Monitoring can be performed in many ways, and it is known that the Member States of the European Union (EU) use different approaches in monitoring water quality. In 1993, the project “Monitoring Water Quality in the Future” was initiated in order to make recommendations to the EU concerning optimization of design and organization of monitoring activities in the European Union. In the framework of this project, five studies were completed in 1995, which reviewed methods and strategies for monitoring of water quality, including emphasis on organizational aspects of monitoring on a European scale.The study identified certain widespread problems with the existing state of monitoring, which will only increase in the future. In general terms, these problems concern: (1) the type of information gained from monitoring; (2) the high cost of monitoring, and (3) the harmonization of monitoring throughout the Member States. Regarding the data harmonization, it was recognized that differences in existing monitoring practices create problems when transboundary issues arise. Rivers and ecosystems do not respect human boundaries between local governments or countries; thus, integrated watershed management is required to solve the problems in water management. This creates an increasing need for transboundary monitoring programs and unbiased monitoring information on a European-wide scale. Comparability and availability of data is a prerequisite. The organization of environmental monitoring activities that lead to effective and efficient information generation and management are presented in the following.
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- Organizational Aspects of Environmental Monitoring and Information Management
M. T. Villars
- Springer Netherlands