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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International IFIP WG 2.13 Conference on Open Source Systems, OSS 2010, held in Salvador, Brazil, in October 2011. The 20 revised full papers presented together with 4 industrial full papers and 8 lightning talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 56 submissions. The papers are organized in the following topical sections: OSS quality and reliability, OSS products, review of technologies of and for OSS, knowledge and research building in OSS, OSS reuse, integration, and compliance, OSS value and economics, OSS adoption in industry, and mining OSS repositories.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Papers

OSS Quality and Reliability

Impact of Stakeholder Type and Collaboration on Issue Resolution Time in OSS Projects

Initialized by a collective contribution of volunteer developers, Open source software (OSS) attracts an increasing involvement of commercial firms. Many OSS projects are composed of a mix group of firm-paid and volunteer developers, with different motivations, collaboration practices and working styles. As OSS development consists of collaborative works in nature, it is important to know whether these differences have an impact on collaboration between difference types of stakeholders, which lead to an influence in the project outcomes. In this paper, we empirically investigate the firm-paid participation in resolving OSS evolution issues, the stakeholder collaboration and its impact on OSS issue resolution time. The results suggest that though a firm-paid assigned developer resolves much more issues than a volunteer developer does, there is no difference in issue resolution time between them. Besides, the more important factor that influences the issue resolution time comes from the collaboration among stakeholders rather than from individual characteristics.

Anh Nguyen Duc, Daniela S. Cruzes, Claudia Ayala, Reidar Conradi

Towards a Unified Definition of Open Source Quality

Software quality needs to be specified and evaluated in order to determine the success of a development project, but this is a challenge with Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) because of its permanently emergent state. This has not deterred the growth of the assumption that FLOSS is higher quality than traditionally developed software, despite of mixed research results. With this literature review, we found the reason for these mixed results is that that quality is being defined, measured, and evaluated differently. We report the most popular definitions, such as software structure measures, process measures, such as defect fixing, and maturity assessment models. The way researchers have built their samples has also contributed to the mixed results with different project properties being considered and ignored. Because FLOSS projects are evolving, their quality is too, and it must be measured using metrics that take into account its community’s commitment to quality rather than just its software structure. Challenges exist in defining what constitutes a defect or bug, and the role of modularity in affecting FLOSS quality.

Claudia Ruiz, William Robinson

OSS Products

Ginga-J - An Open Java-Based Application Environment for Interactive Digital Television Services

This paper aims to present a Ginga-J’s reference implementation. Although based on a particular platform, the implementation not only works as a proof of concept, but also raised several issues and difficulties on the software architecture project that should be taken into account to ease extensibility and porting to other platforms. Ginga is the standard middleware for the Brazilian DTV System. Its imperative environment (Ginga-J) is based on new JavaDTV specification and mandatory for fixed terrestrial receptors.

Raoni Kulesza, Jefferson F. A. Lima, Álan L. Guedes, Lucenildo L. A. Junior, Silvio R. L. Meira, Guido L. S. Filho

Developing Architectural Documentation for the Hadoop Distributed File System

Many open source projects are lacking architectural documentation that describes the major pieces of the system, how they are structured, and how they interact. We have produced architectural documentation for the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS), a major open source project. This paper describes our process and experiences in developing this documentation. We illustrate the documentation we have produced and how it differs from existing documentation by describing the redundancy mechanisms used in HDFS for reliability.

Len Bass, Rick Kazman, Ipek Ozkaya

Review of Technologies of and for OSS

Modding as an Open Source Approach to Extending Computer Game Systems

This paper examines what is known so far about the role of open source software development within the world of game mods and modding practices. Game modding has become a leading method for developing games by customizing or creating OSS extensions to game software in general, and to proprietary closed source software games in particular. What, why, and how OSS and CSS come together within an application system is the subject for this study. The research method is observational and qualitative, so as to highlight current practices and issues that can be associated with software engineering and game studies foundations. Numerous examples of different game mods and modding practices are identified throughout.

Walt Scacchi

Preparing FLOSS for Future Network Paradigms: A Survey on Linux Network Management

Operating system tools must fulfil the requirements generated by the advances in networking paradigms. To understand the current state of the Free, Libre and Open Source Software (FLOSS) ecosystem, we present a survey on the main tools used to manage and interact with the network, and how they are organized in Linux-based operating systems. Based on the survey results, we present a reference Linux network stack that can serve as the basis for future heterogeneous network environments, contributing towards a standardized approach in Linux. Using this stack, and focusing on dynamic and spontaneous network interactions, we present an evolution path for network related technologies, contributing to Linux as a network research operating system and to FLOSS as a whole.

