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Automated Vehicles and Vulnerable Road Users: Envisioning a Healthy, Safe and Equitable Future

This chapter provides an overview and recap of the AVS 2018 Breakout Session #8, AVs & Vulnerable Road Users: Envisioning a Healthy, Safe, and Equitable Future, including summaries of research presentations, perspectives on equity from leading experts in the field, and lessons learned through discussion among panelists and the session audience. The session identified a range of necessary actions and research needs such as engaging stakeholders at all levels from community to OEMs and governments to identify and solve problems before they become evident, recognizing the tradeoff between safety and access to transportation, and learning from the history of how transportation has affected (SES) communities.

Justin M. Owens, Laura Sandt, Azra Habibovic, Sarah Rebolloso McCullough, Ryan Snyder, Robert Wall Emerson, Pravin Varaiya, Tabitha Combs, Fred Feng, Mohammed Yousuf, Bernard Soriano

Kapitel 5. Innovative Neukundengewinnung und digitale Wege zum Leser von Morgen

Die Mittelbayerische Zeitung ist ein Verlagsbeispiel, das deutlich macht, wie mithilfe einer kontinuierlichen und systematischen Marktbearbeitung auch in stagnierenden Printmärkten eine Stabilisierung der Kundenstruktur möglich ist. Die Kombination mit digitalen Angeboten und die ebenfalls kombinierte Nutzung von unterschiedlichen, teilweise digitalen Kommunikations- und Absatzkanälen sind dabei zentrale Erfolgsfaktoren.

Alexandra Wildner, Thomas Breyer-Mayländer

A Gamified Approach Towards Identifying Key Opportunities and Potential Sponsors for the Future of F1 Racing in a Declining Car Ownership Environment

This research work aims to propose new approaches towards identifying key opportunities and potential sponsors for the future of F1 racing in an environment with declining car ownership, without resorting to endless licensing agreements. The paper presents a gamification approach on which an innovative and disruptive operations framework can be developed to help, without operational complexity and commitment, F1 teams gain new customers (fans) and recapture essential markets and targets groups. The paper also contributes on establishing a base for effective strategy development based on the user’s/player’s engagement and behavior. Furthermore, this work extends towards the analysis of the game’s operations and the marketing initiatives needed to succeed. The proposed approach varies from OHH (out of home advertising), interactive marketing, celebrities, F1 drivers’ endorsements, and other related supportive initiatives such as search engine optimization on online research platforms and other promotion and marketing dissemination initiatives.

Evangelos Markopoulos, Panagiotis Markopoulos, Mika Liumila, Younus Almufti, Chiara Romano, Paulina Vanessa Benitez

Interne und externe Markenkommunikation im Rahmen des Internal Branding

Da Mitarbeiter direkt und indirekt für die Umsetzung des Markennutzenversprechens verantwortlich sind, stellt Internal Branding einen zentralen Erfolgsfaktor für das Markenmanagement dar. Die Markenkommunikation ist in diesem Zusammenhang eines der wirkungsvollsten Instrumente zur Beeinflussung von Internal Branding-Zielgrößen wie Markenwissen, Markenidentifikation, Brand Commitment und Brand Citizenship Behavior. Im Hinblick auf einen erfolgreichen Einsatz der Instrumente der internen und externen Markenkommunikation können aus der Literatur zahlreiche Anforderungen abgeleitet werden.

Christoph Burmann, Rico Piehler

Guerilla-Marketing zur Inszenierung von Marken

Guerilla Marketing sind alternative Marketingstrategien und -instrumente, deren Ziel es ist, primär außerhalb der klassischen und etablierten Kommunikationskanäle durch unkonventionelle Kommunikationsmaßnahmen für Marken große Aufmerksamkeit bei den Zielgruppen zu erzielen und Mundpropaganda anzuregen. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt die gängigsten Werbewege des Guerilla Marketing im öffentlichen Raum vor und zeigt anhand validierter Forschungsergebnisse und aussagekräftiger Beispiele welche Handlungsempfehlungen für deren Einsatz zu berücksichtigen sind, um Marken zu stärken.

Kai Harald Krieger, Franz-Rudolf Esch

Kapitel 6. Digitale Kommunikation

Digitalisierung schenkt allen Unternehmen die Chance, Kommunikation aktiv und effizient zu betreiben. Gesetze, Regeln und Beschränkungen der früheren Massenkommunikation sind aufgehoben. Das Set aus Formaten, Rezepten, Kanälen und Erfolgskriterien für Kommunikation wirkt im Vergleich zu früher wie eine Drohne im Vergleich zum Papierflieger. Vernetzte Daten erschließen neue Dimensionen der Kommunikation und Beziehungen mit Kunden.

Thomas Bily

Kapitel 11. How to: Praktische Umsetzung

Es gibt diverse Möglichkeiten mit Messenger Marketing zu starten. Vom Zero Budget Ansatz direkt über die WhatsApp for Business App – bis hin zur Omni Channel Unified Messenger Schnittstelle. Egal ob Sie ein Einzelunternehmen, ein Restaurant oder ein Dax Konzern sind, es gibt für alle Ansprüche und Verwendungszwecke die verschiedensten Tools. Einige Checklisten sollten dabei jedem helfen, einen schnellen Überblick zu bekommen und einfach starten zu können.

Matthias Mehner

The Minimum Sampling Rate and Sampling Duration When Applying Geolocation Data Technology to Human Activity Monitoring

The availability of geolocation sensors embedded in smartphones introduces opportunities to monitor behaviours of individuals. However, sensing geolocation at high sampling rates can affect the battery life of smartphones. In this study, we sought to explore the minimum sampling rate of geolocation data required to accurately recognise out-of-home activities. We collected geolocation data from 19 volunteers sampled every 10 s for 8 non-consecutive days on average. These volunteers were also instructed to complete a paper-based activity diary to record all activities during each data collection day. For finding the minimum sampling rate, we derived datasets at lower sampling rates by down sampling the original data. A semantic analysis was applied using a previously published activity recognition algorithm. The impact of the sampling rates on accuracy of the algorithm was measured through the F1 score. The best F1 score was found at sampling intervals of 2 min and it did not drop substantially until the sampling intervals increased to 10 min. Our study proves the feasibility of monitoring activities at low sampling rates using smartphone-based geolocation sensing.

Yan Zheng, Paolo Fraccaro, Niels Peek

Chapter 6. How Product Service System Can Disrupt Companies’ Business Model

The chapter presents and discusses the PSS as a whole business model, adopting the theoretical frameworks of Business Model CanvasBusiness Model Canvas (Osterwalder and Pigneur 2010) and Business Model InnovationBusiness model innovation Process (Adrodegari et al. 2018) to analyse it. Illustrative cases are presented to exemplify PSS implementation in different contexts, to highlight different key elements and areas impacted.

Alessandro Annarelli, Cinzia Battistella, Fabio Nonino

2. Accessibility: Enablement by Access to Valued Opportunities

Accessibility evaluation is an established technical tool within the domain of transport planning, and it may also have specific significance in relation to the social implications for urban mobility. Definable as the ease of reaching goods, services and activities, accessibility can contribute to defining how transport systems enhance opportunities for individuals by granting them the possibility to participate in different activities that they may have reason to value. The chapter intends to investigate accessibility as a significant evaluative tool for enabling mobilities and define the conditions and adjustments required for enhancing such a role. After introducing traditional definitions in the field of transport planning, accessibility is reconceptualised from a social perspective, focusing on the potential access to basic opportunities that are particularly significant to enable individuals. Moreover, the operational implications for drafting real-world evaluations are discussed. An evaluative exercise referring to the setting of Bogotá (Colombia) is presented to consider how its public transport system grants access to a set of relevant opportunities. The exercise is significant for observing accessibility evaluations in practice, as well as to discuss advantages and limitations of such a technical tool from a social perspective.

Paola Pucci, Giovanni Vecchio

Die Untersuchung des Informationsbedarfs, gesellschaftlicher Entwicklungen und neuer Werbeformen – Auswirkungen von Google Trends auf die Werbewirtschaft

Mit der gesellschaftlichen und technologischen Entwicklung unterliegt auch die Werbung einem stetigen Wandel. Das betrifft die Gestaltung der Werbebotschaften, die eingesetzten Medien und auch die Methoden der Marktsegmentierung sowie die Formen der Zielgruppenansprache. Den stärksten Einfluss hatte in der vergangenen Dekade die Digitalisierung, sowohl in Bezug auf die Festlegung des passenden Kommunikationszeitpunkts und der Medienauswahl (Media-Mix), als auch auf die Gestaltung der Werbesujets.

Christopher Schwand, Klaus Kotek

Chapter 2. The Making of British India

A new economic world took shape in India in the 1800s. It was new in that a pattern of trade emerged that did not exist before. In the 1700s, Indians exported textiles. In the 1800s, Indians exported agricultural commodities. The emergence of the new trading order owed to two things. A powerful state ruled over both the agricultural hinterland and the seaboard. And the state was interested in overseas trade. This state was the British Empire in South Asia. The transformation led to gains for some and losses for others. The chapter describes the emergence of the new model of capitalism, its consequences, and shows why politics was so important to its emergence.

Tirthankar Roy

7. Retailer Assortment and Merchandising Plan

Berkhout takes readers through a step-by-step plan addressing how differences in assortment size, the type of assortment, the way of merchandising, shopper characteristics and types of shopping missions lead to one integrated assortment and merchandising plan. Category managers take the desired retail brand image as input and work out how they define the category and which products are given special functions such as key value items and traffic builders. The assortment role framework supports decision-making on the type and number of brands in the category. The chapter ends with examples for online and brick-and-mortar stores.

Constant Berkhout

Kapitel 7. Best Practices

In diesem Kapitel werden verschiedene Best-Practice-Beispiele vorgestellt. Andreas Kulpa beschreibt zunächst, wie Deep Learning bzw. Lead Prediction neue Wege der Kunden- und Marktgewinnung ermöglichen. Wie digitale Arbeit mit den Schwerpunkten CRM und AI aus Kundensicht organisiert werden sollten, beschreibt Alex Dogariu. Um das digitale Arbeitsmodell der Zukunft systematisch in Unternehmen umsetzen zu können, wird der Digital Labor Platform Blueprint der Mercedes-Benz Consulting vorgestellt und erklärt. Prof. Dr. Nils Hafner zeigt auf, welche Möglichkeiten sich aus der intelligenten Nutzung vieler unterschiedlicher Informationen aus verschiedenen Quellen und in diversen Formaten sowie durch die Anwendung von AI und Machine Learning im Kundenkontakt ergeben. Vorgehen, Chancen und Risiken zum Einsatz von Bots in Service und Marketing untersucht Dr. Thomas Wilde. Bruno Kollhorst beschreibt in seinem Praxisbeispiel wie aus Amazon’s Alexa „Relaxa“ werden kann, ein Bot, der Menschen helfen soll zu entspannen und möglichen Burn-outs vorzubeugen. Die Techniker Krankenkasse hat hierzu den Skill „Smart Relax“ entwickelt, der sowohl von Mitgliedern als auch von Nicht-Mitgliedern genutzt werden kann. David Popineau zeigt an verschiedenen Beispielen auf, wie Disney Chatbots in der Kundenkommunikation und -interaktion einsetzt. Für die erfolgreiche Einführung von Chatbots in Unternehmen werden entsprechende Empfehlungen gegeben.Wie Algorithmen und AI zur Generierung und Verteilung von Content eingesetzt werden können und wie die Bot-Revolution das Content Marketing verändert, untersucht Klaus Eck. Innovative Tech-Companies haben den Mediamarkt mit algorithmenbasierten Technologie-Plattformen betreten und ermöglichen auf Basis von Künstlicher Intelligenz transparente und effiziente Mediaplanung: Diesem Thema widmet sich Andreas Schwabe. Der Beitrag von Jens Scholz und Michael Thess widmet sich den Recommendation-Systemen für den Handel: Ausgehend vom aktuellen Stand der Entwicklung werden die Herausforderungen für Weiterentwicklungen aufgezeigt. Zu deren Lösung wird ein Ansatz in Form von Reinforcement Learning beschrieben.Unter dem Stichwort Intelligent Automation untersucht Andreas Klug, wie AI und Robotic-Process Automation Arbeitsplätze und Abläufe in Verwaltung und Kundenservice verändern. Am Beispiel der privaten Krankenversicherung geben Eleftherios Hatziioannou und Darko Obradovic einen Einblick in Lösungen für eine zeitgemäße und effiziente Kundenkommunikation mittels moderner Technologien, und AI. Prof. Dr. Martin Grothe stellt dar, wie im digitalen Raum vielschichtige Bedrohungen entstehen können und welche computerlinguistische Technologie zur Früherkennung geeignet ist.Abschließend zeigt der Autor zusammen mit seinem Kollegen Marco Philipp am Beispiel von Spotify auf, wie Künstliche Intelligenz und Chatbots die Musikindustrie beeinflussen und die Interaktion der Kunden mit Musikern und Musiklabeln verändern.

Peter Gentsch

Chapter 12. Policy Effects on Mental Health Status and Mental Health Care Disparities

Policies that are directed at increasing access to mental health care for ethnic minority communities are needed. However, our review suggests that insurance alone is unlikely to result in substantial decreases in mental healthcare disparities for ethnic minority communities. We also consider disparities affecting sexual and gender minority populations, undocumented individuals, and African Americans and Latinos who are unjustly incarcerated. Comprehensive programs, such as collaborative care within health care settings, are needed to decrease these disparities. We propose that quality of care for healthcare organizations should include measures of disparities so that eliminating disparities would be considered an indicator of high-quality care. Mental health policy advocates should not only support policies that increase access to quality care for minorities, but also support anti-discrimination policies that are likely to have a major impact on the mental health status and mental healthcare use of minority populations.

Jeanne Miranda, Lonnie R. Snowden, Rupinder K. Legha

Chapter 19. Towards a Framework for Sustainable and Responsible Food Operations in the Holiday Context and Implementation Approaches in the Travel Industry

Recent studies indicate a trend towards sustainable food products, resulting in a rise of gastronomic businesses with sustainable food menus. However, there is little knowledge about the importance of sustainable food offers in the holiday context. This chapter aims to provide a comprehensive definition of the concept of sustainable food in the travel context and to discuss the sustainability challenges encountered along the food production process. Based on the results, a framework for implementation, as well as good practices in sustainable food operations are presented along the food production process chain of purchasing, menu planning and menu design, food preparation, food provision and service, and efficient waste management. Thereby, a special focus is given to the local aspect of food products, in addition to the necessary collaborative efforts of a multitude of stakeholders for sustainable food provision.

Dagmar Lund-Durlacher, Hannes Antonschmidt

Chapter 1. The VR Ecosystem and What to Expect in the Years to Come

This chapter is a snapshot of the wider virtual reality (VR) industry at the time of the writing of this book. VR innovation is constantly evolving, partly due to the fact that the latest wave of the consumer VR market is still in its early stages; in many aspects, not unlike the early smartphone market, when a large variety of technologies, formats, form factors, and user experience (UX) concepts were competing for consumer attention. Besides the almost daily news on breakthrough research in areas like resolution, eye tracking, and usability, there are stable long-term trends that have proven to be reliable pointers for the roadmap ahead of us. We will look at these established long-term VR trends and evaluate what is relevant in the mobile and standalone VR space.

Cornel Hillmann

Kapitel 10. Marketing 2.0

Aus diesem Grund und in Ergänzung zu dem von mir bereits veröffentlichten Buch über Marketing in der Sozialwirtschaft (Marketing in der Sozialwirtschaft) ist es wichtig, dass wir uns noch ein paar ergänzende Gedanken zur sinnvollen Vermarktung Ihrer Dienstleistungen machen.

David Thiele

Chapter 4. Advertising Sustainability

This chapter explores how advertisements represent sustainability. It initially provides discussion of the contemporary advertising industry and its role in promotional culture and it also considers the textuality of advertisements and their communicative power. The chapter also discusses the features of green advertising and the practice of greenwashing. An analysis of Aotearoa New Zealand energy television advertisements shows how humour and celebrity are used to offer a positive and easily attainable portrayal of sustainability. Alternatively, the second case study analysis of Australian household sustainability magazine advertisements reveals how the technical and scientific features of sustainability are foregrounded.

Geoffrey Craig

Shopper’s Experience of Digital Mall Signage as Atmospheric Stimuli: An Abstract

Digital out-of-home (DOOH) remains a topic largely ignored by academic scholars (Taylor 2015), despite innovative digital technology, which has created vibrant opportunities and revolutionized the traditional “outdoor” medium (Bauer et al. 2011; Kinetic 2014). Furthermore, empirical research on digital signage (DS) is scarce (Bae et al. 2016) – particularly in the emerging market context – and does not address shoppers’ experience of DS as mall atmospheric stimuli.This paper presents a study which explored South African shoppers’ experience of DS in order to understand how it might influence their emotional responses and shopping behaviors. It draws inspiration from the fields of environmental psychology and retail atmospherics to propose that when contemporary shoppers experience retail atmospheric stimuli such as DS as positive, they are likely to stay longer, visit a mall more often, and/or spend more.Brakus et al. (2014) demonstrated that DS in the retail environment evokes brand experience on a cognitive level when providing product information (thus utilitarian value) but evokes sensory and affective dimensions when offering spectacle and entertainment value (hedonic). In this study, the utilitarian and hedonic value of DS as retail atmospheric stimuli is explored by using the Mehrabian-Russell model of environmental influence (also referred to as the S-O-R model) as a theoretical lens. This model is widely used to examine the effect of retail atmospherics on shoppers’ responses (see Mishra et al. 2014).Acknowledging earlier research on shopping experiences and mall atmospherics (Arnold and Reynolds 2003; Fiore and Kim 2007; Sit et al. 2003), an exploratory qualitative investigation was conducted. In-depth interviews with 30 shoppers guided by visual stimuli on DS in three super regional mall environments were used to collect the data.The findings confirmed that digital mall signage as atmospheric stimuli can lead to an emotional reaction that influence shoppers’ behavioral responses in malls, supporting the theoretical model. The content and the quality or quantity of exposure can shape shoppers’ experience of the retail atmosphere. The results suggest that shoppers who see the DS as offering hedonic value will experience enjoyment; and improvement to the utilitarian value of content would also enhance the shopping experience. Overall DS is regarded as positive enhancement and a potential valuable source of information and entertainment. The narrative accentuated the demand for tailored content rather than universal marketer-driven inducements. Specific recommendations to enhance or improve the experience of shoppers exposed to digital mall signage are made.References Available Upon Request

Thérèse Roux, Tania Maree

Exploring Women Travel Behaviour in the Region of Žilina from Large Scale Mobility Survey

Women and men often do not experience equal mobility opportunities. Increasingly, gender is being recognized to play a significant role in transport planning, particularly for addressing individual mobility needs in urban and rural areas. Previous studies have shown that transport policy and mobility planning are better suited to men’s activities and mobility needs, while women experience the transport system differently than men in terms of accessibility, safety and security. To gain an in-depth understanding of women travel patterns in their daily activities, this paper investigates the factors that influence women’s decisions between activity participation and choice of transport mode through analysis of mobility behaviour data gathered from 6000 households by Žilina self-governing region between 2013 and 2016. The results of this analysis provide valuable insights about the possible causal relation among socio-demographics, activity participation characteristics and daily travel mode choice of female and male travellers in the studied cities, which could be incorporated into more gender sensitive designs in mobility planning and travel demand modelling. Furthermore, the outcomes of this study can help decision makers, local and regional authorities and transport companies by raising awareness and providing support for (1) forming sustainable policies to overcome community mobility and accessibility challenges and (2) bringing more gender equality in the region of Žilina by changing traditional transport functionalities and providing more equitable provision of transport systems, particularly in public transport and active modes (non-motorised transport).

