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Optical Networks - Architecture and Survivability, is a state-of-the-art work on survivable and cost-effective design of control and management for networks with IP directly over Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology (or called Optical Internet). The authors address issues of signaling mechanisms, resource reservation, and survivable routing and wavelength assignment. Special emphasis has been given to the design of meshed, middle-sized, and wavelength-routed networks with dynamic traffic in the optical domain, such as the next-generation Metropolitan Area Network.

Research and development engineers, graduate students studying wavelength-routed WDM networks, and senior undergraduate students with a background in algorithms and networking will find this book interesting and useful. This work may also be used as supplemental readings for graduate courses on internetworking, routing, survivability, and network planning algorithms.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
The Internet has revolutionized the computer and communications world like nothing before, and has permanently changed the life styles of human beings. The Internet is committed to providing at once a world-wide broadcasting capability, a mechanism for information dissemination, and a medium for collaboration and interaction between individuals and their computers without regard for geographic location. As the importance of the Internet grows, the strategies of constructing the infrastructure become more critical. The design of the Internet architecture has been a focus by researchers in industry and academia for the past decades, and a wider understanding of these strategies has never been more essential than at present.
Hussein T. Mouftah, Pin-Han Ho

Chapter 2. Control and Management Architecture

Abstract
This chapter covers the topics of control and management architectures on the core of the optical Internet. The chapter starts with an introduction of Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) protocol, which has been recognized as the most promising framework for the next-generation Internet. To accommodate some special characteristics in dealing with traffic flows in the optical domain (such as optical physics and some strong domain-specific requirements for networks with different technologies), a migration of the MPLS protocols to the optical domain has been a research focus of much interest in the past years. The efforts are summarized as Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) [6] signaling protocols in Internet Draft by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). In this chapter, an overview on the GMPLS protocols is given, which includes switching architecture and elementary functional blocks for building an optical core for the next generation Internet. This chapter also addresses issues of multi-granularity OXCs (MG-OXCs) that cooperate with the GMPLS switching architecture and signaling mechanisms.
Hussein T. Mouftah, Pin-Han Ho

Chapter 3. Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA): Overview

Abstract
Routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) constitutes one of the most fundamental elements in the control and management of an optical network. This chapter provides an introduction to the design principles and objectives of the constraint of the RWA problem, and an overview of proposed schemes and approaches of the implementation and analytical modeling of the RWA process. The constraints imposed on a wavelength-routed optical network are outlined in Section 3.2, which includes topics of physical constraint and diversity constraint. Section 3.3 describes modeling of optical networks with and without wavelength conversion capability. The model incorporates networks containing partial wavelength convertible nodes with different conversion ranges. We also provide an algorithm for performing optimal routing and wavelength assignment in networks with nodes of partial wavelength conversion capability. The approach is based on a modified Dijkstra’s shortest path first algorithm, and can achieve a good computation complexity compared with some other reported schemes.
Hussein T. Mouftah, Pin-Han Ho

Chapter 4. Algorithms for Dynamic Routing and Wavelength Assignment

Abstract
In this chapter we present topics of dynamic routing and wavelength assignment, with a special focus on performance evaluation. We will first introduce a number of network planning algorithms to facilitate solving the dynamic RWA problem, which include a dynamic link-state metrics called the Weighted Network Link-state (W-NLS), and a scheme for deploying alternate paths (or APs in the following context) into networks under Fixed Alternate Routing structure. To improve network performance, two RWA algorithms based on the above planning algorithms are presented, namely Minimum Interference Routing Algorithm (MIRA) and Asynchronous Criticality Avoidance (ACA) protocol, which aim at minimizing the interference of allocating the current connection request to subsequent requests. The two algorithms achieve load-balancing through different ways: one uses minimum cut theory to derive a new link weight, and the other deploys APs with criticality information dissemination. Both algorithms make routing decisions by taking the network topology, the potential traffic loads, and the location of each S-D pair into consideration.
Hussein T. Mouftah, Pin-Han Ho

