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This book argues that “organizing” is a broader term than managing, as it entails understanding how people and machines interact with each other; how resources, data, goods are exchanged in complex and intertwined value chains; and how lines of action and activities can be articulated using flexible protocols and often ad-hoc processes in situated practices of use and production.
The book presents a collection of research papers shedding new light on these phenomena and related practices from both academic and professional perspectives. Given the plurality of views that it offers, the book makes a relevant contribution to the understanding and appreciation of the complexity of the digital world at various levels of granularity. It focuses on how individuals, communities and the coopetitive societies of our new, global and hyperconnected world produce value and pursue their objectives and ideals in mutually dependent ways. The content of the book is based on a selection of the best papers - original double-blind peer-reviewed contributions - presented at the annual conference of the Italian chapter of the AIS, which was held in Milan, Italy in October 2017.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Organizing for the Digital World: An Overview of Current IT Solutions to Support Individuals, Communities and Societies

This book collects some of the best contributions to the 14th conference of the Italian Chapter of AIS (ItAIS), which was held at the University of Milano-Bicocca, in Milano, on October the 6th and the 7th. ItAIS is an established forum for scholars, researchers and practitioners involved in the Information Systems (IS) field and akin scholarly disciplines where both Italian researchers and scholars from all over the world gather to present and discuss the most important trends in their domain of studies and applications. More precisely, this books collects the revised and extended version of the papers that were selected for their contribution to the more technological and IT-oriented side of the broader conference theme, which was: “Organizing for Digital Economy: societies, communities and individuals”. This main theme, which this book inflects along the IT dimension, acknowledges the opportunity, as well as the responsibility, of the researchers and practitioners involved in the IS community to conceive, develop and present technologies, in the broadest sense of this term (and hence including also infrastructures, platforms, classification schemas, organizational constructs, protocols, architectures, tools), to enable, support and foster the fluid organization of the socio-economic context in which organizations, communities and individuals work, act and interact.
Federico Cabitza, Massimo Magni, Carlo Batini

Automation as Management of Paradoxical Tensions: The Role of Industrial Engineering

In this paper, we explored the introduction of an automated parcel sorting system in a major company in the logistic and parcel delivery industry. Adopting a Grounded Theory approach, we carried out a study that highlighted profound and unexpected organizational implications and management challenges connected to the introduction of the new technology. Our analysis revealed the key role of the Industrial Engineering function as a change agent in devising and managing the introduction of the automated system. In particular, Industrial Engineering actually managed the organizational change by determining the right balance between several opposite dimensions (manual vs. automated; planned vs. emergent; local vs. global). Handling these tensions with a holistic approach may constitute a crucial factor for the change program effectiveness. Contrasting our findings with extant literature, we found resonance with latest works on ambidexterity, interpreted as a firm’s ability to manage tensions. The resulting outcome is a substantive grounded theory of ambidexterity in an automation enhancement program.
Francesco Virili, Cristiano Ghiringhelli

Visualizing Big Data: The Impact on Sense-Making and Decision-Making

Firms living in a digital disrupting world should continuously understand variables from inside and outside the organization and consequently act efficiently and effectively. This study aims at investigating the role of innovative digital tools to manipulate big data in transforming managers and executives activities, in particular their sense-making (how they interpret data) and decision-making (who is using data and to what extent). A qualitative methodology has been selected to explore how organizations use Business Intelligence (BI)/Data Visualization (DV) tools. A multiple case study approach has been adopted and interviews have been carried in companies belonging to different industries, to investigate how the decision-making process has changed and which benefits and issues have emerged from the use of BI/DV tools. Data collected have been analyzed using the most recent version of Nvivo and within-case and cross-cases analysis have been carried out. The paper suggests four types of roles that BI/DV tools can play, related to a set of organizational characteristics (such as innovation rate of the firm or level of customization of the solution) and provides guidelines for future adoption of these tools.
Luca Cremona, Aurelio Ravarini, Jan Vom Brocke

XBRL Implementation in the European Union: Exploring Preparers’ Points of View

The wide diffusion of XBRL will reach another milestone with the mandatory transition to iXBRL in the European Union. This process involves all listed companies, as ESMA requires iXBRL for companies issuing IFRS consolidated financial statements from 1st January 2020. This paper explores the points of view of preparers, key subjects in identifying the potential drawbacks of XBRL adoption since they are directly involved in the transition. We analyse letters responding to the ESMA 2015 consultation paper and interpret them in the light of previous literature on the topic, also considering the positions expressed by other respondents’ categories. This study contributes to XBRL literature by shedding light on preparers’ positions before the mandatory transition. Additionally, it stresses the gap existing between subjects bearing implementation costs of a communication technology and its end users. We provide insights useful to European policy-makers to improve the process of transition to XBRL. Indeed, findings remark the trade-off between the need for innovation and the necessity to reduce administrative burdens to enhance the competitiveness of European companies. Our analysis could be of interest also for policy-makers of other jurisdictions considering XBRL adoption as well as for companies and consulting firms supporting them in the transition.
Costanza Di Fabio, Elisa Roncagliolo, Francesco Avallone, Paola Ramassa