Ghadir Pourhashem, Ľuboš Buzna, Tatiana Kováčiková, Martin Hudák

Household Electric Load Pattern Consumption Enhanced Simulation by Random Behavior

The demand for electricity is increasing exponentially and thus, the concern for energy conservation becomes important. The daily consumption of electricity by each family needs to be calculated which in turn would help to estimate the weekly, monthly and yearly electric consumption for a particular unit. The electricity consumed by each family depends upon various factors. The occupancy model of the family needs additionally to be considered. After studying the this model, one can predict at which hours of the day the load consumed is maximum and at which hours of the day it is minimum. Studying the load profiles of each family, the supplier of the electricity can estimate the consumption charge supply policy accordingly. While studying the load profile, we need to take into consideration various appliances and their demand behavior. In this paper, we summarize influential factors of house electrical consumption, the occupancy of the members of the house, and the electrical demand for lighting. It also explains various types of appliances usually employed in a house and their categorization based on behavior and how they contribute to the total load profile of a household.

Alabbas Alhaj Ali, Doina Logofătu, Prachi Agrawal, Sreshtha Roy

Kapitel 1. Neues Meta-Targeting im Online-Handel

Mit der weiter zunehmenden Internetnutzung in Hinblick auf die Nutzerzahlen sowie die Nutzungsintensitäten steigen die Umsätze im Online-Handel nach wie vor rasant an. Dabei wird das digitale Universum immer mehr durch mobile Internetnutzung geprägt, die auch die Kundenorientierung erheblich verändert. Diese ändert sich ohnehin fortwährend durch neue Trends, die wiederum durch neue Kundenerwartungen genährt werden. Zugleich beschleunigt sich der Konzentrationsprozess weiter, wodurch der Abstand zwischen dem Marktführer Amazon sowie dem Verfolgerfeld und dabei vor allem den Traditionsunternehmen immer größer wird. Deswegen kommt der Beschleunigung digitaler Reifegrade und dem Abbau digitaler Barrieren ein hoher Stellenwert zu.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 4. Geschäftssysteme und Benchmarks im E-Commerce

Der Ausgestaltung des Geschäftssystems kommt eine Schlüsselrolle im Online-Handel zu. Sie ist auch Basis für Kanalexzellenz, die erfolgreiche Online-Händler auszeichnet. Diese sind in der Lage, mit ihren Leistungen im E-Commerce den Benchmark zu setzen, und nutzen alle Möglichkeiten der modernen Interaktion. Insgesamt sind acht zentrale Erfolgsfaktoren für das Vorliegen von Web-Exzellenz im B2C zu beachten. Eine große Herausforderung spielt jedoch zunehmend die Nachhaltigkeit der Erfolgsfaktoren, da der Wettbewerb sich immer schneller anpasst.

Gerrit Heinemann

Chapter 13. Social Resources Meeting the Health-Services Requirement Amongst Migrant Manual Workers in Patna

TheSocial resources concept of universal healthHealth accessibility equips every individual, family, and community with knowledge, thus enabling them to take positive action and make sound healthHealth choices. Mere availability of opportunities does not solve the problem of lacking healthHealth care. Social positioning in society (class status) determines healthHealth choices, thus making it problematic for unskilled workers belonging to the migrant category to access better choices for healthHealth care. Resilient social resourcesSocial resources determine the healthHealth knowledge, attitude, and practices of the population. Migrants from similar cultural backgrounds as natives of the city face more of barriers to accessing healthHealth services. Knowledge is lacking regarding migrants’ healthHealth beliefs and access to healthHealth information. Henceforth, the present study attempts to explore social-resources resilienceResilience among manual migrant workers at the place of destination as well as the hindrances they face while trying to obtain these social resourcesSocial resources .

Anjum Shaheen

Kapitel 4. Dialogsysteme in der Praxis

Die natürlichsprachliche Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion wird bereits in verschiedenen Anwendungsfeldern eingesetzt. Wir unterscheiden dabei Sprachassistenzsysteme von Sprachdialogsystemen. Sie unterscheiden sich im Hinblick auf die Dialogkompetenz, aber auch auf die inhaltliche Tiefe und funktionale Breite. Im folgenden Kapitel wird der Versuch unternommen, Sprachdialogsysteme aufgrund ihrer wesentlichen Anwendungskontexte zu klassifizieren. Wir unterscheiden dabei sechs verschiedene Kategorien von Dialogrobotern, mit einem teils sehr unterschiedlichen Erscheinungsbild.

Armin Sieber

9. Demand and Market Research for Media and Information Products

The chapter discusses how media companies organize their demand research. How do they collect data? At the user level, the approaches to data collection include surveys, focus groups, test marketing, demand experiments, and biometric testing. Automatic audience metering has made great inroads, especially for websites. Measurement at the provider level include retailer surveys, self-reporting, point-of-sale measurement, and the tracking of downloads, Internet traffic, website visits, and exposures to advertising. Once the data has been collected it must be analyzed. “Big data mining” techniques include statistical inference; clustering and anomaly detection; and association, correlation, and econometric regression; also discussed are techniques of A/B testing, conjoint analysis, and diffusion models. The final section deals with challenges in audience and market research: coordinating and integrating multiple user data flows, internationalization, privacy issues and restrictions on data collection and uses, and the creation of new research methodologies. Tracking these themes is the case discussion which looks at the market analysis by the media company Viacom for three interrelated new media products.

Eli M. Noam

Zukunft des Handels und Handel der Zukunft – treibende Kräfte, relevante Erfolgsfaktoren und Game Changer

Keine Branche ist derzeit größeren Herausforderungen ausgesetzt als der Einzelhandel. Der direkte Kontakt zu den Endkunden bringt mit sich, dass die Handelsbetriebe als erste Kontaktstelle unmittelbar von den Änderungen des Kaufverhaltens betroffen sind, das durch die zunehmende Internetnutzung induziert wird. Allerdings nicht in gleichem Ausmaß, weswegen eine Differenzierung nach Kontaktprinzip, Format sowie Warengruppe erforderlich ist. Vor allem Food und Non-Food entwickeln sich recht unterschiedlich und bedürfen deshalb einer differenzierten Betrachtung. In jedem Fall führt aber die Digitalisierung zu einer Neuausrichtung der Wertschöpfungsstufen sowie einer Neuordnung der Wettbewerbsregeln, die bisher vor allem die Internetgiganten aus den USA („GAFAs – Google, Amazon, Facebook, Apple“) sowie aus China („TABs – Tencent, Alibaba, Baidu“) begünstigt haben. Der Handel der Zukunft gestaltet sich dabei vielfältig und ermöglicht bereits „Mehrwert“-Schöpfung in neuen Märkten und mit innovativen Geschäftsideen, wie aktuelle Best Practices zeigen. Auch die Gestaltung von Geschäftsmodellen und Geschäftssystemen eröffnet im Zuge der digitalen Revolution neue Möglichkeiten der Wertschöpfung, vor allem für stationäre Händler und damit für Innenstädte bzw. Shopping Center.

Gerrit Heinemann

8. Appendix

See Tables 8.1, 8.2, 8.3

Laura K. C. Seibold, Maximilian Lantelme, Hermut Kormann

Die Masse und die Marke

Markenprofilierung durch gutes Content-Marketing

Wenn nichts mehr geht, dann hilft Content Marketing. Wenn einem niemand mehr zuhören möchte, helfen spannende, unterhaltende, informierende Inhalte. Wenn man Erfolg haben möchte, dann helfen Relevanz, Qualität und Respekt. Nur so ist eine moderne, erfolgsorientierte Kommunikation heute und morgen möglich. Weg von der Egozentrik der Marke, des Produkts, des Unternehmens, hin zur Zielgruppe. Wer so attraktiv ist, wird aufgesucht, gekauft und weiterempfohlen – das Größte, was man im Marketing erreichen kann.

Heiko Mehnert

Digitalisierte Kommunikation in der Außenwerbung

Trends und Tendenzen

Den Schwerpunkt des Artikels bilden die Trends und Tendenzen der Außenwerbung. Die bisher analogen Werbeträger in der Außenwerbung können durch die technologische Entwicklung jetzt um elektronische Komponenten erweitert oder sogar ersetzt werden. Somit zählen schon lang nichtmehr nur das Plakat an der Litfaßsäule und die große Werbetafel, sondern auch City-Lights, digitale Werbeflächen und 3D-Poster zu den angebotenen Werbeträgern. Des weiteren können seit nicht all zu langer Zeit Komponente wie Social Media mit in die Kommunikation einfließen und die Wirkung online unterstützen. Der Hintergrund dieses Artikels ist es die online und offline Verbindung bei der Außenwerbung darzustellen und welche Trends durch die Digitalisierung in der Außenwerbung entstehen. Somit stellt sich die Frage: Wie wirkt digitalisierte Kommunikation in der Außenwerbung- welche Trends und Tendenzen werden folgen?

Janina Radtke

Grundlagen des Mobile Marketing

Mobile Marketing bietet aufgrund seiner einzigartigen Datenqualität enormes Potenzial für Werbetreibende. Kein andere Kanal ist so dicht am Leben des Menschen, wie das persönliche Smartphone. Vor allem Standortdaten, dynamische Werbemittel und bieten zahlreiche Optionen für innovative Kampagen, die in diesem Artikel anhand von Fallbeispielen komprimiert dargestellt werden.

Klaus Polajner

Chapter 6. Traditional Film Distribution and Exhibition Platforms in the Formal Economy

This chapter is centred on the traditional film distribution route of theatrical and non-theatrical releases in the formal economy. The chapter delves into the structures, operations, and processes of both distribution channels and looks at how the independent sector approaches and responds to them. It lists down the entry barriers and analyses the factors that generally hinder independent filmmakers from accessing the elusive theatrical platform. One of the developments and responses from the independent sector and the government is the growing number of cinematheques and microcinemas that are being built across the country. The chapter also breaks down the different non-theatrical avenues that a film can take, and contains case study profiles of films, their respective outfits, a discussion of how these films are distributed, exhibited and received, and how theatrical and non-theatrical platforms affect the film’s cultural value and economic value.

Michael Kho Lim

Chapter 6. ‘I’ve got to go somewhere’: Queer Displacement in Northern Central America and Southern Mexico

This chapter seeks to understand the complex, damaging contexts that provoke increasing numbers of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and queer population in northern Central America to flee their homes. Through personal accounts of queer mobility in the region, displacement is analysed not as a one-off or exceptional event, but as a constantly shifting process (moving out of place) and condition (being out of place). Queer mobility is seen here in terms of the quest for placement, rather than as movement per se. Continuous negotiations to stay put, to make a place for oneself, were based in disadvantage which often resulted in complex displacements. Displacement in these terms is an intrinsic part of marginal queer experience. While the ruptures associated with these displacements can cause damage, so they can disrupt established oppressions and allow room to re-accommodate one’s personal social location. Yet, since this re-accommodation is the result of complex constellations of marginalised existence, it is fragile, and hard-won gains can be short-lived. In particular, the intersection between gender and sexual transgression, economic and social marginalization, and rampant organized and targeted hate violence all translate into pervasive precarity. The gravity and complexity of the experiences shared here highlight the need to ensure that the growing body of work on queer migration and asylum does not overshadow other spatial and temporal scales of displacement which are a crucial dynamic of the relationship between queer mobility and survival.

Ailsa Winton

Chapter 9. Investigating and Modelling Potential Demand for Retirement Housing: The Australian Context

Population ageing, which is being driven-up as the ‘baby boomer’ generation are reaching the traditional retirement age, will generate an increased demand for housing alternatives that are more suitable for older people, including retirement village living. Key questions to ask are: (a) what will be the level and propensity for older people to seek to ‘downsize’ rather than ‘age in place’?; (b) what motivates them to do so?; (c) what role do retirement villages play as a housing alternative for older people and what will be the level of demand?; and (d) what will be the locations that are best to develop new villages? Demographic and spatial modelling approaches, as developed by regional scientists, may be used to help address these issues.

Robert J. Stimson, Tung-Kai Shyy

4. Focusing on Materialities That Matter

After introducing the importance of adopting a clear statement of purpose, and the role sustainability can play in identifying the various facets of a firm’s contribution to society, we proceed in this chapter to develop a better understanding of the tools available to focus the sustainability efforts on elements that contribute the most, that is, impactful materialities. Once the statement of purpose has been established, companies and individuals frequently must cope with limited bandwidth in terms of attention and resources. Hence, the importance of selecting a limited number of high-impact efforts, instead of the all-too-common machine gun approach of spraying efforts large and thin. Effective implementation requires sniper precision in the definition of sustainability targets and dedicated efforts in execution. Therefore, in the first sections of this chapter, materiality is first precisely defined, then the importance of gaining alignment between enterprise risk, company strategy and materiality is highlighted. Finally, some practical do-it-yourself (DIY) tools for materiality analysis and the development of a company materiality matrix are introduced and explained in detail.

Benoit Leleux, Jan van der Kaaij

Chapter 4. A Model of Innovative, Social and Sustainable Entrepreneurship Under the Roof of the World

The objective of the case is to illustrate how the private initiative of an entrepreneur in the Chinese provinces of Yunnan and Tibet can become a model of cultural, social, sustainable entrepreneurship, which creates value for the organization and its environment, and how such a model can be replicated and reproduced in different environments. Cultural, social and sustainable entrepreneurship is the object of numerous publications, and the focus of an increasing global interest from academic settings and society. A secondary research effort shows that the current literature does not report examples or cases of this comprehensive entrepreneurship applied in the Tibetan region, under extreme climatic challenges. The findings of the case are based on literature search, personal interviews in Lhasa, Tibet and direct observation by the authors. The study-visit in Lhasa was followed by an in-depth questionnaire with the objective of identifying to what extent the model could be reproduced in different cultural environments and countries. The case identifies empirical approaches and universal building blocks for social and sustainable entrepreneurship. It provides a road map for creating a sustainable business ecosystem useful for entrepreneurs. This case gives a broad view of a successful and innovative approach to social entrepreneurship; it shows that an entrepreneur new to the hospitality market segment, by applying fresh approaches and thinking to a mature, established market, can create added value for the organization and the community. The case contributes to the literature on the application of innovative entrepreneurship from an industry outsider and under extreme climatic conditions.

Mariella C. Remund, An Hong, Marta Peris-Ortiz

Chapter 4. Choosing Your Gigs and RatesRates and gigs Wisely

Something you’ll learn early on is that not all gigs are created equal. Now that you know how to find work, the next step is knowing what kind of work to find.

Adam Sinicki

Kapitel 7. Dialogmarketing und Connected Cars

Dialogmarketing umfasst alle Marketinginstrumente, die eingesetzt werden, um eine gezielte und direkte Interaktion mit Zielpersonen aufzubauen und dauerhaft aufrecht zu erhalten, und hat das Ziel, eine messbare Reaktion (Response) auszulösen. One-to-One Marketing ist die individuellste Form von Dialogmarketing, dabei steht die Gestaltung der Beziehung mit der einzelnen Person im Vordergrund. Die Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre haben die Einsatzmöglichkeiten des Dialogmarketings und die Palette der nutzbaren Medien ausgeweitet. Durch den technischen Fortschritt und die Kreativität der Anwender entwickeln sich ständig neue Dialogmedien. Das crossmediale Dialogmarketing, und dabei speziell die Integration von Online- und Offline-Medien, führt zu einer Verstärkung der Kommunikationswirkung. Das Resultat sind messbare ökonomische Variablen und psychologische Effekte. Das Connected Car kann, ähnlich dem Smartphone, als ein mobiles Endgerät betrachtet werden und damit in die Kategorie Mobile Marketing eingeordnet werden. Mobile Marketing beschreibt die Marketingaktivitäten auf mobilen Endgeräten und stellt eines der Instrumente von Online-Marketing dar. Eine Personalisierung der Nachrichten und Marketingbotschaften an den Kunden im Rahmen des Dialogmarketings bzw. One-to-One Marketings kann nur durch die Erhebung von relevanten Kundendaten stattfinden. Die Kombination verschiedener Daten ermöglicht es dem Automobilhersteller Inhalte von Relevanz und Interesse für den Kunden zu präsentieren. In diesem Kapitel werden Hypothesen aufgestellt und bewertet, die den Einsatz des One-to-One Marketing in Verbindung mit Connected Cars konkret untersuchen sollen.

Heinrich Holland

12. Prisoners’ Emigration Goals and Achievements Before and After Release

The article explores the emigration goals and achievements of former convicts from Bucharest–Jilava penitentiary. The former convicts’ perceptions are examined longitudinally with the starting point during incarceration a short time before their liberation (1–14 days) and then sequentially at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after regaining their freedom. The results suggest that the migration phenomena for ex-inmates could be explained at the intersection of the neoclassical economic and relative deprivation theories.