Alfredo Matos, John Thomson, Paulo Trezentos

A Review of Tool Support for User-Related Communication in FLOSS Development

Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FLOSS) projects rely on Internet tools for communication and in coordinating their work. Communication between developers is well supported in FLOSS projects, but user-developer communication has proven out to be challenging. This paper examines the following questions: ”What kinds of means for communication exist in FLOSS projects for user-developer communication? What kinds of means should there be?” We have carried out a literature review addressing communication in FLOSS projects, and contrasted the findings with Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) literature on user-developer communication. HCI literature indicates that user-developer communication is needed during requirements construction, design and evaluation tasks, and HCI specialists are needed for orchestrating the communication and the user related tasks. Communication during the evaluation task is somewhat supported in FLOSS projects, but design and requirements construction are badly in need for support, even though ideas have already been presented. In addition, HCI specialists are in need of different kinds of communication support in FLOSS projects.

Aapo Rantalainen, Henrik Hedberg, Netta Iivari

Knowledge and Research Building in OSS

Knowledge Homogeneity and Specialization in the Apache HTTP Server Project

We present an analysis of developer communication in the Apache HTTP Server project. Using topic modeling techniques we expose latent conceptual sub-communities arising from developer specialization within the greater developer population. However, we found that among the major contributors to the project, very little specialization exists. We present theories to explain this phenomenon, and suggest further research.

Alexander C. MacLean, Landon J. Pratt, Charles D. Knutson, Eric K. Ringger

Building Knowledge in Open Source Software Research in Six Years of Conferences

Since its origins, the diffusion of the OSS phenomenon and the information about it has been entrusted to the Internet and its virtual communities of developers. This public mass of data has attracted the interest of researchers and practitioners aiming at formalizing it into a body of knowledge. To this aim, in 2005, a new series of conferences on OSS started to collect and convey OSS knowledge to the research and industrial community. Our work mines articles of the OSS conference series to understand the process of knowledge grounding and the community surrounding it. As such, we propose a semi-automated approach for a systematic mapping study on these articles. We automatically build a map of cross-citations among all the papers of the conferences and then we manually inspect the resulting clusters to identify knowledge building blocks and their mutual relationships. We found that industry-related, quality assurance, and empirical studies often originate or maintain new streams of research.

Fabio Mulazzani, Bruno Rossi, Barbara Russo, Maximilian Steff

OSS Reuse, Integration, and Compliance

The Importance of Architectural Knowledge in Integrating Open Source Software

Open Source Software (OSS) is increasingly used in Component-Based Software Development (CBSD) of large software systems. An important issue in CBSD is selection of suitable components. Various OSS selection methods have been proposed, but most of them do not consider the software architecture aspects of OSS products. The Software Architecture (SA) research community refers to a product’s architectural information, such as design decisions and underlying rationale, and used architecture patterns, as Architecture Knowledge (AK). In order to investigate the importance of AK of OSS components in integration, we conducted an exploratory empirical study. Based on in-depth interviews with 12 IT professionals, this paper presents insights into the following questions: 1) what AK of OSS is needed? 2) Why is AK of OSS needed? 3) Is AK of OSS generally available? And 4) what is the relative importance of AK? Based on these new insights, we provide a research agenda to further the research field of software architecture in OSS.

Klaas-Jan Stol, Muhammad Ali Babar, Paris Avgeriou

Successful Reuse of Software Components: A Report from the Open Source Perspective

A promising way of software reuse is Component-Based Software Development (CBSD). There is an increasing number of OSS products available that can be freely used in product development. However, OSS communities themselves have not yet taken full advantage of the “reuse mechanism”. Many OSS projects duplicate effort and code, even when sharing the same application domain and topic. One successful counter-example is the

FFMpeg

multimedia project, since several of its components are widely and consistently reused into other OSS projects. This paper documents the history of the

libavcodec

library of components from the

FFMpeg

project, which at present is reused in more than 140 OSS projects. Most of the recipients use it as a black-box component, although a number of OSS projects keep a copy of it in their repositories, and modify it as such. In both cases, we argue that

libavcodec

is a successful example of reusable OSS library of components.