Chapter 5. Routing and Wavelength Assignment with Multi-Granularity OXCs

Abstract
The functional architecture and basic design principles for Multi-Granularity OXC (MG-OXC) networks have been introduced in Chapter 2. This chapter provides two dynamic algorithms for solving the problem of routing and wavelength assignment with tunnel allocation, namely Dynamic Tunnel Allocation and Capacity-Balanced Static Tunnel Allocation schemes. In addition to the routing algorithms, we will present their performance evaluation in two sample networks.
Hussein T. Mouftah, Pin-Han Ho

Chapter 6. Protection and Restoration

Abstract
This chapter presents advances in the state-of-the-art of enabling technology for the survivable optical Internet, in which overviews on a variety of proposals for protection and restoration mechanisms are provided. In Section 6.1, we define necessary terminology that will be useful in the rest of this book. The design principles and objectives for achieving network survivability are presented. In Section 6.2, protection and restoration schemes that have been reported for ring-based non-WDM optical networks are introduced. Topics include the Automatic Protection Switching (APS) and the SONET self healing ring, which have been well standardized in industry. In Section 6.3, protection schemes for mesh WDM networks are discussed, and protocols and signaling mechanisms for performing restoration are addressed. The Short Leap Shared Protection (SLSP) framework, which is designed for performing an end-to-end service guaranteed shared protection, is discussed in detail. SLSP framework will also be taken as the basis of one of the main topics in Chapter 7 and Chapter 8.
Hussein T. Mouftah, Pin-Han Ho

Chapter 7. Spare Capacity Allocation

Abstract
This chapter introduces spare capacity allocation schemes performed either off-line for a static deployment, or on-line during a time interval between two consecutive network events (i.e., a connection setup or tear-down). As survivability becomes one of the most important issues in the design of control and management of WDM networks, development of protection and restoration schemes became critical to network applicability and/or revenue-making capability. As mentioned in Chapter 6, pre-planning or pre-configuration of spare capacity for some working paths with stringent quality-of-service requirements, are the most commonly seen approaches for achieving this goal. However, if the allocation of spare capacity cannot be both capacity- and computation-efficient, the applicability of the algorithms may be limited, and the network cost for control and management increased. Therefore, we need to develop a spare capacity allocation scheme which meets the requirements of computation-efficiency, capacity-efficiency, class of service, and adaptability to traffic variation.
Hussein T. Mouftah, Pin-Han Ho

Chapter 8. Survivable Routing with Dynamic Traffic

Abstract
The spare capacity allocation schemes introduced in Chapter 7 either take a specific group of working paths or all working paths into consideration at a time during the optimization process. However, as any connection request arrives, an on-line algorithm is still required to allocate it. The on-line algorithm should be able to guarantee derivation of a link- or node-disjoint or link-disjoint working and protection (W-P) path-pair for a connection request if any exists. Since the reconfiguration or reallocation of spare capacity in the networks may not be frequently performed, the on-line algorithm of path selection needs to be both computation- and capacity efficient so that networks can accommodate as many subsequent connection calls as possible without losing the ability to deal with dynamic traffic requests that arrive one after the other.
Hussein T. Mouftah, Pin-Han Ho

Chapter 9. Optical Burst Switching

Abstract
In the previous chapters, we have discussed a variety of topics on wavelength-routed networks. A lightpath is physically set up through a suite of signaling mechanisms by way of dedicated control channels before optical data is launched, and is torn down after the connection ends. As network traffic gets more dynamic and bursty, wavelength-routed networks suffer a fatal drawback in achievable throughput. The major problem with wavelength-routed networks lies in the fact that the reserved channels are held regardless of whether or not effective data is transmitted. We need to have a new switching type to achieve an ultra-high throughput and real-time provisioning of data transmission.
Hussein T. Mouftah, Pin-Han Ho

Backmatter

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