This book provides a comprehensive look at one-dimensional (1D) mesoporous inorganic nanomaterials. Beginning with a systematic presentation of their characterization using advanced electron microscopy techniques, the book discusses how to design the growth of 1D nanomaterials in order to achieve different, application-targeted morphologies such as nanowires, nanorods, nanofibers, nanotubes, and nanobelts. Subsequently, the book systematically summarizes current state-of-the-art research activities, encompassing energy conversion and storage, catalysis, sensing, and adsorption. The book concludes with a forward-looking summary of the different prospects of these materials for novel energy applications, as well as the challenges faced regarding their mass production, cost-effective synthesis strategies, and a deep understanding of the physics involved in the microstructure-dependent performance. Featuring broad and up-to-date coverage of this rapidly growing field, this book is useful for researchers working at the intersections of materials science, chemistry, and advanced energy devices.