Andrea Capiluppi, Cornelia Boldyreff, Klaas-Jan Stol

OSS Value and Economics

License Update and Migration Processes in Open Source Software Projects

Open source software (OSS) has increasingly been the subject of research efforts. Central to this focus is the nature under which the software can be distributed, used, and modified and the causes and consequent effects on software development, usage, and distribution. At present, we have little understanding of, what happens when these licenses change, what motivates such changes, and how new licenses are created, updated, and deployed. Similarly, little attention has been paid to the agreements under which contributions are made to OSS projects and the impacts of changes to these agreements. We might also ask these same questions regarding the licenses governing how individuals and groups contribute to OSS projects. This paper focuses on addressing these questions with case studies of processes by which the Apache Software Foundation’s creation and migration to Version 2.0 of the Apache Software License and the NetBeans project’s migration to the Joint Licensing Agreement.

Chris Jensen, Walt Scacchi

A Historical Account of the Value of Free and Open Source Software: From Software Commune to Commercial Commons

Free and open source software has transformed from what has been characterized as a resistance movement against proprietary software to become a commercially viable form of software development, integrated in various forms with proprietary software business. In this paper we explain this development as a dependence on historical formations, shaped by different ways of justifying the use of open source during different periods of time. These formations are described as arrangements of different justificatory logics within a certain time frame or a certain group of actors motivating the use of free and open source software by referring to different potentialities. The justificatory arrangements change over time, and tracing these changes makes it easier to understand how the cultural, economic and social practices of open source movements are currently being absorbed and adopted in a commercial context.

Magnus Bergquist, Jan Ljungberg, Bertil Rolandsson

Framing the Conundrum of Total Cost of Ownership of Open Source Software

This paper reflects the results of phase I of our study on the total cost of ownership (TCO) of open source software adoption. Not only have we found TCO to be an intriguing issue but it is contentious, baffling and each company approaches it in a distinctive manner (and sometimes not at all). In effect it is a conundrum that needs unpacking before it can be explained and understood. Our paper discusses the components of TCO as total cost of ownership and total cost of acquisition (and besides). Using this broad dichotomy and its various components we then analyze our data to make sense of procurement decisions in relation to open source software in the public sector and private companies.

Maha Shaikh, Tony Cornford

OSS Adoption in Industry

Libre Software as an Innovation Enabler in India Experiences of a Bangalorian Software SME

Free/Libre and open source software (FLOSS) has been advocated for its presumed capacity to support native software industries in developing countries. It is said to create new spaces for exploration and to lower entry barriers to mature software markets, for example. However, little empirical research has been conducted concerning FLOSS business in a developing country setting and, thus, there is not much evidence to support or refute these claims. This paper presents a business case study conducted in India, a country branded as a ’software powerhouse’ of the developing world. The findings show how FLOSS has opened up significant opportunities for the case company, especially in terms of improving its innovative capability and upgrading in the software value chain. On the other hand, they also highlight some challenges to FLOSS involvement that rise specifically from the Indian context.

Katja Henttonen

Adoption of OSS Development Practices by the Software Industry: A Survey

The paper presents a survey of aspects related to the adoption of Open Source Software by the software industry. The aim of this study was to collect data related to practices and elements in the development process of companies that influence the trust in the quality of the product by potential adopters. The work is part of the research done inside the QualiPSo project and was carried out using a qualitative study based on a structured questionnaire focused on perceptions of experts and development practices used by companies involved in the Open Source Software industry. The results of the survey confirm intuitive concerns related to the adoption of Open Source Software as: the selection of the license, the quality issues addressed, and the development process tasks inside Open Source Software projects. The study uncovered specific aspects related to trust and trustworthiness of the Open Source Software development process that we did not find in previous studies as: the standards implemented by the OSS project, the project’s roadmap is respected, and the communication channels that are available.