Angelica Hîrju, Lucian Rotariu

Chapter 5. AI Best and Next Practices

“DataData is the new oil” is a saying that is readily quoted today. Although this sentence still describes the current developmentDevelopment well, it ides not get down to the real core of the matter; more suitable would be “artificial intelligenceArtificial intelligence (AI) empowers a new economy”. The autonomous automationAutomation of ever larger fields of tasks in the businessBusiness world will trigger fundamental economic and social changes. Based on a future world in which unlimited information is available on unlimited computers, ultimate decisions will be generated in real time and processes will be controlled objectively. These decisions are not liable to any subjectivity, information or delays.

Peter Gentsch

Bridging the Knowledge Divide in GCC Countries: The Role of Digital Technologies

In recent years, emphasis in development studies has shifted toward knowledge creation and innovation that fosters economic growth and sustain development. Globalization is offering new opportunities, especially for developing countries, to acquire knowledge, information and skills for building capacity for development. Modern information and communication technologies (ICTs) are empowering countries to diversify the economic structure and enhance sectoral productivity through access to global markets. In this age of information, individuals, organizations and institutions are able to enhance communication and increase collaboration through social networking aimed at promoting innovation and improving global competitiveness. Digital technologies can be used to bridge the digital divide between rich and poor countries as a mechanism designed not only to increase connectivity and improve services, but also to facilitate innovation and capacity building for development. The aim of this paper is to examine the role that digital technologies plays in economic diversification in GCC countries. Digital technologies encourage investment in manufacturing production and knowledge creation, which stimulates linkages and support diversification. To this end, building capacity for digital economy could have a profound impact on the ability of these countries to speed up the process of socioeconomic transformation involving reduction of dependency on oil production.

Amer Al-Roubaie

20. The Economic Development of South Africa’s Townships

Townships are one of the most distinctive elements of the South African cityscape. After decades of economic neglect as dormitory settlements, the economic development of townshipsTownships is emerging as an important policy issue. This chapter examines township local economic development with its domination by informal economiesInformal economies, past and present. Key themes of concern surround the emergence of new economic bases for a formal economy, especially in leisure and hospitality services, the role of the informal economy, and of national government-led initiatives for enterprise formalisation. In addition, controversies surrounding the involvement of international migrant entrepreneursEntrepreneurs in township businesses are discussed. Overall, township economic developmentEconomic development is a critical research agenda for urban and economic geographers.

Christian M. Rogerson

Kapitel 4. Die differenzierenden Eigenschaften der Kultmarke

Überblick: Aus einem Eigenschaftsportfolio erfolgreicher, beliebter Marken mit großer Ausstrahlung und Kundenbeliebtheit lassen sich neun relevante Merkmale herausarbeiten, die für Kultmarken prägend sind. Da sie auf unterschiedlichste Weise belebt werden können, zeigen konkrete Beispiele die vielfältigen Ausgestaltungsmöglichkeiten und Wirkungsmechanismen auf. Indem man die Aktivitäten erfolgreicher Vorbilder oder Benchmarks auf ihre Eignung z. B. für das eigene Unternehmen einbezieht, lässt sich aus dem Kultmarkenbaukasten ein vielversprechendes Instrumentarium für die jeweilige Markensituation entwickeln.

Wolfram von Rhein

Chapter 1. Revising Our Understanding of Political Consumerism

In this chapter the author describes the context in which political consumerism has been gaining its impressive relevance as a mode of political participation. In particular, she points to the important differences in and across countries in boycotting and buycotting involvement. The author proposes that these differences are connected to individual and cross-national preferences for how socio-political and economic concerns ought to be tackled. Such preferences vary and give rise to different patterns in labelling schemes and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) presence. These, in turn, will affect whether citizens become boycotters and/or buycotters. Thus, to understand political consumerism, the author suggests that one has to consider and understand the ‘varieties of political consumerism’ that exist. With this ambition for the book, the author presents two original sets of quantitative data, based on which the ideas are further investigated throughout the book.

Carolin V. Zorell

Open Access

Long-Term Effects of a Social Intervention for Vulnerable Youth: A Register-Based Study

This chapter provides new evidence on the effects of multisystemic therapy (MST), which is a social intervention for youth with conduct disorder problems. New data are provided on young people receiving MST in the years 2007–2011. Register data enable the construction of a comparison group of youth who are receiving alternative social treatments but who have similar parental characteristics and a similar life-cycle profile of previous social interventions and health-care use. It is found that MST participants are more likely than similar youth in alternative interventions to take primary school exams, and fewer MST participants with previous convictions are placed outside their homes. However, MST participants have lower upper secondary education completion rates and lower employment rates, are more dependent upon welfare income, and are more often convicted of crimes.

Jacob Nielsen Arendt, Mette Verner

Corporate Social Responsibility: Australian Case Study Innovation Capabilities: Not for Profit: Transforming Families and Children

There is growing global awareness of the challenging societal needs of families and children that are having a long-term social impact on the wider community. The increased social complexities of families demand social innovation for services. Many of these services are delivered by Not for Profit (NfP) organisations that operate in risk adverse, political environments.Wanslea is an NfP with a 75 year history of working with families and children experiencing vulnerability, and developing services in response to local needs in Western Australia. As a case study, Wanslea demonstrates social innovation, making far-reaching differences to the lives of families and children with resulting benefits to society.This case study demonstrates how Wanslea strategically, through progressive adaptation and evolution, exploitation and exploration, successfully engages family and children by designing proactive and sustainable services and programs. These services improve the innovation performance and create long term, positive social impact. Terms such as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), and Social Innovation are not terms usually applied by Wanslea staff, rather, the focus is on social impact measures being introduced to meet political expectations for social change and funding governance.By applying four targeted emerging practices, Wanslea has been able to establish the current scaffold that enabled strategic social innovation and resulted in creating social value that positively influenced business and society. The targeted practices included (1) Board strategy and board selection (2) Foundational strategies for aligning research, leadership education and professional practices (3) Brand awareness and reputation and (4) Partnership collaborations.

Tricia Murray, Dianna Vitasovic

Kapitel 17. Eine schwäbische Stadt inszeniert Fashion und Luxus zu günstigen Preisen

Interview mit Isidora Muthmann (Outletcity Metzigen) – das Gespräch führte Christina Vaih-Baur

Die Region rund um die Schwäbische Alb gehört traditionell zu den Zentren der deutschen Textilindustrie. Die moderne Outletcity Metzingen steht für gehobene Fashion- und Luxusmarken und hat sich kontinuierlich zu einem Besucher-Magneten entwickelt. Das Interview mit Isidora Muthmann, Head of Marketing und Public Relations der Holy AG, gibt Einblick in das Universum der schwäbischen Marke.

Isidora Muthmann

8. Marketing-Mix: Kommunikationspolitische Entscheidungen

Aus Marketingperspektive versteht man unter Kommunikation das Senden von verschlüsselten Informationen, um beim Empfänger eine Wirkung zu erzielen. Dementsprechend umfasst die Kommunikationspolitik die systematische Planung, Ausgestaltung, Abstimmung und Kontrolle aller Kommunikationsmaßnahmen des Unternehmens im Hinblick auf alle relevanten Zielgruppen, um die Kommunikationsziele und damit die nachgelagerten Marketing- und Unternehmensziele zu erreichen.

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. mult. Heribert Meffert, Prof. Dr. Christoph Burmann, Prof. Dr. Manfred Kirchgeorg, Prof. Dr. Maik Eisenbeiß

Kapitel 1. Digitale Werbung: Eine Einführung

Digitales Marketing ist gekommen, um zu bleiben. Es ist kein Phänomen das irgendwann wieder verschwindet. Die Digitalisierung hat das Marketing schon vor 30 Jahren umgekrempelt. Die brillantesten Geschäftsideen, die größten Konzerne der Welt, neue Branchen und Arbeitsplätze haben sich daraus entwickelt. Die Marktentwicklung erfolgt in großen Schritten, ein Ende ist nicht in Sicht. Die stetige Veränderung ist die Konstante im Marketing. Und jetzt: Native Advertising, ebenfalls ein Kind des digitalen Marketings. Nur ein neues Buzzword? Was ist das eigentlich? Wo kommt es her? Was muss ich wissen, um es zu verstehen? Und hilft es dabei, den Menschen im Marketing nicht aus den Augen zu verlieren, nicht bloß auf einen Datensatz zu reduzieren? Wir gehen einen Schritt zurück und fangen vorne an, mit einem Schnelldurchlauf durch die Geschichte des digitalen Marketings.

Coskun Tuna, Cevahir Ejder

Digital Innovation Based on Digital Signage: Method, Categories and Examples

Delivery of demand-oriented and accurate information for a person’s interest has been subject of research since many years. In the last years, focus of attention shifted from just-in-time provision of information to context-oriented personalized information supply. Digital signage is one way of context-oriented information supply and summarizes information presentation to a wide audience on large screens. Work presented in this paper brings together technology-oriented work in digital signage and application-oriented work in the housing industry. More concrete, we have developed new digital signage solutions and investigated their potential for providing innovative services to tenants in apartment buildings, i.e. in the housing industry. The main contribution of this work is (1) an overview to innovative digital signage solutions connected to elevators, (2) the categorization of assistance services in the context of digital signage, and (3) application examples from housing industry.

Kurt Sandkuhl, Matthias Wißotzki, Alexander Smirnov, Nikolay Shilov

Open Access

Chapter 1. Lessons Learned from a Pan-European Study of Large Housing Estates: Origin, Trajectories of Change and Future Prospects

Mid-twentieth-century large housing estates, which can be found all over Europe, were once seen as modernist urban and social utopias that would solve a variety of urban problems. Since their construction, many large housing estates have become poverty concentrating neighbourhoods, often with large shares of immigrants. In Northern and Western Europe, an overlap of ethnic, social and spatial disadvantages have formed as ethnic minorities, often living on low incomes, settle in the most affordable segments of the housing market. The aim of this introductory chapter is to synthesise empirical evidence about the changing fortunes of large housing estates in Europe. The evidence comes from 14 cities—Athens, Berlin, Birmingham, Brussels, Budapest, Bucharest, Helsinki, Madrid, Milan, Paris, Moscow, Prague, Stockholm and Tallinn—and is synthesised into 10 takeaway messages. Findings suggest that large housing estates are now seen as more attractive in Eastern Europe than in Western Europe. The chapter also provides a diverse set of visions and concrete intervention measures that may help to improve the fortunes of large housing estates and their residents.

Daniel Baldwin Hess, Tiit Tammaru, Maarten van Ham

Nach dem Hype ist vor dem Hype

Hypes in der digitalen Kommunikation und in Bezug auf neue medientechnische Möglichkeiten beeinflussen Entscheidungen in der Planung, Konzeption und Umsetzung von Marketingmaßnahmen. Dabei unreflektiert auf Hypes zu reagieren, kann dem Markenimage und den wirtschaftlichen Zielen von Unternehmen schaden. Im vorliegenden Text werden folgende Frageperspektiven erörtert: Welche Phänomene sind mit Hype-Cycles verbunden? Wie können deren Einflusskräfte bereits im Vorfeld von Entscheidungen im Marketing erkannt und beurteilt werden und welche jeweils spezifischen Faktoren für die Gestaltung von Content können für Marketingmaßnahmen empfohlen werden? Um diese Frage beantworten zu können, werden Beispiele prominenter Hype-Cycles in Bezug auf ihre Verläufe analysiert und daran beispielhaft Reaktionen der Marketingtreibenden erläutert. Fokussiert wird bei der Auswahl von Show Cases auf Hypes in Social Media (Twitter, Snapchat) und Hypes, welche durch technologische Entwicklungen (Augmented und Virtual Reality) und durch die Zunahme deren Nutzung ausgelöst wurden. Ebenso diskutiert werden Trends in Bezug auf Marketingstrategien. Im Fokus stehen hier Marketingmaßnahmen des Influencer-Marketings. Ziel der Diskussion ist es, Hinweise für die kritische Einschätzung und Beurteilung von Hypes herauszuarbeiten und Handlungsempfehlungen für die Umgehensweisen mit Hypes in der Marketingpraxis zu geben. Dabei wird zum einen Orientierung für die Wahl von Kommunikationskanälen in Social Media und die damit verbundenen Bedingungen einer Platzierung erfolgreicher Marketingmaßnahmen aufgezeigt. Zum anderen werden Regeln zu spezifischen Anforderungen an die Gestaltung der Contentproduktion und zu Faktoren strategischer Planung für zielführende Marketingmaßnahmen erläutert.

Michael Zschiesche, Andrea Gschwendtner

Kapitel 9. Die eigene Kommunikation gestalten und umsetzen

Im Kap. 9 geht es um die Realisierung der verschiedenen Medien nach dem Medientypen-Modell und in Bezug zur jeweiligen Gründungsphase. Für die Gestaltung der Owned, Paid, Shared und Earned Media werden Hinweise und Empfehlungen gegeben. Den Abschluss bildet die Einschätzung der Kanäle für eine effiziente und wirkungsvolle Kommunikation.

Angela Bittner-Fesseler, Michael Häfelinger

Open Access

17. Case Study: A Circular Business Model for Orkla and BIR?

In this chapter, we present a case study of the strategic alliance between the two Norwegian companies Orkla and BIR. The case study builds on their attempt to design a business model that spans across their organizational boundaries in order to develop circular solutions for the consumer brands company Orkla. We particularly shed light on the empirical studies we are designing and conducting in close collaboration with the two companies and how those studies can inform the design and implementation of a more circular business model.

Sveinung Jørgensen, Lars Jacob Tynes Pedersen

Bayesian Factorization Machines for Risk Management and Robust Decision Making

When considering different allocations of the marketing budget of a firm, some predictions, that correspond to scenarios similar to others observed in the past, can be made with more confidence than others, that correspond to more innovative strategies. Selecting a few relevant features of the predicted probability distribution leads to a multi-objective optimization problem, and the Pareto front contains the most interesting media plans. Using expected return and standard deviation we get the familiar two moment decision model, but other problem specific additional objectives can be incorporated. Factorization Machines, initially introduced for recommendation systems, but later used also for regression, are a good choice for incorporating interaction terms into the model, since they can effectively exploit the sparse nature of typical datasets found in econometrics.

Pablo Angulo, Víctor Gallego, David Gómez-Ullate, Pablo Suárez-García

7. The Magic of Paradox: How Advertising Ideas Transform Art into Business and the Ordinary into the Extraordinary

Malefyt offers an intriguing analysis of how commercial advertising operates as a magical network of paradoxes. As an aesthetic art form and also business enterprise, advertising enlists an elite few of advertising creatives to transform ordinary mass products into unique aspirational ideals through idea creation. The process begins with transient idea ephemera but, through networked transformations, it solidifies ideas into human relationships and advertised product goods across contexts and audiences. Malefyt identifies three elements—the magician, formula, and rite (also recognized by Mauss and Malinowski)—as essential to magical production and network connections. The chapter concludes by revealing how symbolic power and authority in advertising are surrounded by contradiction and ambiguity, which enable the manipulation of reality as a key feature of magic, both inside and outside advertising agencies.

Timothy de Waal Malefyt

Chapter 11. Implementing Car-Free Cities: Rationale, Requirements, Barriers and Facilitators

Cities across the world are beginning to shift away from private cars and towards more sustainable, healthy, just and inclusive mobilities. Hamburg, Oslo and Madrid have recently announced their plans to become (partly) car free. Despite the accepted importance of moving towards such transport systems, many cities struggle with the transition towards becoming car free. We describe the rationale, prerequisites, barriers, facilitators and strategies for car free cities. We describe 9 prerequisites to facilitate the transition towards becoming car free. Compact cities may be easier to refit to car free cities than sprawled cities. The main challenges will be how to change existing infrastructure that was mainly designed for cars to infrastructure for active and public transport, and how to change people’s perceptions, attitudes and behaviors. Retail interest and the car industry may be some of the biggest barriers. More research on cities in the vanguard of becoming car free is needed to urge this transition. Some cities have initiated strategies to create car free spaces. There is a need for creating good and feasible strategies and scenarios, and research evidence which can facilitate the move towards healthier cities.

Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Jeroen Bastiaanssen, Stephanie Sersli, E. Owen D. Waygood, Haneen Khreis

7. Customer Journey Touchpoints und Content-Arten

Customer Touchpoints finden wir überall, wo der Kunde mit einer Marke, Dienstleistungen, Produkten eines Unternehmens oder dem Unternehmen selbst in Berührung treten. Customer Touchpoints sind alle Kontaktpunkte, die Eindrücke und Erlebnisse bei den Kunden hinterlassen. Diese Eindrücke können vom Produkt selbst oder der Dienstleistung, den Mitarbeitern des Unternehmens oder allen weiteren Kommunikationsmodellen ausgelöst werden, und zwar sowohl online als auch offline (Groissberger 2017).Es gibt Touchpoints, die von den Unternehmen und Marken steuerbar sind. Dazu gehört bezahlte Werbung. Zusätzlich existieren Touchpoints, die nicht oder nur indirekt steuerbar sind. Dazu gehören zum Beispiel persönliche Meinungen, die als „Word of Mouth“ über soziale Medien geteilt werden.Mit smarten Technologien und den Personal Mobile Devices, allen voran dem Smartphone, kommen weitere Touchpoints dazu, die nicht nur unidirektional Einfluss auf eine Kaufentscheidung oder Verwendung haben, sondern darüber hinaus eine direkte Interaktion ermöglichen. Interaktionen in diesem Sinne können Content-Abfragen sein oder der Start einer digitalen Anwendung zum Produkt (Beispiel: Fitness-App zum Sportschuh) oder Statusabfragen eines Gerätes.Bei all den nun digitalisierbaren und neu hinzukommenden Touchpoints müssen Marken sehr genau darauf achten, ganzheitliche Markenerlebnisse zu liefern, und sich nicht der Gefahr aussetzen, die verschiedenen Touchpoints als fragmentierte Experiences zu bespielen. Marken können nur erfolgreich sein, wenn sie authentisch kommunizieren und ihren Fokus konsequent auf die Konsumentensicht verlagern.

Tanja Kruse Brandão, Gerd Wolfram

6. Smarte Technologien smarte Technologien

Das Leben von Morgen wird smart und zwar in allen Bereichen. Schon heute wird intelligente Technologie vielerorts eingesetzt. Für die Realisierung von zentraler Bedeutung ist das Internet der Dinge, also die intelligente Vernetzung verschiedener Gegenstände und Objekte untereinander und nach außen über das Internet. So entstehen smarte Objekte, die als Schnittstelle zwischen der virtuellen und der realen Welt agieren.Möglich wird dies durch verschiedene smarte Technologien, sogenannte Proximity- und Location-based Technologien, Near Response-Technologien, Mixed Commerce Technologien und Conversational Technologien. Diese verzahnen physische Objekte, Medien und den Menschen mit digitalen Inhalten.Sie ermöglichen die Realisierung neuer digitaler Touchpoints in der Customer Journey und fördern die Interaktion zwischen Marke, Produkt oder Services mit dem Käufer und dem Konsumenten. Die Kenntnis der Technologien, ihrer Vor- und Nachteile erleichtern eine differenzierte Einsatzentscheidung.

