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Über dieses Buch

This volume reproduces some important contributions to regional and urban economics made by Noboru Sakashita - one of the lead­ ing scholars in this field. Since graduation from the University of Tokyo, Noboru Sakashita has been teaching and advancing the re­ search at Hokkaido University, Tohoku University, Osaka University and the' University of Tsukuba. The career of Noboru Sakashita as a regional and urban econo­ mist started in 1965 when he visited the University of Pennsylvania's Regional Science Department as a Fulbright scholar. While staying there, he concentrated on research on regional science in a stimula­ tive atmosphere surrounded by Walter Isard, the founder of Region­ al Science, and Isard's young colleagues, all of who were full of pas­ sion for this newborn research field. The first two papers in this vo­ lume were written during his stay at the University of Pennsylvania. Since returning to Japan, he has been carrying out his own research activities as well as fostering many promising disciplines in the field of regional and urban economics. Of course, Noboru Sakashita is a world renowned famous scholar, presenting many influential papers at World Congress, North American and European Meetings of the Regional Science Association, and other conferences, and publishing many articles in respected journals. He was elected president of the Regional Science Association International for 1987-88, and served as the first president of the Applied Regional Science Conference from 1987 to 1989.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

[1]. Regional Allocation of Public Investment

Abstract
In many countries, the allocation of public funds among regions to promote the social capital formation in each regional unit is becoming one of the most important decisions by the central government. In spite of the significance of this problem, however, there is scarcely any definite guiding principle for the efficient regional allocation of public investment even in a theoretical sense. The causes of this may be explained as follows.
Noboru Sakashita

[2]. Production Function, Demand Function and Location Theory of the Firm

Abstract
One of the conclusions of Moses’ 1958 article on location theory of the firm was that: “… the optimum location is seen finally to depend on the following factors: base prices on inputs; transportation rates on inputs and on the final product; the geographic positions of materials and markets; the production function; the demand function.”1
Noboru Sakashita

[3]. On a Simple Model of Dynamic Fiscal Policy

Abstract
In Chapter 5 of his book [5], Hirschman developed a very attractive discussion on the strategy of investment choices in underdeveloped areas. In replacement of the elaborate but hardly applicable “social marginal productivity (SMP)” investment criteria in the past,1) he proposed a thory of “efficient sequence” among different investment programs particularly in relation to the selection between investments in Social Overhead Capital and in Directly Productive Activities. For the purpose of practical application, however, we need to make the concept of the efficient sequence itself much more palpable without losing the essence of his unique thinking.
Noboru Sakashita

[4]. National Growth and Regional Income Inequality: A Consistent Model

Abstract
In a Recent Volume of this Review, Fukuchi and Nobukuni have developed an interesting discussion on the trade-off relation between national growth and regional income equality for the Japanese economy [2]. Unfortunately, however, their theoretical framework contains some conceptual difficulties which may be itemized as follows:
(I)
Question on the admissiblity of the approximation procedure adopted for the deduction of stability condition, which has deprived their stability proof of the global character,
 
(II)
Question on the use of absolute variance of the per capita output as the index of regional income inequality,
 
(III)
Inconsistency between the sum of regional increments of labor or capital and the national increment of them in the model,2
 
(IV)
Question on the exogenous treatment of the overall growth rate of capital which should be an endogenous variable of the system.3
 
Noboru Sakashita, Osamu Kamoike

[5]. National Growth and Regional Income Inequality: Further Results

Abstract
An econometric model of interregional growth originated by Fukuchi and Nobukuni [1] has been criticized and revised in a recent paper by the present authors with some interesting conclusions. (See Sakashita and Kamoike [2]). In this note, additional results which have been obtained with regard to our interregional growth model are reported. We use the same notation as Fukuchi-Nobukuni [1] and Saka-shita-Kamoike [2].
Noboru Sakashita, Osamu Kamoike

[6]. Distributional Bias in the Welfare Pricing of Public Transport Service

Abstract
Recently the problem of transit pricing has taken the form of an operational programming model. One can see this tendency by comparing the clear-cut discussions by Marchand (1968) or Sherman (1971) with the rather clumsy treatment of a similar subject by Rees (1968). In particular Sherman analyzed the pricing problem between two urban transit modes private automobiles and public buses—which were mutually substitutable in consumption and also mutually interdependent in production through congestion effect. His model is fairly general and can deal equally well with the situations of peak traffic or off-peak traffic. As a programming model, it includes the aspect of income redistribution by one set of instrumental variables, so that it can be considered as an attempt at synthesizing the problems of welfare pricing and compensatory income redistribution.
N. Sakashita

[7]. Urban growth analysis in postwar Japan: fact findings on the distribution of urban population