Etiel Petrinja, Alberto Sillitti, Giancarlo Succi

Towards Improving OSS Products Selection – Matching Selectors and OSS Communities Perspectives

Adopting third-party software is becoming an economical and strategic need for today organizations. A fundamental part of its successful adoption is the informed selection of products that best fit the organization needs. One of the main current problems hampering selection, specially of OSS products is the vast amount of unstructured, incomplete, evolvable and widespread information about products that highly increases the risks of taking a wrong decision. In this paper, we aim to inform and provide evidence to OSS communities that help them to envisage improvements on their information rendering strategies to satisfy industrial OSS selectors’ needs. Our results are from the matching between the informational needs of 23 OSS selectors from diverse software-intensive organizations, and the in-depth study of 9 OSS communities of different sizes and domains. The results evidenced specific areas of improvement that might help to enhance the industrial OSS selection practice.

Claudia Ayala, Daniela S. Cruzes, Xavier Franch, Reidar Conradi

Mining OSS Repositories

To Fork or Not to Fork: Fork Motivations in SourceForge Projects

A project fork occurs when software developers take a copy of source code from one software package and use it to begin an independent development work that is maintained separately from its origin. Although forking in open source software does not require the permission of the original authors, the new version, nevertheless, competes for the attention of the same developers that have worked on the original version. The motivations developers have for performing forks are many, but in general they have received little attention. In this paper, we present the results of a study of forks performed in SourceForge (http://sourceforge.net/) and list the developers’ motivations for their actions. The main motivation, seen in close to half of the cases of forking, was content modification; either adding content to the original program or focusing the content to the needs of a specific segment of users. In a quarter of the cases the motivation was technical modification; either porting the program to new hardware or software, or improving the original.

Linus Nyman, Tommi Mikkonen

An Analysis of Author Contribution Patterns in Eclipse Foundation Project Source Code

Collaborative development is a key tenet of open source software, but if not properly understood and managed, it can become a liability. We examine author contribution data for the newest revision of 251,633 Java source files in 592 Eclipse projects. We use this observational data to analyze collaboration patterns within files, and to explore relationships between file size, author count, and code authorship. We calculate author entropy to characterize the contributions of multiple authors to a given file, with an eye toward understanding the degree of collaboration and the most common interaction patterns.

Quinn C. Taylor, Jonathan L. Krein, Alexander C. MacLean, Charles D. Knutson

Cliff Walls: An Analysis of Monolithic Commits Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation

Artifact-based research provides a mechanism whereby researchers may study the creation of software yet avoid many of the difficulties of direct observation and experimentation. However, there are still many challenges that can affect the quality of artifact-based studies, especially those studies examining software evolution. Large commits, which we refer to as “Cliff Walls,” are one significant threat to studies of software evolution because they do not appear to represent incremental development. We used Latent Dirichlet Allocation to extract topics from over 2 million commit log messages, taken from 10,000 SourceForge projects. The topics generated through this method were then analyzed to determine the causes of over 9,000 of the largest commits. We found that branch merges, code imports, and auto-generated documentation were significant causes of large commits. We also found that corrective maintenance tasks, such as bug fixes, did not play a significant role in the creation of large commits.

Landon J. Pratt, Alexander C. MacLean, Charles D. Knutson, Eric K. Ringger

Lightning Talks

Package Upgrade Robustness: An Analysis for GNU/Linux® Package Management Systems

GNU/Linux systems are today used in servers, desktops, mobile and embedded devices. One of the critical operations is the installation and maintenance of software packages in the system. Currently there are no frameworks or tools for evaluating Package Management Systems (PMSs), such as RPM, in Linux and for measuring their reliability. The authors perform an analysis of the robustness of the RPM engine and discuss some of the current limitations. This article contributes to the enhancement of Software Reliability in Linux by providing a framework and testing tools under an open source license. These tools can easily be extended to other PMSs such as DEB packages or Gentoo Portage.

John Thomson, Andre Guerreiro, Paulo Trezentos, Jeff Johnson

Applying Open Source Practices and Principles in Open Innovation: The Case of the Demola Platform

In numerous fields, businesses have to rely on rapid development and release cycles. Variant new ideas and concepts can emerge through open innovation as the participants are not limited to the company scope. This makes open innovation an increasingly appealing option for the industry. One such open innovation platform, Demola, allows university students to work on real life industrial cases of their own interest. We have identified similarities with its way of operation to open source software development and find that it offers a viable motivational, organizational and collaborative solution to open innovation.

