety applications, namely, low delay, reliable, real-time communications. We show by simulation of a simple, but realistic, highway scenario, that vehicles using CSMA/CA can experience unacceptable channel access delays and, therefore, 802.11p does not support real-time communications. In addition, we present a potential remedy for this problem, namely, the use of self-organizing time division multiple access (STDMA). The real-time properties of STDMA are investigated by means of the same highway simulation scenario, with promising results.
Blum JJ, Eskandarian A, Huffman LJ: Challenges of intervehicle ad hoc networks. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems 2004, 5(4):347-351. 10.1109/TITS.2004.838218 CrossRef
Bilstrup K, Uhlemann E, Ström EG: Medium access control in vehicular networks based on the upcoming IEEE 802.11p standard. Proceedings of the 15th World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS '08), November 2008, New York, NY, USA 1-12.
Bilstrup K, Uhlemann E, Ström EG, Bilstrup U: Evaluation of the IEEE 802.11p MAC method for vehicle-to-cehicle communication. Proceedings of the 68th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '08), September 2008, Calgary, Canada 1-5.
The latest version of the PAR for IEEE 802.11p http://standards.ieee.org/board/nes/projects/802-11p.pdf
Yang S, Refai HH, Ma X: CSMA based inter-vehicle communication using distributed and polling coordination. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC '05), September 2005, Vienna, Austria 167-171.
Pal A, Dogan A, Özgüner F, Özgüner Ü: A MAC layer protocol for real-time inter-vehicle communication. Proceedings of the IEEE 5th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC '02), September 2002, Singapore 353-358. CrossRef
Bana SV, Varaiya P: Space division multiple access (SDMA) for robust ad hoc vehicle communication networks. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC '01), August 2001, Oakland, Calif, USA 962-967.
Blum JJ, Eskandarian A: A reliable link-layer protocol for robust and scalable intervehicle communications. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems 2007, 8(1):4-12. CrossRef
Lott M, Halfmann R, Schulz E, Radimirsch M: Medium access and radio resource management for ad hoc networks based on UTRA TDD. Proceedings of the 2nd ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking & Computing (MobiHoc '01), October 2001, Long Beach, Calif, USA 76-86. CrossRef
Borgonovo F, Campelli L, Cesana M, Coletti L: MAC for ad-hoc inter-vehicle network: services and performance. Proceedings of the 58th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '03), October 2003, Orlando, Fla, USA 5: 2789-2793.
Stibor L, Zang Y, Reumerman H-J: Evaluation of communication distance of broadcast messages in a vehicular ad-hoc network using IEEE 802.11p. Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC '07), March 2007, Kowloon, China 254-257.
Wellens M, Westphal B, Mähönen P: Performance evaluation of IEEE 802.11-based WLANs in vehicular scenarios. Proceedings of the 65th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '07), April 2007, Dublin, Ireland 1167-1171.
Xiang W, Richardson P, Guo J: Introduction and preliminary experimental results of wireless access for vehicular environments (WAVE) systems. Proceedings 3rd Annual International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking & Services, MobiQuitous, July 2006, San Jose, Calif, USA 1-8.
Choi N, Choi S, Seok Y, Kwon T, Choi Y: A solicitation-based IEEE 802.11p MAC protocol for roadside to vehicular networks. Proceedings of the Mobile Networking for Vehicular Environments (MOVE '07), May 2007, Anchorage, Alaska, USA 91-96.
Suthaputehakun C, Ganz A: Priority based inter-vehicle communication in vehicular ad-hoc networks using IEEE 802.11e. Proceedings of the 65th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '07), April 2007, Dublin, Ireland 2595-2599.
Shankar S, Yedla A: MAC layer extensions for improved QoS in 802.11 based vehicular ad hoc networks. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety (ICVES '07), December 2007, Beijing, China 1-6.
Bai F, Krishnan H: Reliability analysis of DSRC wireless communication for vehicle safety applications. Proceedings of IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC '06), September 2006, Toronto, Canada 355-362.
Eichler S: Performance evaluation of the IEEE 802.11p WAVE communication standard. Proceedings of the 66th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '07), September-October 2007, Baltimore, Md, USA 2199-2203.
Uhlemann E, Aulin TM, Rasmussen LK, Wiberg P-A: Deadline dependent coding—a framework for wireless real-time communication. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Real-Time Systems and Applications (RTCSA '00), December 2000, Cheju Island, Korea 135-142.
Caro D: Automation Network Selection. ISA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2004.
Venkatramani C, Chiueh T: Supporting real-time traffic on the Ethernet. Proceedings of the IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, December 1994, San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA 282-286.
Rüping S, Vonnahme E, Jaspernite J: Analysis of switched Ethernet networks with different topologies used in automation systems. In Proceedings of the Fieldbus Technology Conference (FeT '99), September 1999, Magdeburg, Germany. Springer; 351-358.
Marshall PS, Rinaldi JS: Industrial Ethernet. ISA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2005.
IEEE P802.11p/D3.0, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Contrl (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications: Amendment: Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) Draft 3.0, July 2007
IEEE Std. 802.11e-2005, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications: Amendment 8: Medium Access Control (MAC) Quality of Service Enhancements 2005.
Recommendations ITU-R M.1371-1 : Technical characteristics for universal shipborne automatic identification system using time division multiple access in the VHF maritime mobile band.
Safespot project http://www.safespot-eu.org
Hartenstein H, Laberteaux KP: A tutorial survey on vehicular ad hoc networks. IEEE Communications Magazine 2008, 46(6):164-171. CrossRef
Blum JJ, Tararakin A, Eskandarian A: Efficient certificate distribution for vehicle heartbeat messages. Proceedings of the 68th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '08), September 2008, Calgary, Canada 1-5.
- On the Ability of the 802.11p MAC Method and STDMA to Support Real-Time Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication
- Springer International Publishing
- EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking
Elektronische ISSN: 1687-1499
Neuer Inhalt/© ITandMEDIA, Product Lifecycle Management/© Eisenhans | vege | Fotolia