Tanja Kruse Brandão, Gerd Wolfram

9. Praxisbeispiele entlang der Customer und Consumer Journey

Bei den großen und wachsenden Herausforderungen der Digitalisierung in allen Bereichen sind kleine überschaubare Pilotprojekte oft ein erster wichtiger Einstieg, um sich an die neuen Dimensionen heranzutasten – sei es nun in Form einer neuen direkten Kundenansprache oder der Gewinnung von echten Insights in seine eigenen Kunden, unabhängig von Befragungen und Fokusgruppen.Dieses Kapitel stellt aktuelle Praxisbeispiele und Anwendungen von Digital Connection, Proximity Marketing und dem Einsatz von smarten Technologien vor. Die über fünfzig Fallbeispiele beschreiben, wie smarte Technologien in den Bereichen Konsumgüter, Werbung und Medien, Handel, TextilienTextilien, HaushaltsgeräteHaushaltsgerät, SportSport und Events, Industrie und GastronomieIndustrie, Reisen und kulturellen Einrichtungen heute schon eingesetzt werden und welchen Nutzen sie für Produktentwicklung, Logistik, Handel und Kommunikation haben.

Tanja Kruse Brandão, Gerd Wolfram

1. Einführung

Marken begegnen uns heute fast schon überall – in Museen, Arztpraxen, Fußballstadien, Bahnhöfen, Haltestellen, Talkshows, Spielfilmen, Nachrichtenportalen, Schulen und Universitäten, Büchern und an vielen anderen Orten. Sie lassen keine Gelegenheit aus, um auf sich aufmerksam zu machen. Die Marke folgt dem Konsumenten auf Schritt und Tritt und versucht, eine langfristige Kunden- und Markenbindung aufzubauen.Immer mehr Unternehmen zielen darauf ab, ihren Kunden ein umfängliches Markenerlebnis entlang der Informations-, Entscheidungs-, Einkaufs- (Customer Journey) und Nutzungsprozesse (Consumer Journey) zu bieten. Das strategische und systematische Management aller Touchpoints zwischen Marke und Mensch wird damit erfolgsentscheidend und stellt alle daran Beteiligten vor große Herausforderungen.Die Digital Connection umfasst alle Bereiche, die zur Entwicklung einer digitalen Strategie und der Realisierung der dazugehörigen Touchpoints notwendig sind.

Tanja Kruse Brandão, Gerd Wolfram

Intervention Opportunities for Capacity Building in Technology Transfer

Within the last decades, an extensive body of literature has focused on the question how technology transfer effects the returns on investments in the research system, on the university level and the regional or national level alike. In conjunction with this research in innovation economy, the question on success factors of technology transfer offices and activities arose. Why are certain universities or regions more successful in technology transfer than others? In the United States the revenues from technology transfer have increased almost tenfold from $160 million in 1991 to $1.4 billion in 2005, reaching $2.6 billion in 2012 (AUTM 2013). However, this success appears to be highly volatile. Some very successful universities earn a big proportion from this budget, while the majority of smaller technology transfer offices are struggling with earning their expenses. On a lower magnitude, this effect can be observed in Europe as well. Previous research showed that there is no clear evidence for this difference in performance, which rather appears to be the result of an intertwined web of various influence factors. Knowing the determinants on the success of technology transfer offices is important for the design of any kind of capacity building programs, as these influence factors present potential intervention opportunities for improving the capacity of technology transfer offices. This chapter provides an in-depth review of the existing research in technology transfer with the goal of spotting the identified influence factors of performance success.

Lutz Maicher, Katja Dralle Mjos, Liina Tonisson

Aktivierungstechniken zur Kontaktherstellung in der Kommunikation einsetzen

Unsere Umwelt verändert sich rasant. Tagtäglich strömen immer mehr Eindrücke und Informationen auf den Menschen ein. Dessen kognitive Kapazitäten sind jedoch biologisch begrenzt. Sie entwickeln sich nur bedingt weiter. Durch selektive Wahrnehmung nehmen Menschen deshalb nur das wahr, was sie interessiert und/oder ihre Aufmerksamkeit erregt. Für Markenverantwortliche ergibt sich hieraus die Schwierigkeit, mit Kommunikation ihre Zielgruppe trotz herrschender Informationsüberflutung zu erreichen. Das Konzept der Aktivierung stellt eine Möglichkeit dar, die Aufmerksamkeit auf Markenbotschaften zu lenken, d. h. einen Kontakt zu erzielen und diesen idealerweise wirksam zu nutzen. Der nachfolgende Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit den Fragen, wie über Aktivierung Kontakt zu einer Zielgruppe hergestellt und genutzt werden kann, welche Risiken mit der aktivierenden Gestaltung von Kommunikationsmaßnahmen verbunden sind und wie Aktivierung gemessen wird.

Franz-Rudolf Esch, Sabrina Eichenauer, Christina Baumgartl

Visuelle Reize in der Kommunikation effektiv umsetzen

In der heutigen Kommunikation ist der Großteil der Werbung – über alle Medien hinweg gesehen – durch visuelle Reize geprägt. Studien zufolge erzeugt Werbung mit visuellen Reizen im Vergleich zu rein textbasierter Werbung positivere Einstellungen zur Werbung, der beworbenen Marke und der beworbenen Produktkategorie. Die Dominanz der Bildkommunikation lässt sich auf die zunehmende Informationsüberlastung der Konsumenten, die aus der kontinuierlich ansteigenden Informationsüberflutung resultiert, zurückführen. Der Wunsch nach kognitiv entlastender Kommunikation tritt so immer mehr in den Vordergrund. Um diesen Problemen und Wünschen gerecht zu werden, ist die Kommunikation mittels visueller Reize unumgänglich.

Franz-Rudolf Esch, Elisabeth von Einem, Sabrina Eichenauer

2. Fundraising bei Privatpersonen

In der Definition des Fundraising-Begriffs (Kapitel 1) wurden vier Gruppen von Ressourcenbereitstellern (Privatpersonen, Unternehmen, Stiftungen und öffentliche Institutionen) unterschieden. In Kapitel 2 wird das Vorgehen im Fundraising bei Privatpersonen vorgestellt. Systematisiert anhand der Spenderpyramide wird anhand zahlreicher Best Practice Beispiele anschaulich erläutert, wie Interessenten, Erst-, Mehrfach-, Dauer-, Groß- und Testamentspender für eine gemeinwohlorientierte Organisation gewonnen, gebunden und (bei Abwanderung) zurückgewonnen werden können. Da Fundraising als eine Erscheinungsform des Marketing betrachtet wird, werden – in Analogie zum Marketing-Mix – alle erforderlichen Entscheidungen im Rahmen des Fundraising-Mix (Produkt-, Preis-, Vertriebs- und Kommunikationspolitik) vorgestellt und anhand zahlreicher Best Practice Beispiele veranschaulicht. Aufgrund seiner steigenden Bedeutung wird das Online-Fundraising besonders hervorgehoben und auf 80 Seiten detailliert in seinen neuesten Entwicklungen vorgestellt. Zahlreiche Abbildungen, Tabellen, Tipps, Kapitelzusammenfassungen und Literaturempfehlungen runden das Kapitel ab.

Michael Urselmann

Agent-Based Activity/Travel Microsimulation: What’s Next?

This chapter briefly summarizes and reviews the current generation of operational activity/tour-based model systems. These model systems are developed to varying degrees within an agent-based microsimulation (ABM) framework. ABM provides an extremely flexible, powerful, and efficient means for modelling complex spatial-temporal, socio-economic behaviour such as travel. A high-level definition of microsimulation in general and agent-based microsimulation in particular is presented. Overall, currently operational activity/travel model systems represent a sound “first generation” of such methods, but they are far from realizing the full potential of the ABM concept. A wide range of issues and challenges in advancing the ABM-based activity/travel modelling state of the art are discussed, leading to a few suggestions for key “next steps” in model development.

Eric J. Miller

Developing a Spatial Transferability Platform to Analyze National-Level Impacts of Connected Automated Vehicles

A recent application of the spatial transferability approach is to assess the potential impacts of the emerging connected automated mobility technology on people’s travel behavior at the national level. While there are a few transportation simulation frameworks which can account for potential impacts of this technology in a simulated geographical context, there is yet to be any literature documenting disaggregated estimates of large-scale impacts of connected automated vehicles (CAVs) on travel behavior at the national level. Therefore, in order to provide a platform to assess national-level impacts of CAVs, this study develops a methodological framework based on transferability techniques, which uses data and models from a smaller geographical area—the POLARIS simulation results for the CAVs scenario in the Chicago metropolitan area—to generate disaggregate travel data at the national level. Comparison of the distributions of the transferred variables at the regional and the national contexts indicates that the platform is capable of transferring travel behavior indices to the national level with high level of accuracy.

Ramin Shabanpour, Nima Golshani, Thomas S. Stephens, Joshua Auld, Abolfazl Mohammadian

Crossmediale Verknüpfung von Dialogstrategien

Das Dialogmarketing verfolgt das Ziel der direkten Interaktion mit Zielpersonen und nutzt eine breite Palette von Medien. Das crossmediale Dialogmarketing mit der Integration von Online- und Offline-Medien führt zu einer Verstärkung der Kommunikationswirkung. Durch Kampagnenmanagement und automatisierte Prozesse sind selbst komplexe Kampagnen über zahlreiche Medien parallel organisierbar. Die Verzahnung von Online-Kanälen mit klassischen Offline-Kanälen ist zum Standard geworden, da die Konsumenten unterschiedliche Informations- und Kaufkanäle kombinieren und Informationssuche, Kaufanbahnung und Kaufimpuls oftmals in anderen Kanälen stattfinden als der eigentliche Kauf. Diese Spuren der Verbraucher zu erfassen und zusammenhängend zu analysieren, ist die die Aufgabe der Customer Journey, die einen umfassenden Blick auf die Kaufentscheidungsprozesse der Konsumenten ermöglicht.

Heinrich Holland

Wenn Utopia auf Realität trifft

Konzeption und Veränderungen am Beispiel des israelischen Kibbutz

Die Kibbutz-Bewegung in Israel (vormals Palästina) zeichnete sich in den ersten Jahrzehnten durch zwei Utopie-Konzepte aus: durch eine sozialistische Utopie der Gleichheit (kein Privatbesitz an Produktionsmitteln, kollektive Produktion, kollektiver Konsum) sowie durch eine pädagogische Utopie, nach der ein „neuer Mensch“ durch eine kollektive Erziehung in den Kinderhäusern geschaffen werden sollte. In der mehr als einhundertjährigen Geschichte der Kibbutz-Bewegung wurden allerdings in den vergangenen fünf Jahrzehnten in den meisten der etwa 270 Siedlungen grundlegende Veränderungen vorgenommen – z. B. Privatisierung der Wohnungen, unterschiedliche Entlohnungen und nicht zuletzt die Abschaffung der kollektiven Erziehung. Alternative Lebensformen sind durch den antinomischen Konflikt der Bewahrung oder Erneuerung gekennzeichnet. Die nachfolgenden Generationen haben in den Kibbutzim – meist gegen die Interessen der Pioniergeneration – die Veränderungen durchgesetzt und dadurch das utopische Modell weitgehend aufgegeben, auch wenn in den Siedlungen im Vergleich zur Außenwelt nach wie vor erheblich weniger Ungleichheit gegeben ist.

Maria Fölling-Albers

Chapter 36. Household Energy Consumption in Slum Areas: A Case Study of Tacloban City, Philippines

This chapter presents the results of a survey on household energy consumption in existing slum settlements and the resettlement site in the city of Tacloban, Philippines. The results showed that the household income level in the resettlement site was surprisingly not improved compared to that of the existing slums. It was found that both groups shared almost similar household energy consumption pattern and their annual energy consumption was approximately 19–20 GJ including out-of-home energy consumption. Among all the uses, cooking consumed the highest energy, corresponding to 71% in the existing slums and 74% in the resettlement site. Further results revealed that the households in the resettlement site became more of biomass users (wood fuel) as compared to those in the existing slums.

Eric Casimero Oliva, Tetsu Kubota

Assessing Target Audiences of Digital Public Health Campaigns: A Computational Approach

As a larger proportion of society participates in social media, public health organizations are increasingly using digital campaigns to engage and educate their target audiences. Computational methods such as social network analysis and machine learning can provide social media campaigns with a rare opportunity to better understand their followers at scale. In this short paper, we demonstrate how such methods can help inform program evaluation through a case study of FDA’s The Real Cost anti-smoking Twitter campaign (@knowtherealcost). By mining publicly available Twitter data, campaigns can identify and understand key communities to help maximize reach of campaign messages to their target audiences.

Robert F. Chew, Annice Kim, Vivian Chen, Paul Ruddle, Antonio Morgan-Lopez

Innovative Strategies on External Media: Dialogues Between Architecture, Graphic Design and Visual Arts

The paper analyzes the innovative strategies on the graphic design developed for external media in São Paulo city which promote dialogues between architecture, graphic design and the installation language, a concept proper to the visual arts field. For the analysis, two examples of installation in public spaces are shown: the artistic installation “Chromatic Program” developed by the artist Amelia Toledo for the passageway of Arcoverde Underground Station at Rio de Janeiro in 1998, and an external media installation designed for the Secretariat of Tourism, Sports and Entertainment of Pernambuco to improve this northeast province tourism, that was located at the Angelica Avenue Underground Station passageway in December 2017. Using a comparison methodology based on artistic installation concepts, we verify a close relationship between the artistic and the external media installation strategies which enhance the understanding of contemporary graphic design acting in urban landscapes.

Angela Maria dos Santos, Gisela Belluzzo de Campos

The Transition to a New University Campus as an Opportunity for the Urban Regeneration of the Former Milan Expo 2015 Areas

In Milan, in the 1990s, the Ministry of Education and Research inaugurated the policy of opening new decentralised university campuses with a twofold aim: to relieve pressure on the central headquarters and, at the same time, restore functionality and liveliness to the suburban neighbourhoods, which have been affected in the last two decades by the decentralisation of industry. The paper presents a research work still in progress, carried out by a group of the Politecnico di Milano on behalf of the Università degli Studi di Milano, concerning the definition of the meta-project briefing for a new campus to be located on the ex EXPO 2015 area. Although the event was a formidable territorial marketing tool for the city, a new destination for the space occupied by the pavilions must be implemented for the future. The company that owns the area, Arexpo, decides to build a scientific and technological park in which public and private institutions must be housed, including the new campus for the science faculties of the university. The project appears as an opportunity to make a transition to a more environmentally, socially and economically sustainable educational and research site. The Politecnico di Milano research group uses methods at the crossroads between Strategic, Service and Spatial Design to immediately involve the various primary stakeholders in a collaborative project to create the guidelines that will be given to the architects in charge of planning the new site.

Paola Trapani, Luisa Collina, Barbara Camocini, Laura Daglio, Martina Mazzarello

Redefining the Customer Centricity Approach in the Digital Age

When user experience (UX) issues in information and communication technology are investigated, the application context is usually determined by situations where people use and interact with software systems. In this position paper, we address the specific application context where users are also in the role of customers, although they might not be the one who “bought” the product or service. Customer is here defined in the more general term as the key stakeholder. The paper explores the relationship between the notion of “user-centric” design and the notion of “Customer Centricity”, a concept that has been around in marketing and business already in the so called pre-digital era. Companies agree that the customer should be in the focus of their business. But they do not really follow the core idea of Customer Centricity. This results in the Customer Centricity Paradox: The more data about the individual customer are available at the touch of a button, the more he (In this paper, the term ‘he’ is used for simplifying reasons, but it refers to all genders.) is reduced to a set of data points and serves only as a means to an end. He is not in the focus, he is the product. For this reason, Customer Centricity needs to be rethought and redefined. We introduce and propose the Activity-oriented Customer Centricity (ACC) approach. If companies do not want to turn the Customer Centricity approach against their customers, then they must follow the ACC approach as in the concept of Humane Customer Centricity.

Christine Riedmann-Streitz

Klassische Werbung als Instrument der B-to-B-Markenführung – Hier herrscht Lexware

Die Fallstudie Lexware belegt, dass auch im B‐to‐B‐Bereich durch den intelligenten Einsatz von klassischer Werbung Kommunikationsziele erfüllt, eine Marke gestärkt und Marktziele realisiert werden können. Als Erfolgsfaktoren der klassischen Kommunikation für Lexware lassen sich die Fokussierung auf zentrale und relevante Botschaften („Ordnung“, „Fertig“, „Einfach machen“), eine eigenständige Marken‑ und Bildsprache, ein origineller und differenzierender Kommunikationsstil sowie ein hoher Integrationsgrad der verschiedenen Kommunikationsinstrumente (u. a. Anzeigen, Direct Mails, Ambient Media) identifizieren. Diese Erfolgsbausteine lassen sich auch auf andere Marken und Kommunikationssituationen adaptieren.

Armin Reins, Veronika Classen

Cascading Probability Distributions in Agent-Based Models: An Application to Behavioural Energy Wastage

This paper presents a methodology to cascade probabilistic models and agent-based models for fine-grained data simulation, which improves the accuracy of the results and flexibility to study the effect of detailed parameters. The methodology is applied on residential energy consumption behaviour, where an agent-based model takes advantage of probability distributions used in probabilistic models to generate energy consumption of a house with a focus on energy waste. The implemented model is based on large samples of real data and provides flexibility to study the effect of social parameters on the energy consumption of families. The results of the model highlighted the advantage of the cascading methodology and resulted in two domain-specific conclusions: (1) as the number of occupants increases, the family becomes more efficient, and (2) young, unemployed, and part-time occupants cause less energy waste in small families than full-time and older occupants. General insights on how to target families with energy interventions are included at last.