Abstract
This paper is an excerpt from a book written by three authors, Sakashita, Asano, and Irie (1979), in which a multidimensional analysis of the urban growth in postwar Japan has been made. After a brief introduction, an analysis that involves the use of several kinds of Hoover indices for the set of all Japanese cities over the period 1955–1975 is made, with a view to demonstrating the strong tendency of the population to concentrate in the metropolitan area. Application of the theoretical lognormal and Pareto distributions is then discussed. The paper closes with a theoretical consideration that coordinates the observations presented.
N. Sakashita

[8]. Resolution of Mutual Loss Conflict Induced by the Embargo Threat

Abstract
The response by resource-importing countries to the embargo threat of resource-exporting countries, which takes the form of a precautionary cutback of the quantity imported or of additional storage of imported resources, was, for example, analyzed by Nordhaus (1974), and Tolley and Wilman (1977). But neither article considered the impact of reduced imports on the world market, which might suppress the international equilibrium price of the resource in question. This impact will hurt the trading position of exporting countries, who as a group are forced to adopt monopolistic behavior in order to maintain the level of international price. This behavior will induce further contraction of that resource on the world trade market.
Noboru Sakashita

[9]. Evaluation of regional development policy—an alternative approach

Abstract
As a theoretical basis for the evaluation of regional development policies which include capital subsidy in the form of low interest rate financing, we have the famous Boris’s criteria. Borts’s criteria, however, presuppose the existence of an immobile labor force as an idle resource in a specific region, and this assumption makes the criteria practically inapplicable to the situation of present-day Japan, where the interregional mobility of the labor force is extremely high. The only way to justify the meaningfulness of regional development policies which use subsidy in Japan is to take the nationwide dispersion of population as a supreme social-policy objective and to evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness of alternative economic policies instead of using the cost - benefit approach of Borts’s criteria. In the present paper, different intervention policies to attain a desired distribution of population between two regions are compared from the point of view of social cost as well as from that of the amount of subsidy (or tax) needed.
N. Sakashita

[10]. Location quotients, export industries and shift-share analysis

Abstract
Identification of export industries and forecasting growth potentials of those industries for a specific region are the most important procedures in the empirical analysis of a regional economy. If we have sufficient data of input-output relations as in the case of quite a number of regions (states) in Japan, the identification of export industries is not a formidable task at all. However if we turn to the smaller units of regions, e.g. cities or towns, such data become out of our reach even for the data-conscious municipalities in Japan.
N. Sakashita

[11]. Optimum Location of Public Facilities Under the Influence of the Land Market

Abstract
This paper discusses the problem of the optimal location of public facility(ies) in a long narrow city, especially taking into consideration the externality-internalizing effect of the land market. It shows a systematic approach to dealing with the land market mechanism in first a one-facility and then a two-facility case. The analysis assures the importance of posing the location-optimizing problem even under the influence of the land market.
Noboru Sakashita

[12]. Presidential Address: Spatial Interdependence and Externalities

Abstract
Pecuniary externalities in a two-region economy are examined from several aspects. The analysis includes fiscal externality, inefficiency of free migration, and inefficiency of autarky non-wage income sharing. Measures to restore the productive efficiency that is lacking in the multiregion economy with local public goods are discussed. Finally, a new aspect of the interregional allocation of residential activities is analyzed as the economics of multi-habitation.
Noboru Sakashita

[13]. Optimal Utilization of the Central Business District with Economy and Diseconomy of Agglomeration

Abstract
The central business district (CBD) of big cities like Tokyo is constantly suffering from congestion phenomenon for the consumption of services generated by the urban infrastructures (transport, communication, water, sewage, and so on). A typical example is dangerously crowded peak-time commuting trips into the CBD of Tokyo.
Noboru Sakashita

[14]. Economics of Multi-Habitation

Abstract
p ]In the Fourth Nation-wide Comprehensive Regional Development Plan worked out by the Japanese government in 1987, there were a concept and policy recommendation of “multi-habitation”.1 People were encouraged to possess the second residence apart from their original residence partly because it may activate local areas which were losing their population as a consequence of reconcentration of population and economic activities to the Tokyo Metropolitan Area in 1980s. The aim of the present paper is to explore rationale of this multi-habitation policy from the viewpoint of regional economic theory.
Noboru Sakashita

[15]. An economic theory of urban growth control

Abstract
Economic theory of urban growth controls by Engle et al. (Journal of Urban Economics, 1992, 32, 269–283) is extended to the direction of endogenous residents’ utility in a closed two-city economy. It is shown that the growth control policy is justified strictly only in the case in which there exist some size-related externalities in the process of urban growth. It is also shown that if the growth control policy is needed anyway, it is necessary to have an intervening policy concerning the population allocation among cities even before growth.
Noboru Sakashita
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