Information Security Policies in Organizations

How Convention Theory Can Serve as a Framework to Inform Information Security Research and HR Practice
The increased use of information technology throughout organizations led to a surge in concern for information security. Information security standards guide information security policy implementation, but the challenge of ensuring compliance is still a major issue, despite extensive information security research. The lack of versatility in theoretical approaches spurred calls for sociological approaches to contribute to the literature, but they were only partly addressed. The proposed framework of convention theory can serve as a fruitful approach by providing a holistic perspective and a strong theoretical foundation. The use of human resource information systems (HRIS) und electronic human resource management (e-HRM) extends the concern for information security to human resource (HR) practices and data privacy is no longer an issue solely for external stakeholders but for employees alike. At the same time, the role of HR practices in contributing to compliance with information security policies seems to be underestimated in existing literature. This paper introduces main concepts of a convention theory-based framework and illustrates implications for information security research and suggests that HR practices can contribute to ensuring information security in organizations.
Dominik Zellhofer

E2mC: Improving Rapid Mapping with Social Network Information

E2mC aims to demonstrate the technical and operational feasibility of the integration of social media analysis and crowdsourced information within both the Rapid Mapping and Early Warning Components of Copernicus Emergency Management Service (EMS). Copernicus is a European Commission programme developing information services based on satellite earth observation. A fundamental innovation with E2mC is to combine the automated analysis of social media information with crowdsourcing, with the general goal of improving the quality and dependability of the information provided to professional users within the Copernicus network. The automated analyses will focus on multimedia information (mainly pictures), which is most useful for rapid mapping purposes. A fundamental challenge to enable the effective use of multimedia information is geolocation. The paper presents a methodology to extract, integrate and geolocate information from social media and leverage the crowd to clean, validate and complement this information. Preliminary results from testing the methodology are presented based on the analysis of tweets on the earthquake that struck Central Italy in August 2016.
Jose Luis Fernandez-Marquez, Chiara Francalanci, Sharada Mohanty, Rosy Mondardini, Barbara Pernici, Gabriele Scalia

Potential Difficulties During Investigations Due to Solid State Drive (SSD) Technology

This paper discusses potential complications for Forensic Investigations due to the spread of Solid State Disc (SSD) technologies and influence of socio-technical factors. The discussion is drawing upon a study based on interviews with an experienced Forensic Investigator from Hampshire Constabularies Hi-Tech Crime Unit (HTCU), located in the United Kingdom. The goal of this study was to identify examples of what experienced forensic investigators believe the biggest drawbacks with examining SSDs are. Background case studies have been made in assistance to identify specific characteristics and features that may impact forensic investigations. Key characteristics include that SSD features may pose a threat as potential evidence can be rendered inaccessible; possibly impacting the case or project negatively. The main themes discussed in this paper are related to: Hardware-based encryption, Garbage Collection (GC), the TRIM command, Controller technology, SSD Interfaces, and SSD User needs. Socio-technical influences were acknowledged during the interviews with the Investigator, showing uncertainty to alternative Forensic methods. These themes have been scrutinized to identify how they impact and limit investigations.
James Cox, Peter Bednar

AIS and MCS for Port Community Systems: An Empirical Analysis from Italy

This study investigates the role of Accounting Information Systems (AIS) and Management Control Systems (MCS) in the information management within seaports when an information technology platform has been adopted, such as the Port Community Systems (PCSs). We conducted a literature review on PCSs and on how AIS and MCS could contribute to the platform in order to support the decision-making processes of port players, like forwarder and shipping agents. Starting from previous studies focused on Italian seaports, by using the case study methodology, we collected data through semi-structured interviews to managers of the selected seaport. Indeed, we have outlined the usefulness in adopting AIS and MCS for PCSs in the forwarder and shipping agents perspective.
Assunta Di Vaio, Luisa Varriale, Federico Alvino

Securing National e-ID Infrastructures: Tor Networks as a Source of Threats

Securing national electronic identification (e-ID) systems requires an in depth understanding of the associated threats. The trade of identity related artefacts in the darknet facilitates illegal activities such as identity theft in both physical and virtual worlds. This paper reports the findings of an exploratory analysis of identity trading in the darknet. We capture the key features of three major markets of fake IDs in Tor networks, and apply attack-defense trees to show how the security of an e-ID infrastructure is affected by this phenomenon.
Paolo Spagnoletti, Gianluigi Me, Federica Ceci, Andrea Prencipe