Fatima Abdallah, Shadi Basurra, Mohamed Medhat Gaber

Chapter 7. Intuitive Interaction Experiences with User Groups

In this book chapter, we will reflect on our experiences gained in the context of testing solutions like those of the SafeMove project. The project aimed to increase the mobility of the elderly, both near their home and on journeys. Currently, elderly people often avoid leaving their home because they feel insecure outdoors. They might have different health problems, sometimes depression and cognitive disorders. As a consequence, their reduced presence in normal daily life results in social isolation. The design of the SafeMove system is intended to encourage self-confidence in peoples’ own abilities by providing home-based physical and cognitive training as well as location-based aids during outdoor life activities. The actual use of technology seemed appropriate as a potential support for this purpose. Conversely, the question arises; does the target group accept those devices and what results in an optimal user experience? Thus, it is not only about interaction but in this case about intuitive interaction. However, what makes an interaction intuitive? Interaction is intuitive when we intuitively (in advance) know how the interaction works. This is especially important when we assume people experience neurocognitive disorders at an early stage.

Marten Ellßel, Peter Knackfuß, Michael Lawo

A Micro-Macro Simulation Model Applied to the French Economy: The Case of a Euro’s Real Depreciation

In this chapter, we use a Micro-Macro simulation model to evaluate the distributional effects of a real depreciation of the Euro on the French economy. Our Micro-Macro model consists of a microsimulation model and a CGE model which are integrated using an iterative approach. We find that a 10% real depreciation of the Euro stimulates the aggregate demand by increasing exports and reducing imports, which increases real GDP by 0.7% and reduces the unemployment rate in the economy by 2 percentage points. At the individual level, we find that the macroeconomic shock reduces poverty and, to a lesser extent, income inequality. In particular, the decrease in the equilibrium real wage slightly reduces disposable income for the employed, while the reduction of unemployment substantially increases disposable income of people who find a job, often bringing them out of poverty.

Riccardo Magnani, Luca Piccoli, Martine Carré, Amedeo Spadaro

Chapter 26. The 2016–2017 Central Apennines Seismic Sequence: Analogies and Differences with Recent Italian Earthquakes

On August 24th, 2016, a severe, very long seismic sequence started in Central Italy. It was characterized by nine major shocks M5+, two of which with moment magnitude Mw 6.0 (August 24th, 2016) and 6.5 (October 30th, 2016). A complex seismogenic fault system was activated, with the rupture of several segments. The affected area, which develops in NNW-SSE direction along the Apennines, was very large, due to both the large magnitude values and the distance among the epicenters of the nine major shocks. The maximum observed (cumulated) intensity was XI in both MCS and EMS scales. After 1 year, 78,500 seismic events had been recorded by the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology national seismic network. 299 people lost their life, all due to the first main shock. Devastating damage was experienced by buildings, cultural heritage, roads and other lifelines, resulting in huge economical direct losses.The emergency response was coordinated, according to the Law 225/1992, by the Italian National Department of Civil Protection. The main scientific features of the sequence and the main technical emergency activities are shown, discussed and, when possible, compared to the main recent Italian earthquakes, i.e., 1997 Umbria-Marche, the 2009 Abruzzo and 2012 Emilia earthquakes, pointing out analogies and differences.

Mauro Dolce, Daniela Di Bucci

Chapter 4. Ammonium Sulphate

Throughout the period under review here, ammonium sulphate, because of its several sources, was the most important nitrogen fertilizer. The sulphate’s industrial origins ranged from coal-based processes—namely the coal gas and coke oven works—to production from calcium cyanamide and then synthetic ammonia. By the mid-1920s, ammonium sulphate made from the nitrogen capture processes had considerably reduced demand for Chilean nitrate.

Anthony S. Travis

16. Analyzing the Relevant Markets

This chapter deals with the analysis of the relevant markets. Section 16.1 shows that the relevant markets include the served markets of the existing businesses as well as the markets of possible diversification projects. Then, Sect. 16.2 presents a generic model to describe a market as a system. With the help of an example, it is shown how the generic model can be adapted to the specific situation of a concrete market. The introduction of success factors follows in Sect. 16.3. Then, Sect. 16.4 shows how to define and analyze submarkets. An inset introduces the industry segment analysis as a specific approach of submarket definition and analysis and illustrates it with the help of an example. Finally, Sect. 16.5 proposes a process for market analysis.

Rudolf Grünig, Richard Kühn

Kapitel 1. Der Werbemarkt heute

Jede Auseinandersetzung, mit welchem Thema auch immer, sollte auf der Grundlage einer Begriffsdefinition erfolgen. Das ist im vorliegenden Falle schwierig, was in diesem Abschnitt gezeigt werden soll. Was also verstehen Praxis und Wissenschaft unter dem Begriff „Werbung“? Bis zum Anfang des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts hieß das ganze „Reklame“, erst später wurde aus der Reklame Werbung und der Begriff Reklame stand, folgt man Meyers großem Taschenlexikon in zwanzig Bänden, nur noch für „übertriebene, aufdringliche Werbeaussagen“.

Ralf Nöcker

Kapitel 5. Die zweite Dimension des Verhandelns – Sie selbst in der Verhandlung

Dieses Kapitel stellt Sie als Verhandler in den Mittelpunkt. Es gibt Ihnen Antworten auf die Fragen: Wie wertschätzend bin ich in meiner Kommunikation, um die Beziehung zu meinen Verhandlungspartnern zu optimieren? Wie bleibe ich dabei zugleich stark in meinen Aussagen? Welche psychologischen Effekte kann ich zur Führung meiner Gesprächspartner einsetzen? Was kann ich in den typischen schwierigen Situationen tun, wenn es etwa um den Preis geht, darum, die Besonderheiten meiner Leistung herauszuarbeiten oder einfach „Nein“ zu sagen? Wie bleiben ich in diesen Situationen ruhig und handlungsfähig?

Frank Przybylski

Kapitel 2. Charakterisierung und Bedeutung mobiler Web-Befragungen

Im Kern dieses Kapitels steht die Präzisierung der fokussierten mobilen Web-Befragungen. Um mobile Web-Befragungen in das komplexe Feld der mobilen Marktforschung einordnen zu können, wird zunächst eine Systematisierung dieses Forschungsbereichs vorgenommen (Abschnitt 2.1). Daran anschließend erfolgt eine systematische Betrachtung unterschiedlicher Ausprägungen mobiler Web-Befragungen (Abschnitt 2.2), um diesbezüglich eine Eingrenzung des Untersuchungsgegenstands vornehmen zu können.

Marie Schulte

Kapitel 1. Einleitung

Kaum eine technische Innovation hat unsere Mediennutzung in den letzten Jahren so grundlegend verändert wie das Smartphone. Im Jahr 2016 lag die Anzahl der Smartphone-Nutzer in Deutschland bereits bei 49 Millionen (vgl. comScore n.d.). Die hohe Durchdringung der mobilen Endgeräte kennzeichnet den Anfang eines digitalen Zeitalters, in dem das Internet nicht mehr allein durch die Nutzung eines stationären PCs geprägt ist, sondern zum allgegenwärtigen Begleiter unseres Alltags zählt (vgl. Rieber 2012, S. 1). Laut der AGOF griffen im Jahr 2015 mehr als 34 Millionen Personen über ein mobiles Endgerät auf das Internet zu – das heißt ca. 50% der deutschen Wohnbevölkerung ab 14 Jahren (vgl. AGOF mobile facts 2015, S. 6).

Marie Schulte

Chapter 12. Optimal Operation of Renewable-Based Residential Energy Hubs for Minimizing PV Curtailment

This chapter models a residential multi-carrier energy system as an energy hub. A combined heat and power (CHP) unit, a gas boiler, a heat storage system, a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and photovoltaic (PV) generation are modeled in the proposed residential energy hub to provide heat and electrical demands. This chapter also investigates the issue of PV generation curtailment in the operation of the residential energy hub. To this end, an optimization-based problem is solved not only to minimize the operation cost of the energy hub, but also to minimize the PV curtailment. The impact of PHEV and the heat storage system on the operation of the energy hub and the amount of PV curtailment is investigated in this chapter. Since the availability of PHEV during a day is not usually concurrent with the PV generation, the results show that considering PHEV in the energy hub model may have low impacts on the PV curtailment. However, the presence of the storage system can reduce the PV curtailment significantly. The presented study and results show the effectiveness of the proposed optimization procedure in this chapter.

Soroush Senemar, Alireza Seifi, Mohammad Rastegar

ABOUT YOU – Entwicklung eines neuen Attributionsansatzes

Wie sieht die optimale Verteilung eines Marketing-Budgets auf einzelne Marketing-Kanäle aus? Welche Kontaktpunkte (und mit welcher Gewichtung) führen zu einer erfolgreichen Conversion? Diesen und weiteren Fragen müssen sich immer mehr Marketing-Verantwortliche in einer zunehmend komplexer werdenden Vertriebswelt stellen. Das junge und erfolgreiche Fashion-E-Commerce-Unternehmen ABOUT YOU hat gemeinsam mit Google im Jahr 2015 einen neuen granularen Attributionsansatz entwickelt, um noch mehr Transparenz über die Customer Journey seiner Kunden zu erhalten. In diesem Beitrag werden Vor- und Nachteile verschiedener Attributionsmodelle an konkreten Beispielen aufgezeigt sowie der bislang einzigartige Attributionsansatz von ABOUT YOU erläutert.

Alexander Bellin

Kanalexzellenz im Bereich Möbel

Dieser Beitrag macht deutlich, wie radikal sich die Mediennutzung und das kanalübergreifende Informationsverhalten von Konsumenten verändert haben. Der Möbelhandel kann nur erfolgreich sein, wenn er diese Veränderung auch in seiner Kommunikationsstrategie berücksichtigt. Möbelhändler erhalten zudem einen Einblick, wie sie ihr Wissen über den Kunden mittels Customer-Journey-Analysen aufbauen und integrieren können. Während für Kunden kanalübergreifend relevante Kommunikation und zuverlässige Services zum Hygienefaktor werden, sind viele Unternehmen noch weit davon entfernt, Kanal-Exzellenz aufzubauen. Dieser Beitrag zeigt im Überblick, welchen Faktoren bei der Entwicklung von Kanal-Exzellenz eine besondere Bedeutung zukommt und welche Dimensionen für eine sinnvolle Verknüpfung zwischen Online- und stationärem Handel berücksichtigt werden müssen. Die Analyse von fünf ausgewählten Anbietern zeigt exemplarisch auf, wie diese das Thema Kanal-Exzellenz in der Praxis aufgreifen und umsetzen.

Niklas Mahrdt, Liza Man

Smartphone Adoption: Design of Factors Within the Framework of Theory of Consumption Values

After the initial feature mobile phone adoption, there is a widespread smartphone proliferation. The Theory of Consumption Values (TCV) is a marketing theory that explains purchase behavior of consumer goods and services. The framework consists of functional, social, epistemic, hedonic, and conditional values; the latter being functional and/or social values present only in a specific situation. TCV is used in mobile device adoption literature disproportionably more often than in other fields. However, virtually all TCV studies focused on smartphones are qualitative. The aim of this research is to design factors which could be later used in quantitative studies. These factors are identified using principal component analysis. With regards to the results, there were five factors identified for functional values, six factors for social values, three factor for epistemic values, four factors for hedonic values, and seven factors for conditional values.

Katarína Petrovčiková, František Sudzina

Chapter 1. The Complexity of Food Waste at Consumption Level: Definitions, Data, Causes and Impacts

Food losses and waste represent a severe issue that is compromising our Planet’s sustainability. Every year over one-third of global food production gets lost or wasted along the food supply chain (FSC) causing several economic, environmental and social impacts. Due to the importance and magnitude of the phenomenon, the reduction of food losses and waste has been included within the Sustainable Development Goals proposed by the UN for the Agenda 2030. This introductory chapter aims at shedding light on the state of the art of food waste phenomenon, in order to highlight the literature knowledge and trends in the field and provide a starting point for future research. A comprehensive literature review over a forty-year time span (1977–2017) will shed light on the main and most updated data, definitions adopted, main causes along the FSC, and different impacts originated, with a special focus on the consumption phase.

Ludovica Principato

Versuch einer Annäherung an elterliches Zurückhalten und Kindeswohlgefährdung

Im Mittelpunkt dieses Beitrages steht die Hypothese, dass es in Fällen von familiärer Kindeswohlgefährdung eine Verbindung zum Phänomen des elterlichen Zurückhaltens gibt bzw. geben kann. Mittels dreier unterschiedlicher Zugänge widmet sich der Beitrag einer ersten Annäherung (exemplarische Verlaufsanalyse bekannt gewordener Kinderschutzfälle, Skizze des internationalen Forschungsstandes, qualitative Fachkräfte-Interviews mit Fachkräften in der schulischen und außerschulischen Erziehungshilfe). Letztlich können aufgrund der gewählten Zugänge keine ausreichend validen Aussagen zu der angenommenen Hypothese getroffen werden, jedoch muss angesichts der erzielten Anhaltspunkte für eine stärkere Auseinandersetzung mit diesem Forschungsdefizit plädiert werden.

Birgit Herz, Nora Haertel

Kapitel 6. Wie Unternehmen aus Micro-Influencern Co-Marketer machen

Das Influencer-Marketing hat sich zu einem differenzierten Marketing-Bereich mit sehr unterschiedlichen Ansätzen und Zielsetzungen entwickelt. Dabei ist Influencer nicht gleich Influencer. Dieser Artikel stellt die unterschiedlichen Kategorien von Meinungsmachern vor. Ein besonderer Schwerpunkt liegt dabei auf der Zusammenarbeit mit Micro- bzw. Real-Life Influencern im Rahmen des Word-of-Mouth-Marketings. Zum Abschluss zeigen Unternehmen, wie sie das neue Verhältnis zwischen Marken und Konsumenten nutzen können, um Influencer als Co-Marketer wertsteigernd für sich zu gewinnen.

Melanie Lammers

Chapter 1. The Urgent Need for Advancing Urban Sustainability

The growth of global urbanisation and the unprecedented rise and spread of information and communication technologies (ICTs) are seen by some as two of the most important trends in the modern world. Another is the ever-changing needs and lifestyles of urban residents. To these three, we would add a fourth, which we regard as even more important than those already mentioned: the rise of global environmental challenges, including, but not restricted to, global climate change. This introductory chapter looks at the first trend (global urbanisation) in the light of the fourth trend, discussing the various environmental and resource problems that cities will increasingly face in the coming decades. Ongoing global warming is also expected to have a disproportionate impact on cities and the risks their residents will face, given their dense concentrations of both people and built infrastructure.

Stephen Jia Wang, Patrick Moriarty

Chapter 3. Personal Branding and the Challenges of the Information Revolution

This chapter characterizes the process of shaping a personal brand with an overview of the challenges posed by the information revolution. This chapter includes a comparison of traditional methods of shaping a personal brand and e-branding. It presents the characteristic traits of each strategy and places them into the broader context of generational differences among message recipients. It illustrates the marketing potential of the Internet with examples of effective e-branding campaigns.

Mateusz Grzesiak

3. Operatives Markenmanagement

Im dritten Kapitel steht die operative Umsetzung des Markenmanagements gegenüber den internen und externen Zielgruppen der Marke im Vordergrund. Zunächst befasst sich das operative interne Markenmanagement mit der Vermittlung der Markenidentität an die internen Zielgruppen der Marke. Hierbei sollen folgende Fragen beantwortet werden:- Welche Moderatoren beeinflussen die Wirkungen von Markenwissen und Brand Commitment auf das Brand Citizenship Behavior der Mitarbeiter?- Mit welchen Instrumenten können die Zielgrößen des internen Markenmanagements erreicht werden?Daran anschließend wird im Rahmen des operativen externen Markenmanagements auf die Vermittlung des Nutzenversprechens an die externen Zielgruppen eingegangen. Von zentralem Interesse hierbei sind die Fragen:- Welche Bedeutung hat das Management von Brand Touch Points und Customer Journey?- Welche Rolle spielt die konkrete Ausgestaltung des Marketing-Mix für die Erreichung relevanter externer Zielgrößen?- Welche Rolle spielt die multisensuale Markenführung bei der Generierung von Markenerlebnissen?Aufgrund der Entwicklungen im Bereich der Digitalisierung wird ein besonderer Fokus auf das Markenmanagement im digitalen Kontext gelegt. Hierbei stehen folgende Fragen im Vordergrund:- Welchen zentralen Herausforderungen sieht sich die Markenführung in der Ära der Digitalisierung gegenüber?- Welche Instrumente der Online- und Social-Media-Kommunikation stehen Marken zur Verfügung?- Welche Bedeutung haben soziale Medien?

Christoph Burmann, Tilo Halaszovich, Michael Schade, Rico Piehler

Empowerment of Women Through Public Programs in Rural West Bengal: A Study on National Rural Livelihood Mission in a Block of Purulia

The present study based on a village-level survey in the backward district of Purulia of West Bengal finds that involvement in the group can do a large regarding women empowerment. Loans from the groups can be a great source to provide self-employment for the involved women, which develops self-esteem among women, helps to raise their voices against any corruption, and uplifts their position in their families. Women associated with groups are comparatively more aware of different facts and, therefore, have managed to get panchayat’s assistance for sanitation and electrification facilities. We do not find any enhancement in expenditure as a result of group association or group loans. But groups and group loans have done a large in terms of economic empowerment. Group loans and association with groups have socially empowered women as women associated with groups can stand beside other women, largely influence the family decision, participate more in public and political gatherings, and engage themselves with different sorts of social gatherings. All the implementing agencies should work in a coordinated manner to develop self-help groups and make their members truly economically self-empowered.

Tithi Bose, Archita Ghosh

Social Security and Long-Term Care Dependency in Switzerland

Since the founding of the Swiss Federal State in 1848, a very complex coexistence of laws has been developed with refined legal foundations, procedures and allowances, providing social protection against the risks of old age, illness and accident. As a result, there is an increased need for coordination between legislations and the consistent use of terms and concepts.

