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On Integration computer applications have by now entered almost all enterprises, but mostly in an uncoordinated way without long term integration plans or automation strategies. Departments introduced computing equipment and purchased or developed programs to support their department operations. This approach divided an enterprise into small and almost autonomous enterprises, each with the goal to deploy the computer to make their department and its associated activities work more efficiently. Thus many departments acquired computers, developed and installed automation systems and PCs and educated their staff, announcing this was done to make the work force aware of the large benefits that computers bring. In this fashion the most important functions in an enterprise were more or less computerized (accounting more, CAM and CAD less). In 1986 Europe, the level of computerization in descending order of significance was as follows: Accounting, Inventory Control, Order Entry, Production Planning & Control, Purchasing, Distribution, Sales Planning, Shop Floor Control, Process Control, Quality Control, Manufacturing Engineering (including CAM), and finally Design Engineering (with CAD) [1]. The net result (something that dawned upon us after decades) was that the enterprise consisted of many II islands of ll automation • Moreover, these islands could even be found within departments, where specific functions had been computerized without regard to the impact on the remainder. In the late seventies it became clear that smooth transfer of information between enterprise activities and even within departments was a burden, if at all possible.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction

Abstract
Computer applications have by now entered almost all enterprises, but mostly in an uncoordinated way without long term integration plans or automation strategies. Departments introduced computing equipment and purchased or developed programs to support their department operations. This approach divided an enterprise into small and almost autonomous enterprises, each with the goal to deploy the computer to make their department and its associated activities work more efficiently.

1. Management Overview

Abstract
The manufacturing process, i.e. the transformation of raw material into marketable products is changing from a semi-stable process to a highly dynamic one. The reasons for this change are manifold and only some of the major reasons are listed in the following:
  • World-wide availability of technology, capital and information (know-how) leads to short development cycles for new products.
  • World-wide marketing of products leads to strong cost competition in established markets.
  • Fast changes in market demands leads to fast obsolescence of established products

2. Project Perspective

Abstract
A perspective on AMICE start-up, evolution and possible results is given by a four step scenario. The four steps, illustrate in chronological order the following situations:
1
Before AMICE
 
2
Starting AMICE
 
3
AMICE Project
 
4
After AMICE
 
illustrated in Figures 2–1 to 2–4

3. Introduction to CIM-OSA

Abstract
The goal of CIM-OSA (Open System Architecture for CIM) is to enable the enterprise to perform its business in a real time adaptive mode. This goal will be reached by supporting operational flexibility and by supporting multi-disciplinary information (knowledge) integration and system integration. As an architecture CIM-OSA provides a framework which guides CIM users and CIM vendors. It also provides architectural constructs for the structured description of business requirements and for CIM system implementations.

4. CIM-OSA Architectural Model

Abstract
A Reference Architecture is to be provided for the manufacturing industry. From this Reference Architecture Particular Architectures can be derived which will fulfil the needs of particular enterprises.

5. The CIM-OSA Modelling Levels

Abstract
CIM-OSA provides three Modelling Levels to model enterprise requirements (Requirements Definition Modelling Level), system optimisation (Design Specification Modelling Level) and system implementation (Implementation Description Modelling Level). To provide decision criteria, user inputs have to be provided at each CIM system design stage (the 3 Modelling Levels).

6. The Parts of the CIM-OSA Framework and their Relations

Abstract
This Chapter concentrates on the positioning of the CIM-OSA architectural constructs and their relations with each other. Starting from the Requirements Definition Modelling Level the different constructs used in the Creation Process of the Particular Models are identified.

7. Detailed Description of CIM-OSA

Abstract
The AMICE project work first concentrated on those specific areas of CIM-OSA which were considered to be the key elements of the architecture:
  • Requirements Definition Modelling Level — Function and Information View
  • Design Specification Modelling Level — Information View
  • Implementation Description Modelling Level — Function and Resource View for specific Information Technology components only (Integrated Infrastructure - IIS)

8. CIM-OSA System Life Cycle

Abstract
Product Life Cycles have been defined as a valuable concept to structure the different phases of the product life. Such a Product Life Cycle is made up of a number of basic steps:-
A)
product definition
 
B)
product development
 
C)
product marketing and manufacturing
 
D)
product usage
 

9. CIM-OSA Business Process Design and Execution

Abstract
With CIM-OSA both design and maintenance of CIM systems will follow the same design rules. Since system consistency is of prime importance, the Build Time Support (IEE/IIS) is carried out with continuous relation to the implemented system. This means, the CIM-OSA Creation Process from requirements into system description is an on-going process throughout the whole Business Process design and maintenance.

10. Results from Standardisation Efforts

Abstract
By its very nature and scope CIM-OSA provides a working basis for input to several standardisation areas, like:
  • Reference Architecture Models and Modelling Methods
  • Descriptive and Formal Languages
  • Industrial Automation
  • Integration of Heterogeneous Equipment

Backmatter

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