A Giant with Feet of Clay: On the Validity of the Data that Feed Machine Learning in Medicine

This paper considers the use of machine learning in medicine by focusing on the main problem that it has been aimed at solving or at least minimizing: uncertainty. However, we point out how uncertainty is so ingrained in medicine that it biases also the representation of clinical phenomena, that is the very input of this class of computational models, thus undermining the clinical significance of their output. Recognizing this can motivate researchers to pursue different ways to assess the value of these decision aids, as well as alternative techniques that do not “sweep uncertainty under the rug” within an objectivist fiction (which doctors can come up by trusting).
Federico Cabitza, Davide Ciucci, Raffaele Rasoini

Towards the Development of an Agile Marketing Capability

This study aims to explore the key theoretical foundations for the development of an Agile Marketing Capability (AMC) framework, through the performance of an in-depth literature review on IT and dynamic marketing capabilities. Our framework enables us to (1) advance the understanding of how IT and dynamic marketing capabilities evolve into agile marketing capabilities (2) unpack the distinctive and ongoing processes and features through which the Agile Marketing capabilities are accomplished (3) define the key propositions for a new marketing capability: the Agile Marketing Capability. This work may represent a useful framework for managers and decision makers to better understand the competitive advantages which could derive from the employment of agile marketing capabilities in order to improve their skills in challenging the continuous changes in market and customers’ needs.
Ludovica Moi, Francesca Cabiddu, Moreno Frau

Stepping on the Cracks—Transcending the Certainties of Big Data Analytics

Every aspect of modern life is dominated by decision-making and the availability of data. We constantly access, process and evaluate data as we navigate complex and uncertain problem spaces. Communication and Information Technologies (ICTs) have developed to a point where it is possible for very large data sets, measured in Exabyte, to be stored across many servers and gathered by many different people and organizations, for multiple purposes. At the same time, research into Artificial Intelligence has progressed to a point where human decision-making can be supported, or even replaced, by intelligent agents and robotics. We recognize that many routine jobs that were once carried out by people can now be done faster and more flexibly using robotics, and software robotics has now moved beyond the factory and into administrative processes. The possibilities for such systems are enormous and can deliver many benefits to business, governments and ordinary citizens. However, there is also a downside to be considered. Is there still a role for human experience and intuition? How can we ensure that the benefits of analytics and AI continue to outweigh threats? How should we approach management of BI and AI on an on-going basis? This paper advocates an open systems approach in which B&AI may be incorporated with tools that support complex methods of inquiry.
Peter M. Bednar, Christine Welch

Apulian Mobility Insight: A Data Management Framework for Analyzing QoS in Smart Mobility

Modern urban infrastructures will depend heavily on local transportation services in the near future in order to reduce the number of circulating private vehicles and reduce air and noise pollution. Moreover, requirements and expectations from policy makers, commuters and service operators are increasing the pressure on how local transportation services need to be managed properly. Transportation services should be redesigned by aiming at sustainability and systemic approaches for improving both the offered and perceived Quality of Service (QoS). In this research work, we have considered several QoS flavors, each depending on a specific perspective (i.e., service providers, service customers, additional stakeholders) in order to define a modelling approach suitable to a systemic analysis of QoS for smart mobility and transportation scenarios. The designed architecture has been implemented as a framework for the Apulian Mobility Insight (i.e., the platform dedicated to QoS analyses). A technical and methodological validation has been performed with the help of the Apulia administrative Region, in Southern Italy.
Antonella Longo, Marco Zappatore

Ethic Values for Sharing Communities

The essence of sharing platforms and their role in the social context is related not only to technology, but especially to the way it is being used today. Ethics, social responsibility and sustainability have become part of this process of development and they stimulate the entrepreneurial mainspring of new market models, that are in evolution. In crowdfunding the “return investment expectancy” plays a key role also in the selection process of innovative ideas, where credibility becomes an essential asset for the business, as well as the need to demonstrate transparency, integrity and responsible governance as priorities. Recently, these platforms are adopting voluntary certification systems, the B Corp certification, to reconcile the need to conduct business under the ethics aspect and raise awareness of stakeholders to adopt guiding values for business, consumption, or the use of services. Our goal is to investigate the role of “ethics”, conducted by the “B Corp” Standard Certification System, on sharing platforms. In particular we analyze how the Kickstarter Platform manages the ethical values of B Corp certification. The areas we analyze are: the community, governance, workers, the environment and customers. The closing chapter highlights the theoretical implications and limits of the analysis.
Stefano Poponi, Enrico Maria Mosconi, Alessandro Ruggieri, Michelangelo Arezzo di Trifiletti

Drift of a Corporate Social Media: The Design and Outcomes of a Longitudinal Study