Iren Bischofberger, Hardy Landolt

Chapter 6. The Place of Women in Employment: Turkish Case

The development of a country is bound to most effective utilization of production factors, which are labor, natural resources, capital, and entrepreneurship in all countries in the world. Labor forceLabor Force mostly favors men as distribution is concerned. Until the industrial revolution, the presence of women in the labor market had remained in the secondary place regarding labor forceLabor Force status. The subordinate position of women in the labor market is explained by the traditional division of labor. According to gender-based division of labor in society, basically saying the roles such as bearing a child and growing the baby, and doing the housework are seen as the main duties of women, whereas earning money by working in the market is seen as the duty of men. Gender relations contain an unequal power relationship with male domination and female subordination in most spheres of life. Men and the tasks, functions, and values attributed to them are valued in many aspects higher than women and what is associated with woman. The background of gender equality policies in TurkeyTurkey is constituted by the Republican reforms. In the years following the foundation of the Republic of TurkeyTurkey in 1923, a modern state structure was formed on the one hand and an extensive social transformation was realized on the other, with the reforms made in the faith that full equality between women and men should be established. Women’s paid work began with the industrial revolution. As industry evolved, the nature of the employment opportunities for workers who find little; mechanization, increased division of labor and specialization of the labor forceLabor Force in factories, especially on cheap labor needs have increased. Therefore, men as well as women and even children were taken en masse to the industry. Women are seen as cheap labor since the industrial revolution. Women’s labor forceLabor Force participation is prevented by economic and social factors. Economic factors, low wages and lack of social security may specify the form. Social factors are lack of education, patriarchal mentality, and understanding of gender. The joint effect of the rural–urban migration since the 1950s and the limited employment creation capacity of the Turkish economy are seen as reasons of withdrawal of women from the labor forceLabor Force and result in high female silence. In TurkeyTurkey, rate of female labor forceLabor Force participation is low and gradually decreasing day by day. While the women that are working in agriculture sector without wage and social security are considered to have participated in the labor forceLabor Force, the women in urban areas that are working as housewives are not included in labor work. The women, members of the migrating families due to applied agricultural strategies from rural to urban areas, are being excluded from labor forceLabor Force, since they become housewives when they start to live in urban areas. Unlike the world’s most developed and developing nations, in TurkeyTurkey our women of traditional role failed to move out of forms of employment. It is a failure to conclude that most of the female workers in TurkeyTurkey undertake their traditional tasks which are considered as traditionally women’s jobs. Therefore, it can be argued that these implications have not only economic consequences, but also sociological dimensions. The numbers of woman employees in the world have been dramatically increased recently. As seen in TurkeyTurkey from June 2009 to June 2013 data, it tends to increase in women’s employment is seen that in recent years. Female employment tends to increase in recent years seems to be. 3.4 million women in non-agricultural employment in the sixth month of 2013 was close to 4 million 872 thousand. For 6 years, there has been an increase of around 44%. The last five years of non-agricultural, urban areas in a sense, an increase in the number of working women has been observed in the 1.5 million. The involvement of women in the workforce has been examined in this research. First, women’s position in the workforce has been observed in relation to country development and women’s status in economical and social fields has been mentioned. Second, employment as a term and the importance of women taking part in the business world have been mentioned. Which fields women work in TurkeyTurkey has been examined, and data from Turkish Statistical Institute (TSI) has been used in this study.

Fatma Cesur

Dynamic Configuration of Same-Day Delivery in E-commerce

The main disadvantage of e-commerce when compared to brick-and-mortar stores is time that is needed to deliver ordered products to clients. That is why a speed of delivery has a great potential to create a value for e-shoppers. Based on this assumption the concept of same-day delivery was developed and introduced into business activity. At the same time the scientific investigation of this concept is on its infancy. For that reason, this paper aims to propose a conceptual model of same-day delivery in which a crucial part plays a delivery platform based on the hub and spokes (H&S) model and the co-opetition concept.

Arkadiusz Kawa, Bartlomiej Pieranski, Wojciech Zdrenka

Chapter 1. Is Box Office Still Relevant?

This first chapter sets the scene by briefly reviewing the history of movie-making and the growth of movie-going. Global trends in movie attendance are examined together with an initial introduction to interest among market analysts and researchers in understanding what factors underpin the success of a new movie. For many years, this “understanding” was underpinned by professional intuition and informal analyses of the performance of previous movies. Systematic economic modelling did not begin until the 1980s following which a significant literature developed revealing a wide range of potentially influential factors. Each of these is then examined in more detail in subsequent parts of the book.

Barrie Gunter

Kapitel 2. Die Rollen und ihre Darsteller

In diesem Kapitel erfahren Sie, wie die drei Parteien im MediadreieckMediadreieck – die Agenturen, die Werbungtreibenden und die Vermarkter – aktuell agieren, welche Rollen sie dabei einnehmen und warum es an der Zeit ist, wieder zu alten Werten zurückzufinden.

Matthias Süßlin, Heinz-Michael Bache, Kim Sen-Gupta

It Moves, It Feels

Arbeit an der guten Laune

Ausgehend von einer Geschichte und Theorie kommerzieller Hintergrundmusik, des „Muzak“, untersucht der Beitrag Phänomene medialer und politischer Affektmodulation durch Marketing und Werbung, die unter dem Begriff der mood media gebündelt werden. Der Beitrag zeigt dabei u. a. durch die Perspektivierung der diese ‚Stimmungsbewirtschaftung‘ fundierenden Epistemologien, dass die kalkulierte Modulation von Affekten ganz maßgeblich auf die Figur des Hintergrunds rekurriert und Verhalten vor allem über die Erzeugung von Atmosphären zu beeinflussen versucht. Im Rückbezug auf die Ambient Music Brian Enos kritisiert der Beitrag schließlich die kommerzielle Funktionalisierung von Ambient Media und diskutiert das Potenzial eines künstlerischen Zugriffs auf Stimmung und Atmosphäre im öffentlichen Raum.

Heiner Wilharm

Kapitel 5. Store Brand Management: Gestaltung des Ausdruckssystems

Dieses Kapitel stellt die Aktionsfelder des zu gestaltenden Ausdruckssystems für die Store Brand systematisch dar. Es findet eine Neufassung des POP-Begriffs statt, der Begriff POP-Kommunikation wird behandelt und zugehörige Zielfelder werden eingeführt. Insbesondere die Anwendung im Laden, im Onlineshop, im Verkauf und im Katalog werden umfangreich erläutert.

Jörn Redler

Kapitel 7. Store Brand Management: Konsistenz

Aufbau und Pflege der Store Brand verlangen einen Lernprozess, der konstant und einheitlich gestaltet ist. Konsistenz im Ausdruckssystem ist daher zentral. In diesem Kapitel wird die Sicherung von Konsistenz über verschiedene Sphären besprochen. Mittels der POP-Matrix wird dazu die Gesamtsicht verdeutlicht.

Jörn Redler

Kapitel 4. Marketing-Mix

Marketing-MixDas vierte Kapitel umfasst das operative Kulturmarketing. Im Marketing-Mix werden die vier Instrumente Leistungs-, Preis-, Distributions- und Kommunikationspolitik besprochen. Das Kapitel verdeutlicht u. a. die Möglichkeiten der Gestaltung von Kern- und Zusatzleistungen, der multisensualen Inszenierung, der Festlegung von Preismodellen sowie der Nutzung direkter und indirekter Vertriebskanäle. Ein besonderer Schwerpunkt wird zudem auf die Kommunikationspolitik und deren einzelne Instrumente wie z. B. Werbung, Public Relations oder Social Media gelegt. Durch das Kapitel werden die Grundlagen und Handlungsmöglichkeiten des operativen Marketings verdeutlicht. Hinweise zur praktischen Umsetzung und Beispiele ausgewählter Kulturbetriebe ergänzen und veranschaulichen die Ausführungen.

Lorenz Pöllmann

Kapitel 2. Customer Experience Management – Der Weg ist das Ziel

„Customer Experience Management“ (CEM) steht für eine Vielzahl an Maßnahmen zur Steigerung der Loyalität und des Umsatzes. Wobei CEM weiter gefasst sein und nicht nur Kunden, sondern auch Mitarbeiter und Partner – in den Wertschöpfungsprozess inkludieren sollte. Durch das Schaffen relevanter und positiver Erlebnisse, entlang individueller Lebenszyklus-Phasen und Kontaktpunkte, gilt es, nicht länger das Unternehmen und dessen Produkte und Dienstleistungen, sondern die Menschen ins Zentrum des Handelns zu rücken. Dabei gilt: Denke groß, starte smart: Der Weg ist das Ziel.

Kevin Goldhausen

Kapitel 4. Geschäftssysteme und Benchmarks im E-Commerce

Der Ausgestaltung des Geschäftssystems kommt eine Schlüsselrolle im Online-Handel zu. Sie ist auch Basis für Kanalexzellenz, die erfolgreiche Online-Händler auszeichnet. Diese sind in der Lage, mit ihren Leistungen im E-Commerce den Benchmark zu setzen, und nutzen alle Möglichkeiten der modernen Interaktion. Insgesamt sind acht zentrale Erfolgsfaktoren für das Vorliegen von Web-Exzellenz im B2C zu beachten. Eine große Herausforderung spielt jedoch zunehmend die Nachhaltigkeit der Erfolgsfaktoren, da der Wettbewerb sich immer schneller anpasst.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 1. Neues Meta-Targeting im Online-Handel

Mit der weiter zunehmenden Internetnutzung in Hinblick auf die Nutzerzahlen sowie die Nutzungsintensitäten steigen die Umsätze im Online-Handel nach wie vor rasant an. Dabei wird das digitale Universum immer mehr durch mobile Internetnutzung geprägt, die auch die Kundenorientierung erheblich verändert. Diese ändert sich ohnehin fortwährend durch neue Trends, die wiederum durch neue Kundenerwartungen genährt werden. Zugleich beschleunigt sich der Konzentrationsprozess weiter, wodurch der Abstand zwischen dem Marktführer Amazon sowie dem Verfolgerfeld und dabei vor allem den Traditionsunternehmen immer größer wird. Deswegen kommt der Beschleunigung digitaler Reifegrade und dem Abbau digitaler Barrieren ein hoher Stellenwert zu.

Gerrit Heinemann

Chapter 6. Luxury Branding and Digitalisation: The Case of European Brands in China

The main purpose of this research is to investigate how a luxury brand may be affected by the variables associated with the entry to a new market New marketas in the Chinese one and how those new variables are integrated into the branding in the new geographical context. In doing so, this study reviews the main existing literature in the field—despite the limited literature in luxury digitalisation in China China—and following three derived propositions through a qualitative approach, it analyses the examples of the brand strategy of three European luxury brands Luxury brandsafter entering China. The luxury brands considered in our investigation are three international ones, each with a specific consolidated brand heritageBrand heritage and with a sectorial positioning. This research explores and analyses the specific luxury brand building and rebranding Rebrandingprocess adopted by these three luxury brands to enter the new market New marketand specifically through the digitalisation of the brand. The empirical research evidences the critical impact of digitalisation for successful luxury branding Luxury brandingin the entry market strategy and has justified its adoption in the exclusive luxury sector by the Socio-cultural contextsocio-cultural context-related factors of the new marketNew market. It provides specific orientations and recommendations as well as best practices for luxury corporations on the specificities of branding and digitalisation of luxury in ChinaChina. The research shows that a successful model path for luxury branding when entering the Chinese market and the key impact of the ‘luxury digitalisation’ strategy is usually associated with high accessibility, when compared with the traditional ‘luxury retailing’ strategy which is usually associated to the exclusivity of the luxury sector.

Serena Rovai

Chapter 3. Country Profiles of Eligibility Legislations in Europe

In this chapter, we detail the main LTC legislations in Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, England, France, Germany, Italy and Spain. Each country profile includes up-to-date legislative information, details on the assessment of need procedures, the eligibility rules and the in-kind or in-cash benefits for the eligible population. The chapters for Belgium and Italy are organised at the regional level, given the high degree of heterogeneity of the local LTC programmes.

Agar Brugiavini, Ludovico Carrino, Cristina Elisa Orso, Giacomo Pasini

Chapter 8. Worker and Engineer Learning on the Australian Collins Submarine Project: Human Capital Spillovers and the Case of Swedish Kockums in Australia

R&D investments and innovation are the focus of spillover literature. A different and a large measure unrelated literature addresses the socioeconomic effects of general education and vocational learning. Even though empirical research has mostly addressed the private benefits (the educational premium) of education, the academic discussion has had its ultimate concern to divulge the hope for large externalities of or the large social returns (above the private returns) to education. The latter has however turned out to be something of a disappointment in that empirical research has failed to support that reasonable proposition. One reason for this negative finding may however be that most of the research on educational spillovers has been limited to the study of public schools. This study of on-the-job learning on an advanced military equipment producer therefore constitutes a needed extension of the empirical analysis into a very different form of learning.

Gunnar Eliasson

Die Veranstaltung ins rechte Licht rücken

WerbungMarketingWerbung Kommunikation Werbung Werbung als kommunikationspolitisches Instrument in der Veranstaltungswirtschaft

Werbung ist als Teil der Above-the-Line-Maßnahmen unverzichtbarer Bestandteil der Kommunikationspolitik im MarketingmixMarketingmix. In einer sich dynamisch wandelnden Medienwelt entstehen immer neue Werbemittel, die über sich immer stärker differenzierende Werbeträger transportiert werden können. Neben einem soliden Überblick zu den Werbemitteln mit ihren Chancen und Risiken ist mehr denn je die inhaltliche, formale und zeitliche Integration der Werbemaßnahmen in den Kommunikationsmix und die konzeptionelle Ausrichtung auf Ziele und Strategien von entscheidender Bedeutung. Dabei ist das Leitbild der integrierten Kommunikation eine geeignete Form, um im kommunikativen Konkurrenzkampf bestehen zu können. Der Beitrag beschreibt Werbung als Managementprozess und Teil der Kommunikationspolitik im Marketingmix, stellt ausgewählte etablierte und neue Werbeträger und Werbemittel vor und gibt Empfehlungen dazu, wie Werbemaßnahmen als Teil einer integrierten Organisationskommunikation zu gestalten und auf die richtigen Werbeträger zu verteilen sind. Besonderes Interesse wird dabei dem dynamisch wachsenden Bereich der Out-of-Home-Medien gewidmet.

Gernot Gehrke

Digitales Marketing

LivekommunikationKommunikationLivekommunikation, Live Communication trifft OnlinemedienMedienOnlinemedien

So wie im Zeitalter der Digitalisierung digitales Marketing selbstverständlich zum Marketingmix gehört, so ist Kommunikation integrativer Bestandteil der Marketingstrategie, was im Verlauf dieses Beitrags in den Mittelpunkt gestellt wird. Im Veranstaltungsmarkt sind Kommunikation und Vermarktung von Produkten und Dienstleistungen über digitale sowie analoge Kanäle gleichermaßen wichtig. In erster Linie geht es dabei um Public Relations und Werbung in den beiden Medienwelten. Weil der reine Abverkauf von Produkten oder Dienstleistungen im B2B-Segment noch nicht wirkungsvoll genug über digitale Kanäle erfolgt, wird dieser Aspekt in der weiteren Betrachtung nicht beleuchtet.Ein Praxisbeispiel der Stuttgart-Marketing GmbH erklärt, wie digitales Marketing über diverse Kanäle funktioniert. Schwerpunkt liegt dabei auf digitalem Marketing über Social Media und über eine Dienstleistungs-App. Folgende Beispiele werden näher betrachtet:mobile App: „Stuttgart After Business“Social Media: integrierte digitale Marketingkampagne für einen MesseauftrittTwitter-Chat: digitales PressegesprächDabei werden folgende Fragen beantwortet: Was sind die Marketing- und Kommunikationsziele?Wer ist die Zielgruppe?Wie soll vermarktet und kommuniziert werden?

Christine Fuchs, Karina Grützner

Kapitel 4. Die Marke in der vernetzten Stadt

In diesem Kapitel werden konkret die Integrations- und Interaktionsmechanismen durchdekliniert, die für Marken im Stadtraum denkbar sind. Es wird gezeigt, auf welchen Ebenen diese funktionieren und wie speziell digitalisierte Marken in neuer Weise auf den Stadtraum und die Akteure und Aktanten in diesem zugreifen. Die Marke im urbanen Feld wird in ihrer Wirkweise auf vier Ebenen untersucht: Körper, Objekt, Raum und Metropole. Es wird analysiert, wie digitale Marken eine ganz eigene Körperpolitik betreiben. Darauf aufbauend wird ihr mögliches Verhältnis zu durch die digitale Medienkultur permanent vernetzten Objekten untersucht. Im Folgenden wird in den Blick genommen, welche unterschiedlichen Grundkonzepte von Raum sich durch diese neuen Prozesse der digitalen Markenverräumlichung ergeben. Und es wird schließlich betrachtet, auf welche Weise die digital vernetzte Marke dabei auch auf übersingulärer Ebene urban wirkt, also im Sinne der Netzwerkbildung zwischen unterschiedlichen Metropolen produktiv sich niederschlägt.

Alexander Gutzmer

Chapter 7. Engineering Value Chain Simulation and Innovation

This chapter provides a systematic method to understand the innovation implications of complex engineering systems through value chain simulation. Particularly, we explore the usefulness of agent-based simulation for studying engineering value chains, a field of inquiry that has attracted increasing research interests. Essentially, given the network character of engineering value chains, we discuss why an agent-based simulation approach is particularly suitable for studying engineering value chains by reviewing related literature and discussing the state of the art in the field. A case of using agent-based simulation to study innovation diffusion (i.e. firm–customer relationship) in an engineering value chain is presented to demonstrate the value of the approach in studying high value engineering networks. We finally discuss opportunities and challenges of adopting agent-based simulation for future high value engineering network study.

Tao Zhang, Yufeng Zhang

Chapter 5. Comedy and Romance: On Diff’rent Strokes and Webster

This chapter looks at earlier imagery of black youth in US visual culture, discussing the post-civil rights era television situation comedy as a commentary on the racial politics of kinship. It takes Bernie Kukoff and Jeff Harris’s Diff’rent Strokes (1978–1986) and Stu Silver’s Webster (1983–1989) as prime examples. It traces black man-child characters of 1970s and 1980s primetime programming to Buckwheat of the Our Gang film series (1922–1944) and to Topsy of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852). These characters betray forms of indiscernible difference linked to a general crisis of categories. The ongoing struggle to politicize black family preservation against attempts by state and civil society to shatter bonds between black parents and children returns symptomatically in the sitcom’s performance and reception.