Terhi Kilamo, Imed Hammouda, Ville Kairamo, Petri Räsänen, Jukka P. Saarinen

KommGame: A Reputation Environment for Teaching Open Source Software

The importance of teaching open source software in universities is increasing with the advent of open source as a development and business model. A novel, student centric approach of teaching open source was tried out at Tampere University of Technology where a new environment called KommGame was introduced to assist in teaching open source development. This environment includes a reputation system to motivate learners to participate. In this paper, we present our approach of teaching open source and how the KommGame environment was employed to teach open source software.

Veerakishore Goduguluri, Terhi Kilamo, Imed Hammouda

Virtual Health Information Infrastructures: A Scalable Regional Model

Integrating research, education and evidence-based medical practice requires complex infrastructures and network linkages among these critical activities. This research examines communities of practice and open source software tools in development of scalable virtual infrastructures for the regional Virtual Health Library of the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences System (Bireme) and embedded national cases. Virtual infrastructures refer to an environment characterized by overlapping distribution networks accessible through Internet portals and websites designed to facilitate integrated use of available resources. Case analysis shows engagement of interdisciplinary communities of practice for scalable virtual infrastructure design. This research program considers theory and methods for study of transferability of the Latin American model to large health care systems in other cultures.

Ann Séror

Something of a Potemkin Village? Acid2 and Mozilla’s Efforts to Comply with HTML4

Acid3 is the third of three benchmark tests that have been devised to challenge browsers to comply with Internet standards [6]. While Firefox developers at Mozilla had fully embraced the predecessor to Acid3, Acid2, they showed themselves much more reticent this time around. As the quote above indicates they had come to feel that Acid3 would divert attention from the real issues and might actually make it more difficult to achieve “deep compliance” as developers would scramble to come up with quick fixes just to pass the benchmark test. But were these fears justified? To find out, we retrieved the bug reports for bugs in Mozilla’s Bugzilla bug tracker concerning compliance with the HTML4 standard and tried to analyze the differences in the process of bug resolution between bugs that were linked to Acid2 and bugs that were not. In Bugzilla, the bug resolution process passes a number of well-defined stages. Based on the transition rates that we observe we conclude that the process of bug resolution is markedly different for bugs associated with Acid2. In particular, bug resolution appears to be much more chaotic in case of Acid2. This might be symptomatic for “scrambling”, which would explain why developers were not so keen to repeat the experience when Acid3 came around. Further investigations, however, are needed to corroborate this hypothesis.

Matthijs den Besten, Jean-Michel Dalle

Aspects of an Open Source Software Sustainable Life Cycle

In this paper we present a literature overview about OSS sustainability, considering not only financial resources, but also community growth, source code and tools management. Based on these aspects, we define an OSS life cycle that may contribute to OSS projects sustainability.

Flávia Linhalis Arantes, Fernanda Maria Pereira Freire

Open Source and Open Data: Business Perspectives from the Frontline

Open data initiatives on governmental data seem often to be linked to small software companies, which also use and release software under OSS licenses. This paper calls for more research to understand the similarities between open data and open source software vendors. We build a theoretical linkage between the more established OSS research and emerging research on open data in the context of small software companies.

Juho Lindman, Yulia Tammisto

Forge.mil: A Case Study for Utilizing Open Source Methodologies Inside of Government

In late 2008, DISA (Defense Information Systems Agency), the global IT arm of the US Department of Defense, embarked upon a project to create an internal collaboration and software application lifecycle management system. Beyond simply fielding yet another tool, the Forge.mil effort was designed to fundamentally change the way the DoD developed and acquired software technology and systems. The method of this change was the application of Open Source principles

inside

of the larger DoD community, including ideas such as meritocracy and code sharing, as well as Agile and collaborative software development. This lightning talk will explain the rationale behind Forge.mil, how it was developed using Open Source principles, and how it continues to influence technology acquisition within the DoD in both practice and policy changes.

Guy Martin, Aaron Lippold

Industry Papers

Health Informatics: The Relevance of Open Source and Multilevel Modeling

Health information features significant spatial-temporal and domain complexities, which brings challenges to the implementation of patient-centered, interoperable and semantically coherent healthcare information systems. This position paper supports the idea that the multilevel modeling approach is essential to ensure interoperability at the semantic level, but true interoperability is only achieved by the adoption of open standards, and open source implementations are needed for promote competition based on software quality. The Multilevel Healthcare Information Modelling (MLHIM) specifications are presented as the fully open source multilevel modeling reference implementation, and best practices for the development of multilevel-based open source healthcare applications are suggested.

