The 1981 biennial survey of the National Bank of Austria on foreign direct investment covered 1,754 Austrian companies with foreign participation and a nominal capital of at least A Sch 1 million. This coverage represents an estimated 80–90% of total foreign direct investment in Austria. 36% of these Austrian companies with foreign participation were responsible for 1,814 establishments engaged in manufacturing activities employing a total of 160,000 workers. 64% of these Austrian companies with foreign participation were responsible for 3,594 establishments engaged in non-manufacturing activities employing a total of 87,000 workers. The National Bank of Austria measures the degree of foreign penetration according to the share of employment accounted for by foreign affiliates. In 1981, the overall figure was 12%, representing 26% in manufacturing and 6% elsewhere. Public joint-stock (AG) and private limited (GmbH) companies comprised 83% of the companies surveyed with partnerships of one kind or another accounting for the remainde. Foreign majority holdings represented 85% of the companies surveyed and accounted for 77% of the total employees of direct foreign investors surveyed, or 7% of the total working force in Austria.
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