Jared Sexton

4. Hyper-consumption and Inequality

The Western consumer society, focused on shopping and material abundance, has been critiqued since the creation of the concept in the 1950s. The chapter discusses the idea of hyper-consumption driven by intense marketing focused on triggering people’s feeling of relative deprivation and the resulting desire to ‘improve’ and display one’s status through conspicuous consumption. Early modern examples of conspicuous consumption and their contribution to the fund of Western ‘high culture’ are discussed. The chapter juxtaposes the general hyper-consumption with the documented rise in inequality within Western countries since the 1970s, and especially in the Anglosphere where redistribution through the welfare state is limited. The case study of excessive remuneration in the finance industry is contrasted with new forms of poverty, including the working poor.

Val Colic-Peisker, Adrian Flitney

Kapitel 6. Display Advertising – Renaissance des Banners

Display Advertising ist so alt wie das Web. Schon in den 90er-Jahren tauchte Banner-Werbung auf den ersten Websites auf. Befand sich Display Advertising aufgrund schwacher Interaktionsraten immer mehr auf dem Rückzug, erlebte es durch das Aufkommen datengestützter Modelle seine Renaissance. Durch den Einsatz von Nutzerdaten kann Display-Werbung inzwischen so genau ausgesteuert werden, dass es zu einem der wichtigsten Performance-Kanäle avancierte.

Ingo Kamps, Daniel Schetter

Open Access

Can Cash Transfer Programmes Promote Household Resilience? Cross-Country Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

Several new initiatives of cash transfer programmes have recently emerged in sub-Saharan Africa, and most target poor rural households dependent on subsistence agriculture. This paper synthesizes the key findings of From Protection to Production Project (PtoP) of FAO and discusses the role of cash transfer programmes risk management tool to increase resilience in sub-Saharan Africa. Results show that such programmes have important implications for household resilience. Although the impacts on risk management are less uniform, the cash transfer programmes seem to strengthen community ties (via increased giving and receiving of transfers) and allow households to save and pay off debts, and decrease the need to rely on adverse risk coping mechanisms. One important finding related to climate change, as illustrated by the Zambia case, is that households receiving cash transfers suffered much less from weather shocks, with poorest households as the biggest gains, and food security increased, although differing across countries. The paper concludes that social protection programmes could be more effective as safety nets by explicitly accounting for climate risk in their design and implementation.

Solomon Asfaw, Benjamin Davis

Kapitel 20. Zukunft des Performance-Marketings

Zum Abschluss folgt noch ein kurzer Ausblick, wie sich das Performance-Marketing in den kommenden Monaten und Jahren wahrscheinlich weiter entwickeln wird. Einige der Entwicklungen sind alternativlos, während andere Gegenstand von Spekulationen sind und durchaus auch anders kommen können. Themen wie zum Beispiel Künstliche-Intelligenz, Big Data und Voice Search werden das Performance-Marketing der Zukunft prägen.

Ingo Kamps, Daniel Schetter

Kapitel 11. TV-Tracking – TV-Werbung messbar machen

In der Vergangenheit waren die Möglichkeiten zur Effizienzmessung von TV-Werbespots begrenzt. Es konnte zwar nachvollzogen werden, wie sich Verkäufe im Zeitraum der Spotschaltung verändert haben, aber viel mehr auch nicht. Eine TV-Tracking-Software gibt Unternehmen die Möglichkeit zu überprüfen, welche Auswirkungen ein einzelner TV-Spot auf die eigene Website hat. So kann beispielsweise ermittelt werden, wie sich die Besucherzahlen in den Minuten nach der Ausstrahlung entwickeln und wie viele Besucher sich das beworbene Produkt angesehen haben.

Ingo Kamps, Daniel Schetter

Kapitel 10. Web-Analyse (Web-Analytics) – messen, analysieren und entscheiden

Um die Effizienz von Performance-Marketing-Maßnahmen zu messen, werden entsprechende Tools benötigt – sogenannte Web-Analyse-Tools. Die Web-Analyse selbst befasst sich mit der Auswertung des Marketing-Erfolgs. So lässt sich beispielsweise erkennen, wie viele Besucher auf die eigene Seite kommen, was sie dort machen und wo sie die Seite wieder verlassen. Auch Transaktionen und ihre Herkunft werden auf diese Weise gemessen. Für eine noch exaktere Analyse von Performance-Marketing-Maßnahmen werden Attributionsmodelle benötigt, die in diesem Kapitel ebenfalls beschrieben werden.

Ingo Kamps, Daniel Schetter

Kapitel 1. Performance-Marketing – Marketingerfolg messen und optimieren

In diesem Kapitel geht es um die Einführung ins Performance-Marketing. Was ist Performance-Marketing, wie hat es sich entwickelt und welchen Wandlungen war es in den vergangenen Jahren ausgesetzt. Außerdem wird gezeigt, für wen Performance-Marketing geeignet ist und was zur Entwicklung einer Performance-Marketing-Strategie gehört.

Ingo Kamps, Daniel Schetter

Kapitel 7. Best Practices

In diesem Kapitel werden verschiedene Best-Practice-Beispiele vorgestellt. Andreas Kulpa beschreibt zunächst, wie Deep Learning bzw. Lead Prediction neue Wege der Kunden- und Marktgewinnung ermöglichen. Prof. Dr. Nils Hafner zeigt auf, welche Möglichkeiten sich aus der intelligenten Nutzung vieler unterschiedlicher Informationen aus verschiedenen Quellen und in diversen Formaten sowie durch die Anwendung von AI und Machine Learning im Kundenkontakt ergeben. Vorgehen, Chancen und Risiken zum Einsatz von Bots in Service und Marketing untersucht Dr. Thomas Wilde. Innovative Tech-Companies haben den Mediamarkt mit algorithmenbasierten Technologie-Plattformen betreten und ermöglichen auf Basis von Künstlicher Intelligenz transparente und effiziente Mediaplanung: Diesem Thema widmet sich Andreas Schwabe. Wie Algorithmen und AI zur Generierung und Verteilung von Content eingesetzt werden können und wie die Bot-Revolution das Content Marketing verändert, untersucht Klaus Eck. Der Beitrag von Jens Scholz und Michael Thess widmet sich den Recommendation-Systemen für den Handel: Ausgehend vom aktuellen Stand der Entwicklung werden die Herausforderungen für Weiterentwicklungen aufgezeigt. Zu deren Lösung wird ein Ansatz in Form von Reinforcement Learning beschrieben. Unter dem Stichwort Intelligent Automation untersucht Andreas Klug, wie AI und Robotic Process Automation Arbeitsplätze und Abläufe in Verwaltung und Kundenservice verändern. Am Beispiel der privaten Krankenversicherung geben Eleftherios Hatziioannou und Darko Obradovic einen Einblick in Lösungen für eine zeitgemäße und effiziente Kundenkommunikation mittels moderner Technologien, und AI. Prof. Dr. Martin Grothe stellt dar, wie im digitalen Raum vielschichtige Bedrohungen entstehen können und welche computerlinguistische Technologie zur Früherkennung geeignet ist.

Peter Gentsch

Time Accounting System: Validating a Socio-technical Solution for Service Exchange in Local Communities

This paper reports the first validation steps of the prototype of a Time Accounting System (TAS), which has been designed and developed to investigate how a technology that facilitates service exchanges using local currency can be accepted in a developing country, namely in Bangladesh. The paper describes the results of two Confirmatory Focus Groups (CFGs) that have been developed to assess the functionalities of the TAS. The main goal of these CFGs was to investigate how interactive and simple the system must be to be accepted by users, given that, based on some previous studies, the idea/concept of a TAS is expected to spread over in Bangladesh.

Tunazzina Sultana, Angela Locoro, Flávio Soares Corrêa da Silva

Chapter 6. Child Welfare Policies in Russia—Civil Society Contributions Without Return?

Child welfare is high on the priority list of Russian authorities. It is a policy area where domestic NGO’s and organised citizens interact with the authorities to help formulate and implement policies in ways that could be likened to ‘network governance’Network governance. The paper gives an overview of the arenas on which child welfareChild welfare NGOs and authorities meet and analyses the NGOsNGOs roles as public organisations, professional organisations,andVolunteerismvolunteer organisations. The domestic NGOs contribute with resources in terms of finances, man hours, innovative methods, and legitimation of policies (input legitimacy). The paper follows up by discussing what the non-state groups get in return in terms of influence. The potential for addressing not only child welfare but also child rightsChild rights is discussed in light of general political and cultural constraints in contemporary Russia given the country’s authoritarian mode of government and officially-sanctioned lifestyle conservatism.

Jørn Holm-Hansen

Chapter 2. Smart and Connected Product Business Models

A business model describes the value offered by the company. Business models have a significant impact on the success of the business. Smart and connected productsSmart connected products, which connect the physical objects by using sensors and communication technology, change the nature of traditional businesses and Business modelbusiness models. The value propositions,Value propositionrevenue streamsRevenue stream, and technologies offered with these smart and connected products are different from the traditional business models. In this chapter, we define the key features of smart and connected product business models and reveal the successful real life cases with this framework.

Sezi Cevik Onar, Alp Ustundag

University-Industry Relationships in the Bioeconomy Innovation System of Denmark

Creation of new innovative processes and products within the high frequency of small and medium size enterprises in collaboration with academia can unfold a large potential that can diminish some of the consequences of the four major crises comprising the environmental crises, the food crises, the energy crises, and the economic crises. To unfold this potential the gap between SME’s and academia must be bridged. Combining university research and industrial knowhow in an effort to develop holistic, environmentally friendly and economically feasible technologies for optimal processing of agricultural products may result in sustainable production of high value food and feed ingredients as well as bioenergy and non-food products. The technologies must ensure optimal use of natural resources as well as having focus on quality in all parts of the supply chain and thereby increasing the overall economic feasibility of the process. The challenge thereby appears that the processing has to be defined by numerous quality standards which needs to be prioritized by considering parameters like environmental impact, minimizing the formation of waste and optimizing the product portfolio and the profitability. Involving SME’s in industrial collaboration ecosystems facilitated by academia, where the residual product of one enterprise is used as a resource by another may serve as a potential solution for utilizing the competences of these companies and the public research in a sustainable bio-economy.

Keld Ejdrup Markedal, Jens Christian Sørensen, Susanne Sørensen

Chapter 4. Cycolne Phailin in 2013

This chapter presents the gender disaggregated death data from the four districts which were severely hit by the Cyclone Phailin in 2013. As with Chap. 3, it also provides the narratives of seven elite respondents which include the Director of the Indian Meteorology Department, Regional Director of UNDP, Manager of Odisha State Disaster Management Authority, Deputy Relief Commissioner of the Special Relief Organisation, and three Emergency Officers from Ganjam, Jagatsinghpur and Puri districts. Systems failure provides a novel perspective to analyse the reasons why there were fewer deaths in 2013.

Nibedita S. Ray-Bennett

Markt- und Sozialforschung mit den innovativen Möglichkeiten des Internet of Things

Das Internet der Dinge (Internet of Things – IoT) treibt fundamentale Veränderungen in vielen Bereichen der Wirtschaft voran. Wie bereits die vorangegangenen IT-getriebenen Innovationswellen wird das Internet der Dinge auch einen Paradigmenwechsel in der Marktforschung auslösen. Die Implikationen des Internet of Things für die Marktforschung können sehr gut im Rahmen des SMART Data-Modells dargestellt werden. Im Gegensatz zur Big Data-Analytik startet das SMART Data-Modell mit der strategischen Fragestellung, für deren Beantwortung gezielt Daten – „made“ und „found“ – gesucht bzw. erhoben werden. Die Analytik muss lernen, die grossen Datenmengen, die Realtime anfallen, sinnvoll zu modellieren und in ein zielführendes Reporting umzusetzen. Anders als die „klassische“ Marktforschung mit ihrem noch vorwiegend statischen Reporting werden die Erkenntnisse der „Marktforschung 4.0“ im Idealfall unmittelbar in die Businessprozesse integriert werden. Das Internet der Dinge bringt die Umfrageforschung von der virtuellen Welt der reinen Online-Befragungen zurück in die reale, physische Welt, also dorthin, wo die Emotionen entstehen und Entscheide stattfinden. Dies wird anhand von drei Fallbeispielen aufgezeigt.

Stefan Oglesby

Auf der Suche nach neuen Fragetypen für die mobile Marktforschung

Die Marktforschung wird mobil. Beim Übergang in eine neue Zeit der technischen Interaktion sind zunächst mobile Geräte mit Touchfunktionalität im Fokus, wobei jedoch viele Dinge zu beachten sind. Der Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit den grundsätzlichen Möglichkeiten mobiler Forschung auf Smartphones und Tablets aus dem Blickwinkel des Jahres 2017 und deutet auf die nicht genutzten Potenziale mobiler Technologien in der Marktforschung hin. Der Autor mahnt insbesondere die Entwicklung von neuen Methoden der befragenden Zunft im mobilen Zeitalter an und zeigt einige Beispiele einer möglichen Entwicklung auf.

Holger Lütters

16. Payback – Der heilige Gral oder wie Smartphones den Handel revolutionieren

Das Smartphone ist die Schnittstelle zwischen digitaler und analoger Welt und verbindet so Offline‐ und Online‐Handel. Die Digitalisierung der mobilen Customer Journey am Point of Sale (POS) ist eine der wichtigsten strategischen Initiativen der PAYBACK GmbH und deren Partnern. Ziel ist es, über Location‐Based Services die Relevanz der Angebote für PAYBACK‐Kunden weiter zu erhöhen, sowie mit spezifischen Angeboten und Apps der Partner zu verknüpfen. Seit Mitte 2016 nimmt PAYBACK durch die Einführung von „Collect & PAY“ nun auch im Mobile Payment eine zentrale Rolle ein. Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Einblick in die mobile Strategie und insbesondere die Mobile‐Payment‐Lösung der PAYBACK GmbH.

Dominik Dommick, Dr. Philipp Reichhart

3. Disruption in Retail – Retail 4.0

Im Handel sind es weniger Technologien, die zu signifikanten Veränderungen führen, als vielmehr das Verhalten der Shopper. Diese Verhaltensänderungen können durch Technologien unterstützt werden, werden aber weniger durch diese Technologien induziert. Der Beitrag erläutert diese Verhaltensänderungen an sechs verschiedenen Shopper‐Typen: Speed Shopper, Mobile Shopper, Out‐of‐Home Eater, Sustainable Shopper, Personalized Shopper, Lifestyle Shopper. Dabei wird der Shopper beschrieben, seine Relevanz begründet und seine Auswirkungen auf den stationären Food‐ und Nonfood‐Handel an Beispielen erläutert.

Prof. Dr. Stephan Rüschen, Prof. Dr. Daniela Wiehenbrauk

Kapitel 15. Corporate Advertising in Deutschland: Verortung einer Kommunikationsdisziplin an der Schnittstelle und erste Ergebnisse einer Praktikerbefragung

Corporate Advertising kann als eine Kommunikationsdisziplin an der Schnittstelle von PR, Marketing und Werbung gesehen werden. Gleichzeitig ist es ein Phänomen, das in der deutschsprachigen Werbeforschung und PR-Forschung nicht viel Beachtung findet. Eine genaue Verortung fehlt. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt, wie Corporate Advertising als Kommunikationsdisziplin an der Schnittstelle verschiedener Disziplinen verortet und definiert werden kann. Zudem stellt er die theoretischen Überlegungen zu Corporate Advertising der Praxis gegenüber. Dazu werden erste Ergebnisse einer explorativen, nicht-repräsentativen Praktikerbefragung vorgestellt, die u. a. einen Anhaltspunkt dafür liefern, dass die vorgestellte Definition auch von Praktikern geteilt wird. Der Beitrag endet mit einem Ausblick auf weitere Forschung zu Corporate Advertising und plädiert für eine Annäherung an den Gegenstand aus verschiedenen kommunikationswissenschaftlichen Perspektiven.

Benedikt Spangardt

Approaches for Sustaining Cultural Resources by Adapting Diversified Context of Customers in Tourism: Comparison Between Japanese and Slovenian Cases

Amid changing economic situation rapidly, how to sustain local/cultural resources and distribute their value to many customers is crucial in a number of business communities. In tourism industry, although there are a lot of activities for such struggles, a small number of the global comparison studies are a problem for exploring and adopting the more effective ways worldwide. In this paper, we examine two Japanese cases and one Slovenian case doing well of sustaining and balancing cultural resources in terms of adapting the differences of customers’ context in tourism. In the first case from Japanese tourism spa community “Awazu-onsen”, the key point is a loose relationship between the traditional local hotels and the modern hotel chain. The second case from Kanazawa Creative Tourism in Japan is a NPO supported by the local art universities for connecting the local artists and the local tourism. The third case from the Ana Desetnica International Street Theatre Festival in Slovenia offers not only each street artistic performances simply, but also the unique city Ljubljana as a big theater for attracting many tourists who have a wide variety of touristic preferences. There are three approaches for attracting current customers with sustaining their local values, those are installing a new resources, making a new matching system and reintrepretation of the existing resources. In the future research, it is important to collect related cases by analyzing those countries’ situations, issues, purposes, and the ways and results by more extensive surveys for understanding and making significant theories.

Hisashi Masuda, Dejan Krizaj, Hideyuki Sakamoto, Kotaro Nakamura

4. Logo und Signet

Bereits im Mittelalter haben erste Händ­ler ein Zeichen auf ihren Produkten (z. B. auf Lebensmittelsäcken) angebracht, um sie zu kennzeichnen. Auch Hand­werker haben ihre Werke, also z. B. Holzbalken oder eine Mauer, mit ihrem eigenen Zeichen „signiert“. Herkunfts­bezeichnungen und Herstellerzeichen dienten (wie auch heute noch) der Qua­litäts­ und Originalitätssicherheit.

Peter Bühler, Patrick Schlaich, Dominik Sinner

Toward an Open-Source Flexible System for Mobile Health Monitoring

Project Sherpam (Sensors for HEalth Recording and Physical Activity Monitoring) aims to provide an open-source, flexible, customizable system to monitor the health condition of patients affected by chronic diseases during their day to day activities at home or out of home, while detecting and reacting to anomalies automatically. This paper presents the architecture of the flexible system that is being developed in the context of this project, and illustrates how this system could be used through a realistic use case.

Mathieu Bagot, Pascale Launay, Frédéric Guidec

Chapter 4. Exploring Characteristics of Current and Potential Performing Arts Attenders

Effective marketing communications appeal to each target customer’s core values, lifestyle, and interests. It is crucial for arts marketers to stay up to date with the changing attitudes and expectations of their current patrons. Also, arts marketers must develop and implement strategies that attract new audiences while continuing to build loyalty and frequency among current audience segments.