Luciana T. Cavalini, Timothy W. Cook

Open Source Software for Model Driven Development: A Case Study

Model Driven Development (MDD) is widely used in the embedded systems domain, and many proprietary and Open Source tools exist that support MDD. The potential for sustainability of such tools needs to assessed prior to any organisational adoption. In this paper we report from a case study conducted in a consultancy company context aiming to investigate Open Source tools for MDD. For the company it was interesting to explore the two Open Source modelling tools Topcased and Papyrus for potential adoption. The focus for our case study is on assessing the health of the ecosystems for the two investigated Open Source projects by means of quantitative analysis of publically available data sources about Open Source projects. The health of ecosystems is an important prerequisite for a long term sustainable OSS (Open Source Software) tool-chain in the MDD area, which can aid strategic decision making for potential adoption within a company context. We have established details on the extent to which developers and users are active in two specific OSS ecosystems, and identified organisational influence for both ecosystems. We find that the investigated tools are promising regarding the health of their ecosystems, and a natural next step for the company would be to proceed with a pilot study in order to analyse the effectiveness of the investigated tools in company contexts.

Jonas Gamalielsson, Björn Lundell, Anders Mattsson

The Third Generation of OSS: A Three-Stage Evolution from Gift to Commerce-Economy

Linux is penetrating into mobile software as the basis for a mobile middleware platform. It is accelerating the increasing visibility of open source software (OSS) components in mobile middleware platforms. Considering the 10-million lines of code of OSS-based industrial platforms such as a mobile middleware platform, engagement in foundations is inevitable for large-scale packages of OSS for industrial solutions. The author discusses the driving factors toward a foundation-based OSS and the transition of the underlying economy types to analyze the transitions to the third-generation OSS.

Toshihiko Yamakami

Standing Situations and Issues of Open Source Policy in East Asian Nations: Outcomes of Open Source Research Workshop of East Asia

East Asia nations have made some progress with this technology, and started to introduce OSS for e-government systems during the early part of this century. Many countries granted it a central role in their policies. The reasons for this include adoption of software based on standard specification, liberation from vender lock-in, or opposition to the market control of proprietary software. However, the primary reason is to reduce adoption costs for e-government systems. While this policy work is useful, there is a great deal more that needs to be done. The OSS adoption policy in each nation of East Asia must be accompanied by technological progress in domestic IT service industries or US multinationals will expand at the cost of local businesses. If this continues unchecked it will create a new form of lock-in for East Asian nations. Some Asian nations are trying to promote their domestic IT service industries, putting their OSS adoption policy to practical use, and this workshop will provide case studies of that work. It will also provide a forum for discussing current challenges and opportunities around both policy and practical implementation issues across Asia.

Tetsuo Noda, Terutaka Tansho, Shane Coughlan

Workshops

Towards Sustainable Open Source

Open source software is gaining momentum in several forms. In addition to the huge increase in the number of open source projects started and the remarkable rise of FLOSS adoption by companies and governments, new models of participation in the movement are emerging rapidly. For instance, companies are increasingly releasing some of their proprietary software systems as open source on one hand and acquiring open source software on the other hand. For all these forms of involvement, a central question is how to build and maintain a sustainable ecosystem around the open source projects. Sustainability issues of open source extends beyond the technical challenges of building project infrastructure covering other important aspects related to business, economic, legal, social, and cultural dimensions. Long term sustainability will be the theme of OSS 2012 to be held in Tunisia. We think that the OSS community could start discussing the theme by exchanging related experiences, sharing relevant concerns, and proposing topics of interest.

Imed Hammouda, Björn Lundell

Improving US Department of Defense Technology Acquisition and Development with Open Source

In late 2008, DISA (Defense Information Systems Agency), the global IT arm of the US Department of Defense, embarked upon a project to create an internal collaboration and software application lifecycle management system. Beyond simply fielding yet another tool, the Forge.mil effort was designed to fundamentally change the way the DoD developed and acquired software technology and systems. The method of this change was the application of Open Source principles inside of the larger DoD community, including ideas such as: meritocracy, code sharing, as well as Agile and collaborative software development. This workshop will explore where the program has succeeded, as well as areas that need to be improved. It is hoped that participants will be able to bring perspectives from their work in the external Open Source world to this discussion.

Guy Martin, Aaron Lippold

Backmatter

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