Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
We are thankful for the valuable comments received at the national and international conferences at ISI, Delhi, Calcutta University, Burdwan University and Rabindra Bharati University, and all the internal presentations at Jadavpur University. We also acknowledge the role of UGC (for granting NET Fellowship for doctoral research to the first author) in the publication of the paper which is part of the doctoral thesis.
We develop a theoretical model of commercial gestational surrogacy in which a childless couple approaches a prospective surrogate, who is willing to gestate for the couple. We use a Principal-Agent framework with continuous effort to argue the following: in presence of limited liability of the surrogate, provision of optimal incentives (under non-contractible effort) is not feasible. Hence, a surrogate facing low outside option and having limited wealth is always found to put in sub-optimal care for the fetus. Put differently, the surrogate cannot be made a residual claimant (cannot be entitled with custody rights of the fetus) and therefore eliciting first best care is never optimal. But this result dramatically changes when the model is cast in discrete effort where inefficiency is likely only when the surrogate faces low outside option whereas we get multiple efficient contracts for higher outside option. Moreover, we see first-best efficient contracts may be implemented even without full transfer of custody rights to the surrogate.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Banerjee, A., P. Gertler, and M. Ghatak. 2002. Empowerment and efficiency: Tenancy reform in West Bengal. Journal of Political Economy 110(2): 239–280. CrossRef
Banerjee, S. 2013. Gestational surrogacy contracts: Altruistic or commercial? A contract theoretic approach. The Manchester School 81(3): 438–460. CrossRef
Banerjee, S., and S. Basu. 2009. Rent a womb: Surrogate selection, investment incentives and contracting. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. 69:260–273 (Also see SSRN Working Paper # 894022 (2006)).
Center For Social Research (CSR). 2012. Surrogate motherhood: Ethical or commercial, New Delhi, 1–88. http://www.csrindia.org.
Center For Social Research (CSR). 2014. A policy dialogue on issues around surrogacy in India. Report of the National conference on a policy dialogue on issues around surrogacy in India, New Delhi, 1–42.
Ergas, Y. 2004. Babies without borders: Human rights, human dignity and the regulation of international commercial surrogacy. Emory International Law Review 27: 117–188.
Galbraith, M., H.V. McLachlan, and J.K. Swales. 2005. Commercial agencies and surrogate motherhood: A transaction cost approach. Health Care Analysis 13(1): 11–31. CrossRef
Gostin, L. 2001. A civil liberties analysis of surrogacy arrangements. Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy. 17(2):432–454. http://scholarship.law.edu/jchlp/vol17/iss2/5.
Hale, B.E. 2013. Regulation of international surrogacy arrangements: Do we regulate the market or fix the real problems? Suffolk Transnational Law Review 36(3): 501–526.
Hatzis, A. 2003. Just the oven: A law and economics approach to gestational surrogacy contracts. In Perspective for the unification or harmonization of family law in Europe, ed. Katharina Boele-Woelki. Antwerp: Intersentia.
Hewitson, G. 1997. The market for surrogate motherhood contracts. The Economic Record 73(222): 212–224. CrossRef
Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). 2005. National Guidelines for Accreditation, Supervision and Regulation of ART Clinics in India. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, GOI. http://icmr.nic.in/art/Prilim_Pages.pdf.
Kanbur, R. 2004. On obnoxious markets. In Globalization, culture and the limits of the market: Essays in economics and philosophy, ed. Cullenberg, S., and Pattanaik, P., 39–61. India: Oxford University Press.
Laffont, J.J., and D. Martimort. 2002. The theory of incentives. Princeton: The Princeton University Press.
Law Commission of India, GOI. 2009. Report 228: Need for legislation to regulate assisted reproductive technology clinics as well as rights and obligations of parties to a surrogacy. http://lawcommissionofindia.nic.in.
Lee, R. 2009. New trends in global outsourcing of commercial surrogacy: A call for regulation. Hasting Women’s Law Journal 20(2): 275–300.
Ministry of Health & Family Welfare. 2001. The assisted reproductive technologies (Regulation) bill. GOI, New Delhi. http://icmr.nic.in/guide/ART%20REGULATION%20Draft%20Bill1.pdf. Accessed 6 July 2015.
Mukherjee, R. 2015. The baby business: A study on indian market of commercial surrogacy and its implications. Session 157. New perspectives on women’s reproductive choices, 1-18. San Diego: Population Association of America 2015 Annual Meet. http://paa2015.princeton.edu/uploads/152404.
Pande, A. 2010. Commercial surrogacy in India: Manufacturing a perfect mother-worker. Chicago Journals 35(4): 969–992.
Posner, R. 1989. The ethics and economics of enforcing contracts of surrogate motherhood. The Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy. 5(21):21–31. http://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/journal_articles.
Radin, M.J. 1987. Market-inalienability. Harvard Law Review 100(8): 1849–1937. CrossRef
Smerdon, U.R. 2008. Crossing bodies crossing borders: International surrogacy between the United States and India. Cumberland Law Review 39(1): 15–85.
The National Health and Medical Research Council. 2007. Ethical guidelines on the use of assisted reproductive technology in clinical practice and research Government of Australia. https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/e78.pdf. Accessed: 19 March 2014.
Vora, K. 2013. Potential, risk, and return in transnational Indian gestational surrogacy. In Potentiality and humanness: Revisiting the anthropological object in contemporary biomedicine. Current Anthropology. The University of Chicago Press. 54(S7):S97–S106.
- Optimal Organization of Surrogacy Contracts and Underinvestment
- Springer India
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta