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Oracle Exadata Recipes takes an example-based, problem/solution approach in showing how to size, install, configure, manage, monitor, optimize, and migrate Oracle database workloads on and to the Oracle Exadata Database Machine. Whether you’re an Oracle Database administrator, Unix/Linux administrator, storage administrator, network administrator, or Oracle developer, Oracle Exadata Recipes provides effective and proven solutions to accomplish a wide variety of tasks on the Exadata Database Machine. You can feel confident using the reliable solutions that are demonstrated in this book in your enterprise Exadata environment.

Managing Oracle Exadata is unlike managing a traditional Oracle database. Oracle’s Exadata Database Machine is a pre-configured engineered system comprised of hardware and software, built to deliver extreme performance for Oracle Database workloads. Exadata delivers extreme performance by offering an optimally balanced hardware infrastructure with fast components at each layer of the engineered technology stack, as well as a unique set of Oracle software features designed to leverage the high-performing hardware infrastructure by reducing I/O demands. Let Oracle Exadata Recipes help you translate your existing Oracle Database knowledge into the exciting new growth area that is Oracle Exadata.

Helps extend your Oracle Database skillset to the fast-growing, Exadata platform Presents information on managing Exadata in a helpful, example-based format Clearly explains unique Exadata software and hardware features

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Exadata Architecture

Frontmatter

CHAPTER 1. Exadata Hardware

Abstract
The Exadata Database Machine is a pre-configured, fault-tolerant, high-performing hardware platform built using industry-standard Oracle hardware. The Exadata hardware architecture consists primarily of a compute grid, a storage grid, and a network grid. Since 2010, the majority of Exadata customers deployed one of the four Exadata X2 models, which are comprised of Oracle Sun Fire X4170 M2 servers in the compute grid and Sun Fire X4270-M2 servers running on the storage grid. During Oracle Open World 2012, Oracle released the Exadata X3-2 and X3-8 In Memory Database Machines, which are built using Oracle X3-2 servers on the compute and storage grid. In both cases, Oracle runs Oracle Enterprise Linux or Solaris 11 Express on the compute grid and Oracle Linux combined with unique Exadata storage server software on the storage grid. The network grid is built with multiple high-speed, high-bandwidth InfiniBand switches.
John Clarke

CHAPTER 2. Exadata Software

Abstract
Exadata’s fast, balanced hardware configuration provides an Oracle infrastructure capable of delivering high performance for Oracle databases, but the hardware is only part of the equation. To truly deliver extreme performance, Oracle has designed and deployed several key software solutions inside Exadata, each of whose primary goal is to either reduce the demand for I/O resources or boost the speed of I/O operations. Oracle’s performance goal with Exadata was to eliminate I/O as the bottleneck for database operations. Oracle has been successful in meeting this goal by not only leveraging performance capabilities with Oracle 11gR2 database, grid infrastructure, and Oracle ASM, but also by developing InfiniBand-aware I/O communication protocols into the Oracle software stack that fundamentally changes how Oracle performs physical I/O. Each of these Exadata software features works without application code modification and, under the right conditions, each of these can be used to deliver extreme performance.
John Clarke

CHAPTER 3. How Oracle Works on Exadata

Abstract
The unique Exadata software presented in Chapter 2 is what enables Exadata to deliver unparalleled database performance. This software’s features are what sets Exadata apart from non-Exadata platforms; Oracle has released this software only on the Exadata Database Machine. Experienced Oracle database administrators, Unix/Linux administrators, and storage administrators may be familiar with how Oracle performs I/O. With Exadata, Oracle has designed a new I/O communications protocol, changing how I/O is translated from the database instance to the operating system on which Oracle runs, over the storage interconnect, and to the storage servers.
John Clarke

Preparing for Exadata

Frontmatter

CHAPTER 4. Workload Qualification

Abstract
Is Exadata the right database platform for every Oracle database, or does Exadata only make sense for certain kinds of Oracle databases? Does it shine with data warehouses but provide limited benefit for online transaction processing databases? Most importantly, is Oracle Exadata the right fit for your database workload?
John Clarke

CHAPTER 5. Sizing Exadata

Abstract
Prior to making an Exadata investment and periodically after the investment, especially in cases where databases are consolidated on Exadata, it is vital to perform a proper capacity-planning exercise. In our opinion, capacity planning for Oracle databases and Oracle workloads should include the following analysis:
  • Processor requirements planning
  • Oracle database server memory and SGA planning
  • Network planning
  • Disk IOPs planning
  • Disk data bandwidth
  • Storage capacity planning
  • Storage capacity organic growth planning
  • Oracle ASM disk group redundancy planning
  • Disaster recovery planning
  • Backup planning
  • Fast Recovery Area sizing and planning
John Clarke

CHAPTER 6. Preparing for Exadata

Abstract
Before you receive your Exadata Database Machine, several important tasks are required to ensure a successful installation.
John Clarke

Exadata Administration

Frontmatter

CHAPTER 7. Administration and Diagnostics Utilities

Abstract
Exadata provides several interfaces and utilities to help access, monitor, and generate diagnostics for Exadata hardware components. In this chapter, we will present and provide usage details for many of the more common administration tasks and utilities than an Exadata Database Machine administrator (DMA) will perform.
John Clarke

CHAPTER 8. Backup and Recovery

Abstract
As an Exadata Database Machine administrator (DMA), it is important to be able to back up your databases and software and, ultimately, be able to recover failed components in the event of failure. Since the Exadata Database Machine consists of multiple servers of different types as well as Oracle databases, a strong, tested, backup strategy is vital to administering Exadata.
John Clarke

CHAPTER 9. Storage Administration

Abstract
Understanding Exadata Storage Server architecture is one of the more important tasks for an Exadata administrator, and an end-to-end knowledge of how storage “works” on Exadata is of critical importance. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 provided the foundation for the Exadata Storage Grid, and in this chapter, we’ll cover some of the common administration tasks as they relate to Exadata storage.
John Clarke

CHAPTER 10. Network Administration

Abstract
Exadata’s compute nodes consist of a management network, a client access network, an InfiniBand network used for both the storage and Oracle RAC cluster interconnect, and an optional additional network. Exadata’s storage cells are deployed with a similar management network as well as the InfiniBand storage network.
John Clarke

CHAPTER 11. Patching and Upgrades

Abstract
As Exadata is engineered as a complete and integrated system, Oracle periodically releases certified Exadata patches to facilitate patch and upgrade management on Exadata. Similar to other Oracle-engineered systems (and unlike traditional, disparate vendor solutions), Oracle’s Exadata patches are pre-tested sets of patches designed to applied in a non-disruptive, rolling fashion and yield a comprehensive, validated end result. The goal of the Exadata patching is to remove uncertainty and non-compliance; for example, an Exadata DMA wouldn’t download “one-off” patches for a database tier or storage server firmware. Exadata patches are intended to be all encompassing and typically include fixes for both the storage servers and compute servers, and optionally InfiniBand switches. In the real world, patching Exadata is typically one of the chief concerns of the Exadata administrator. The patches have a high likelihood of “touching everything,” so properly planning and executing patch application is paramount to the availability of Exadata.
John Clarke

CHAPTER 12. Security

Abstract
When you install your Exadata Database Machine, there are a number of security-related configurations performed. In your configuration worksheet, you specified an Oracle RDBMS software owner and Grid Infrastructure software owner. By default, Oracle ACS typically installs a single Grid Infrastructure and a single, separate Oracle RDBMS Oracle Home on each compute node, each owned by the Linux account specified in the configuration worksheet. The operating system account that owns the Grid Infrastructure binaries can be the same account as the Oracle RDBMS software owner, but, in most cases, organizations elect to use separate accounts.
John Clarke

Monitoring Exadata

Frontmatter

CHAPTER 13. Monitoring Exadata Storage Cells

Abstract
Each Exadata storage cell can be monitored, configured, and managed using the CellCLI command line interface. With CellCLI, you can monitor active cell server requests, report on a wide range of storage cell metrics, monitor alert conditions, and monitor each of the storage cell objects including the cell itself, cell disks, grid disks, I/O Resource Management, as well as Flash Cache, Flash Logging, and your InfiniBand interconnect. Additionally, Exadata provides the ability to set and modify various metric and alert thresholds.
John Clarke