The paper reports on two different adoption experiences of an in-house Enterprise Social Media (ESM), at the local and global level in a big company. It compares the deployment strategies and their impact on the users appropriation of the ESM in the two settings. Our observations let emerge how the local level design strategy aimed to link the initiative to concrete aspects of working practices and to their expected evolution. This met the companies goals, improved users work effectiveness, and led to a quite successful appropriation. The same success was not achieved at the global level, where a quite different strategy drove the initiative on a slippery slope towards a drift from success. The paper distills lessons that can shed light on how an ESM should be introduced within large organizations by taking care of different local conditions, consolidated practices and legacy technologies.
Carla Simone, Angela Locoro, Federico Cabitza

Changing Institutionalized Practices When Implementing a Mandated Technology

In knowledge intensive organizations—such as Information Technology (IT) companies or consultancy firms—knowledge sharing processes and collaboration represent key success factors for competing in a dynamic business environment. In small firms knowledge sharing and collaboration are facilitated by the physical proximity of the R&D or business development specialists. In large organizations, characterized by distributed settings, to speed up innovation and time-to-market, managers need to find ways to enable knowledge sharing and collaboration among individuals and teams located in different geographical areas. Managers have a choice of different strategies and IT tools to support employee collaboration. Through the institutional theory lens, the objective of this research is to better understand the challenges of selecting and using collaborative IT tools in a geographically distributed setting. To this end, we have collected data via a case study of a large IT organization that introduced a centralized mandated IT tool aimed at enabling collaboration among employees working in a distributed setting and belonging to different departments and functions. Our preliminary findings show that institutionalized practices, organizational silos as well as lack of time and incentives compromised the effective use of the mandated IT tool.
Lapo Mola, Renata Kaminska, Andrea Carugati

Understanding the Contribution and Challenges of Using Soft Systems Methodology to Facilitate Cultural Change: A Case Study in the Public Sector

Collaboration between professional agencies in the public sector is essential to provide seamless, high quality services to citizens. Inter-agency working is often hindered by a prevalent silo culture, reinforced by resource-focused funding mechanisms. Checkland’s Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) aims to facilitate organizational improvement or change through an organizational learning approach. In this study, SSM was used to help facilitate a move towards partnership working in the public sector. Interview data was collected from senior members of 16 professional agencies, four months after completing the SSM activity to reflect on the experience. The interviews were then repeated 12 months later in order to facilitate reflection on the use, role and impact of SSM beyond any immediate effect. From the interviews, we identified contributions of change that were attributed to the use of SSM and challenges of using SSM to facilitate cultural change. The challenges are explored in four themes: the process of stakeholder selection; the power of stakeholders; the ensuing power structure within the problem situation; the role of SSM and systemic change. These themes are discussed as contributing factors that practitioners of SSM need to be aware of to ensure the sanctity of SSM during periods of cultural change.
Sharon A. Cox, Sandi Kirkham

The CIO and CDO Socio-technical Roles in the Age of Digital Business Transformation: An Interpretive Study

In this paper, a socio-technical perspective on the roles of Chief Information Officer (CIO) and Chief Digital Officer (CDO) is introduced, and a model of interpretation of their respective roles, their potential interplay and idiosyncrasies is presented and discussed. We start our analysis by proposing a socio-technical model based on typologies of CIOs and IT roles, as well as CIOs and Business Visions, and CIOs and Interpersonal roles taken from the literature, and used as a lens for viewing whether and how CDOs may fit into this model, collaborate with CIOs in pursuing the IT-business alignment vision, or should necessarily clash on the same territory. This model is then used to interpret the results of two empirical analysis about the evolution of CIOs and CDOs roles in Digital Business Transformation scenarios. We carried out interviews directly to CIOs of Italian companies, and use transcripts of online interviews to CDOs of American companies. Both materials deal with the themes of Digital Business Transformation and Strategy, of CIO/CDO’s profiles, and of attitudes toward tech trends such as Big Data, Internet of Things and 3D Printing. Notwithstanding their differences, these voices helped us understand what are the possible futures and configurations of CIO and CDO roles in organizations, in a fast changing innovation scenario like the one emerging from our analysis.
Angela Locoro, Aurelio Ravarini

The Dynamics of Complex Sociomaterial Assemblages

The Case of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation
This paper aims to contribute to our understanding of the sociomaterial complexities of information systems. By applying Gilles Deleuze’s process ontology, called Assemblage Theory (AT), as interpreted and presented by Manuel DeLanda, we examine the case of a new high-tech medical procedure called transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Complex innovations like TAVI evolve as sociomaterial assemblages whose dynamics are seen as driven by the interaction between various stabilizing and de-stabilizing processes. We argue that AT is a very powerful (process) ontology for researching and theorizing the dynamics of increasingly complex information systems.
Ole Hanseth, Jasmina Masovic, Bjørn Erik Mørk

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