CHAPTER 14. Host and Database Performance Monitoring

Abstract
Performance monitoring for databases, compute nodes, and storage cells in an Exadata Database Machine can be performed using a number of available operating system tools, Oracle scripts, and Oracle Enterprise Manager. Exadata’s compute nodes run either Oracle Linux or Solaris 11 Express, and Exadata Storage Servers run Oracle Linux. As such, both traditional Linux and Solaris performance-monitoring tools are available to the Exadata DMA to monitor server performance. Additionally, Exadata runs the Oracle 11gR2 database and is capable of being integrated with Oracle Enterprise Manager, so an Exadata DMA’s traditional performance monitoring tools will likely be the same as the tools, software, and utilities used in a non-Exadata environment.
John Clarke

Exadata Software

Frontmatter

CHAPTER 15. Smart Scan and Cell Offload

Abstract
Smart Scan is probably the most important performance component in Exadata’s software offering in terms of delivering extreme performance. Smart Scan is a cell offload feature whose goal is to offload processing to storage cells instead of performing block I/O requests in the database tier. The goal of Smart Scan processing is to do all the “heavy lifting”, I/O-wise, in the storage cell and only send back data to the compute nodes that is actually needed and requested. This reduces interconnect traffic between the storage grid and database tier, reduces the clutter in the database buffer cache, improves query performance, and improves concurrency for multiple full-scan types of queries happening at once. With smart scan processing, row filtering, column filtering, some join processing, and other functions are performed in the Exadata cells.
John Clarke

CHAPTER 16. Hybrid Columnar Compression

Abstract
Exadata Hybrid Columnar Compression, or HCC, is a type of segment compression first made available by Oracle on the Exadata Database Machine. HCC is designed to provide the highest levels of database segment compression.
John Clarke

CHAPTER 17. I/O Resource Management and Instance Caging

Abstract
I/O Resource Management (IORM) provides a means to govern I/O from different workloads in the Exadata Database Machine. Database consolidation is a key driver to customer adoption of Exadata, and consolidation means that multiple databases and applications will typically share Exadata storage. Different databases in a shared storage grid typically have different I/O performance requirements, and one of the common challenges with shared storage infrastructures, in general, is that of competing I/O workloads. Non-Exadata Oracle environments historically have attempted to address this challenge by over-provisioning storage, but this can become expensive and yield performance behavior that it is difficult to measure and predict.
John Clarke

CHAPTER 18. Smart Flash Cache and Smart Flash Logging

Abstract
Smart Flash Cache and Smart Flash Logging make the Exadata Database Machine the first flash-optimized Oracle database platform by providing intelligent caching algorithms to cache “appropriate” data in flash-based storage. Exadata’s use of flash storage is named “smart” due to the intelligence of Oracle’s caching algorithms. The Exadata storage cell software automatically and intelligently determines which data to cache on the storage cell flash cards based on the nature of the data being requested. This typically includes frequently accessed data and index blocks, control file reads and writes, file header blocks, and any object the Exadata DMA chooses to cache with use of the flash-based KEEP clause.
John Clarke

CHAPTER 19. Storage Indexes

Abstract
Storage indexes are a feature unique to Exadata. A storage index is a memory-based structure that reduces the amount of physical I/O required by the cell when accessing data via Exadata Smart Scan. A storage index tracks the minimum and maximum values retrieved based on your application’s WHERE clause predicates and builds storage indexes based on usage.
John Clarke

Post Implementation Tasks

Frontmatter

CHAPTER 20. Post-Installation Monitoring Tasks

Abstract
Successfully administering, monitoring, and managing Exadata often requires use of interfaces, tools, and utilities delivered with Exadata and other Oracle software. In this chapter, we will provide solutions for performing additional, optional post-installation tasks to improve the manageability and monitoring capabilities of your Exadata Database Machine.
John Clarke

CHAPTER 21. Post-Install Database Tasks

Abstract
In this chapter, we will demonstrate optional post-installation Exadata database tasks that can be performed by the Exadata Database Machine administrator to exploit Exadata functionality, ready the database machine for use, or enable additional administrator activities.
John Clarke

Backmatter

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