Joanne Scheff Bernstein

Chapter 3. Participate in the Video Revolution

You learned about the purchase funnel in chapter 2 and how the traditional purchase funnel must now be considered a video purchase funnel. Video has been added to the traditional purchase funnel because methods for creating online visibility with brand advertising and marketing are shifting to video. That means less text.

John Cecil

Ambient Information Design to Amplify Connections Between New Empty Nest Parents and Their Children

Empty nest is a global social phenomenon that is constantly increasing during the recent decades. The loneliness and depression faced by parents and children lead to a decrease in life quality and other health problems especially for the families with international students. Remote family communication is crucial to reduce the symptoms and improve mental and physical health. Traditional verbal communication methods require synchronous interaction with a convenient time and a suitable environment. We aim to work on this issue from a perspective of immersive and transparent interaction through the ambient display. Based on a series of user research and iterations of concept development, our design outcome FAMILINK employs existing technologies and methods to offer a novel non-intrusive information communication experience. It constructs a cohesive system that generalizes collected data into ambient hologram display and projection and informs the user other family members’ real-time statuses in an ambient approach.

Zhenyu Cheryl Qian, Yue Ma, Yingjie Chen, Yafeng Niu, Chengqi Xue

Chapter 8. Erfolgreiche Marken: Die Rolle der Kommunikation

Weltweit gibt es inzwischen acht Millionen registrierte Marken, die sich in den Köpfen der Verbraucher verankern möchten. Allein in Deutschland kämpfen rund 69.000 Marken mit durchschnittlich 3.000 Botschaften täglich um entsprechende Aufmerksamkeit, aber nur 52 davon werden von den Bezugsgruppen wahrgenommen.

Mirco Hillmann

Women’s Entrepreneurship in Iran

Women account for half of the population in Iran, but in the last five years, the number of employed women has dropped by 14.2%, resulting in total women’s unemployment rate of 19.8%. According to the 2015 World Economic Forum report, Iran is among the countries with a high gender gap in economy ranking 141 in terms of women’s economic participation among the 145 countries. In the other hand, women’s entrepreneurship does not seem to be enjoying an appropriate status in Iran and despite increased entrepreneurial activities by women, the ratio of businesses run by women to business run by their male counterparts are 2–10. Both contextual and structural factors influence entrepreneurial process; some are strengthening and some others are debilitating. So, if women and entrepreneurship are two important factors for growth especially in developing countries, it is particularly noticeable to understand what factors mobilize or prevent them from starting new businesses. The main contribution of this study are helping better recognition and understanding of ignored subject of women’s entrepreneurship in Iranian context with distinctive socio-cultural characteristics and its specific requirements.

Zahra Arasti, Neda Bahmani

The STAGE Project: Tailored Cultural Entertainment for Older Adults via Streaming Technology

In recent years, Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) solutions for older people have been increasingly focusing on leisure and educational activities, as opposed to healthcare assistance.In this framework, the European research project STAGE – Streaming of Theatre and Arts for old aGe Entertainment, was recently approved and funded by the Active and Assisted Living - AAL programme, in the context of Call for Proposals 2015.STAGE aims at developing an easy-to-use ICT platform to deliver cultural and educational content to older people via video streaming technology. This content will be provided through customized interfaces and will include events such as theatre plays, concerts, opera performances and museum exhibits.In order to accomplish this, it will employ a co-design methodology, involving older users in the design and development of the platform from the beginning of project activities. Users will also test the platform prototype and provide feedback, in order to define a final fully customized version.The ultimate goal of the project is to provide older people who are interested in culture but find difficulties accessing it, with a facilitated and affordable way to enjoy this type of content.

Luigi Biocca, Nicolò Paraciani, Francesca Picenni, Giovanni Caruso, Marco Padula, Riccardo Chiariglione, Agnieszka Kowalska, Monica Florea, Ilias Kapouranis

Sensor-Driven Detection of Social Isolation in Community-Dwelling Elderly

Ageing-in-place, the ability to age holistically in the community, is increasingly gaining recognition as a solution to address resource limitations in the elderly care sector. Effective elderly care models require a personalised and all-encompassing approach to caregiving. In this regard, sensor technologies have gained attention as an effective means to monitor the wellbeing of elderly living alone. In this study, we seek to investigate the potential of non-intrusive sensor systems to detect socially isolated community dwelling elderly. Using a mixed method approach, our results showed that sensor-derived features such as going-out behavior, daytime napping and time spent in the living room are associated with different social isolation dimensions. The average time spent outside home is associated with the social loneliness level, social network score and the overall social isolation level of the elderly and the time spent in the living room is positively associated with the emotional loneliness level. Further, elderly who perceived themselves as socially lonely tend to take more naps during the day time. The findings of this study provide implications on how a non-intrusive sensor-based monitoring system comprising of motion-sensors and a door contact sensor can be utilized to detect elderly who are at risk of social isolation.

Nadee Goonawardene, XiaoPing Toh, Hwee-Pink Tan

Chapter 1. A Brief History of Marketing—65-Years of Journey from 1948 to 2013

This chapter presents an analysis of the evolution of marketing, from its birth to the present day, and a description is provided of the current state of the discipline. The aim is to verify the current role of our discipline and to consider the definitions of marketing formulated by colleagues during its first sixty-five years of life for the purpose of identifying some gaps and schisms that have been detected between what is stated in literature and what actually happens in firms. This chapter seeks to clarify the situation, verify the state of play and offer a possible solution and for this purpose it: (1) analyses the evolution of the concept of marketing as reported in literature; (2) defines a leitmotiv that has evolved over time providing the relevant key words for each phase; (3) reports some elements highlighting the evolution of marketing; (4) considers the gaps and schisms emerging from literature; (5) lists seven situations that have undermined the validity of what marketing stands for/represents/proposes. In particular, some motives or reasons are given that have weakened, impaired and at times even nullified the possibilities for marketing to make a winning contribution to the firm. All these considerations have provided a stimulus for reflecting on how marketing can return to being a guiding light acknowledged in the company and make a strategic and effective contribution to the market.

Mauro Cavallone

Chapter 11. An Analysis of Everyday Life Activities and Their Consequences for Energy Use

In this chapter, we discuss the need for deeper knowledge about the relation between people’s daily activities and their electricity use and how to increase our knowledge through time use surveys and the visualization of aggregate activity patterns. To understand people’s energy consumption and how to improve energy efficiency or reduce demand during certain peak hours requires an understanding of households’ daily activity patterns. The activity patterns can be revealed when people keep time diaries, from which we analyze where, when, and for how long specific energy-related activities occur. In this chapter, we discuss how energy consumption varies in the course of the day and differs between people in different age groups. This has implications for how individuals should be approached and indicates that policies and advice should differ when directed to people in different life stages. By utilizing many time diaries from a population we can analyze differences in aggregate activity patterns. In Sweden, women, for example, use more electricity for activities related to cooking and household care than men do, which makes them the most relevant target group when it comes to giving feedback on how much electricity an appliance uses or on alternative ways of doing certain activities. Time diaries and visualization tools can also be useful as a reflective tool for the households when discussing their members’ various daily activities in relation to energy consumption. This can be used by energy advisors when targeting individual energy behavior.

Jenny Palm, Kajsa Ellegård

Chapter 1. Introduction

Urban environments have always been an attractive setting for information display and advertisement.

Robert Walter

Chapter 4. Continuity and Change in the Roles of Correctional Personnel

If the field of corrections is defined in a broad manner, such as bringing a person to a state of behavior in which their acts are in conformity with the laws of society, every person who comes in contact with someone who has allegedly committed a criminal act who has some positive effect on changing the person’s behavior can be considered a corrections worker. Police officers assigned to juvenile diversion programs, student resource officers working in the schools, judges who preside over family courts and juvenile drug courts, teachers, religious advisors, mental health specialists, family members, and volunteers who assist in the rehabilitation of those convicted of a criminal or delinquent act can be considered correctional workers.In this chapter, the personnel traditionally associated with corrections are defined, and their roles are explained. The roles of probation officers, parole officers (post-release supervisors), counselors, social workers, and correctional officers are described in the context of the expectations and legal requirements that direct their performance.

Peter C. Kratcoski

Kapitel 4. Future World: Hybrid Brands in Hybrid Cities

Dieses letzte Kapitel ist der Zukunft gewidmet. „Wird es noch Marken in der Zukunft geben?“, diese Marken-Zukunft-Frage ist berechtigt, weil bereits heute, in den Anfängen der Digitalen Revolution, viele Marketingchefs nicht mehr an ihre Marke glauben und Konsumenten die meisten Marken nicht vermissten, wären sie nicht mehr verfügbar. Wir setzen uns damit auseinander, welche Rolle Marken künftig spielen werden, wenn Big Data, Industrie 4.0, IoT, Algorithmen, Marketing Automation u. a. die Kontrolle und Deutung der Welt übernehmen. Wir befassen uns mit Erfolgsfaktoren und zeigen Perspektiven auf. Hierzu führen wir den Begriff „hybrid“ ein, der schon in anderen Kontexten verwendet wird. Künftig lebt und arbeitet die Menschheit überwiegend in großen Städten, deshalb bildet der urbane Raum, der mit fortschreitender Digitalisierung hybrid wird, einen Schwerpunkt der Betrachtung. Entwicklungen wie die der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien haben gravierende Rückwirkungen auf die Marken-Führung. Wir erläutern, warum Customer Centricity in der digitalen Zukunft zu kurz gegriffen ist und schließen, verbunden mit dem Appell „The Future starts now“, mit einer Vision: Humane Hybrid Brands – eine Zukunftsvision für starke Marken.

Christine Riedmann-Streitz

Kapitel 3. Digitale Transformation: Die Marke in einer Welt disruptiven Wandels

Disruption: Die digitale Transformation zeichnet sich durch hohe Geschwindigkeit, große Reichweite und systemische Wirkung aus und wirft völlig neue Fragen auf. Die Dynamik des Wandels hat einen Aspekt, der vom Management oft vergessen wird: Die Menschen leben bereits digital. Treiber des digitalen Wandels sind nicht nur innovative Unternehmen und IT-Konzerne, sondern oft die eigenen Kunden. Das hat Konsequenzen für die Marken (B2B wie B2C), da sie schlichtweg den Anschluss an ihre Kunden und Stakeholder verlieren und in die Gleichgültigkeitsfalle geraten, wenn sie sich dem digitalen Wandel verschließen. Wir befassen uns in diesem Kapitel u. a. mit dem scheinbaren Widerspruch zwischen einer stabilen Marken-Identität und der Notwendigkeit der Veränderung sowie dem drohenden Risiko des digital Burn-out. Vielleicht – meint mancher – wir sollten oder könnten auch beruhigt auf die Marke verzichten. Für all diejenigen, die dies nicht wollen, betrachten wir die Herausforderungen und Anforderungen an Organisationen, ihre Marken in das Zeitalter der Digitalisierung zu überführen, damit sie nicht irgendwann aus dem Leben ihrer Kunden verschwinden.

Christine Riedmann-Streitz

Marketing-Controlling in der Medienbranche

Erfolgsorientierte Steuerung in dynamischen Märkten

Dieses Kapitel beschäftigt sich mit dem Controlling im Rahmen des Medienmarketing und zeigt damit die Strukturen auf, mit denen im Medienunternehmen Marketing-Prozesse verankert sind und nach welchen Zielgruppen, Märkten und Kennzahlen die Steuerung dieser Marketing-Aufgaben erfolgt. In Medienunternehmen ist Marketing in der Regel einer der erfolgsentscheidenden Funktionsbereiche, der daher einer detaillierten und permanenten Begleitung und Steuerung nicht nur durch die Fachinstanzen, sondern auch durch das Top-Management bedarf. Gleichzeitig sind Medienunternehmen in vielen Fällen auch publizistische Unternehmen, die neben der kennzahlenorientierten Ausrichtung an den Markt- und Kundenbedürfnissen einer inhaltlichen Leitidee folgen und dadurch in vielen Fällen erst in der Lage sind tatsächlich neue und überdurchschnittlich erfolgreiche Produkte zu etablieren. Die medienökonomischen Besonderheiten führen zu einer Steigerung der Marktdynamik (beispielsweise durch die Interdependenz von Werbe- und Rezipientenmarkt), sodass den unterschiedlichen Performance-Kennziffern in den vier Hauptfeldern des klassischen Marketing-Mix hier eine besondere Bedeutung zukommt.

Thomas Breyer-Mayländer

5. Marketing-Instrumente

Orientiert an der Marketing‐Pyramide in Abb. 1.5 erfolgt nach der Festlegung der „Wunschorte“ („Ziele“) und der „Festlegung der Route zu den Wunschorten“ („Strategien“) nun die „Wahl der Beförderungsmittel“ i. S. der Marketing‐Instrumente (vgl. Becker 2013, S. 4). Damit sind im Kern die fünf Marketing‐Instrumente des Marketing‐Diamanten gemeint. Diese werden in ihren grundlegenden Entscheidungsfeldern nachfolgend praxisorientiert aufbereitet.

Ralf T. Kreutzer

3. Ziele und Rahmenbedingungen der digitalen Markenführung

Bei der Ausgestaltung der digitalen Markenführung sind verschiedene Ziele und Rahmenbedingungen zu berücksichtigen, die im Folgenden aufgezeigt werden. Es ist darauf hinzuweisen, dass die Aspekte selbst wiederum stark miteinander verwoben sind.

Ralf T. Kreutzer, Karl-Heinz Land

1. Grundlagen des Content Marketing

In diesem Kapitel werden die theoretischen Grundlagen des Content Marketing vorgestellt, um die Zusammenhänge zur klassischen Marketing-Kommunikation zu untersuchen. Dabei geht es um die Definition des Begriffes, Abgrenzung zur Differenzierung und integrierte Methoden. Der Nutzen von Content Marketing wird mit Zielen, Gründe und Erwartungen der Unternehmen erläutert. Ergänzende Ansätze aus dem identitätstiftenden Marketing, Issue Management und Agenda Setting werden vorstellt. Die Einflüsse der Digitalisierung auf das Content Marketing werden thematisiert in der Entwicklung von Marketing 1.0 bis 3.0. Der Digital Marketing Lebenszyklus und die digitale Medienvielfalt werden beschrieben. Die Content-Marketing Einführung von Gastautor Prof. Dr. Bürker hinterfragt das Neue im Content Marketing: Alter Wein in neuen Schläuchen? Und die Gründe zum Einsatz: Warum Content Marketing? Er untersucht den Status quo von Content Marketing und deren Prinzipien wie Involvement mit Pull und Inbound Marketing. Zudem beschreibt er Best Practice Beispiele mit Wertschöpfungspotenzialen, Stakeholder-Perspektiven und Controlling. Gastautor Prof. Dr. Kreutzer beschreibt die Erfolgsfaktoren im Content-Marketing mit Content-Marketing Beispielen. Oliver Rosenthal, Industry Leader von Google Germany, wird zu den Herausforderungen und Hürden zum Content Marketing Einsatz für Unternehmen interviewt. Zudem werden die Probleme zum effizienten Budget und unternehmerischen Ressourcen für Content Marketing analysiert. Der internationale Vergleich zum Content Marketing Einsatz zeigt spannende Impulse sowie auch die Besonderheiten für B2B-Unternehmen werden erläutert. Eine Checkliste zur Einführung von Content Marketing im Unternehmen schließt das Kapitel mit zahlreichen Handlungsempfehlungen ab.

Claudia Hilker

Kapitel 5. Online- versus mobile Umfragen in der Marktforschung

Die zunehmende Abdeckung von mobilen Anwendungen über Smartphones ermöglicht für die Marktforschung die Ausschöpfung von Device-Agnostic-Potenzialen. Eine erste Studie zeigt die Herausforderungen digitaler Datenquellen für die Marktforschung, eine zweite Studie (Case Study) vergleicht die online- und mobilbasierte Datenerhebung. Marktforscher sollten die Möglichkeiten von Device Agnostic grundsätzlich ausschöpfen, nicht nur aufgrund der höheren Repräsentativität solcher Umfragen.

Oliver Gansser, Sabrina Zimmermann

Reconciling Humans and Technology: The Role of Ambient Intelligence

This keynote presentation explores the role of Ambient Intelligence in current technical and social contexts related to smart cities. Having identified some undesirable tendencies, conclusions and design recommendations are provided on how to remedy the situation. This includes the need for redefining the ‘smart everything’ paradigm, in order to reconcile humans and technology.It starts out with placing Ambient Intelligence in the context of Ubiquitous Computing, Disappearing Computer and Internet of Things (IoT). The application areas discussed are motivated by living in the Urban Age, i.e. the increasing importance and preeminent role of cities. Examples are ‘transient spaces’ and airports viewed as ‘transient cities’. Different notions of the ‘smart city of the future’ are introduced and complemented by the concept of ‘hybrid cities’, i.e. integrating the virtual, digital world with the real, physical world.The current hype about abundant business opportunities of smart cities requires a critical investigation. The Internet of Things (IoT) provides the infrastructure for collecting data about urban objects and citizens including their behavior. A wide range of information is combined and subjected to extensive ‘big data’ exploitation efforts – very often conducted without explicit consent of the people involved. In order to explore the challenges, but also the venues towards a more human-centered IoT, resp. an Ambient Intelligence approach, one has to explore the implications of matching people’s profiles with service options available at specific locations. A major focus is on the risks resulting from smart city installations, especially the serious infringements of privacy rights, i.e., usage of personal data without consent of the people concerned.Our thesis is that a critical reflection of different manifestations of the ‘smart everything’ paradigm is needed in order to meet the overall goal of reconciling humans and technology. A central aspect of this goal is to keep the ‘human in the loop’ and in control. Therefore, a citizen-centered design approach for future cities is needed, helping us to go ‘beyond smart-only cities’ and transform them into Humane, Sociable and Cooperative Smart Hybrid Cities.

Norbert Streitz

Chapter 2. Verlage und Ambient-Marketing

Die Rahmenbedingungen für Marketingaktivitäten haben sich in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten bedeutend geändert: Seit Mitte der 1970er Jahre entwickelten sich Verkäufermärkte zunehmend zu Käufermärkten, die sich durch einen Angebotsüberhang gegenüber der Nachfrage auszeichnen (vgl. Hutter/Hoffmann 2013, S. 10; Wöhe/Döring 2013, S. 370), Produkte sind in der Regel ausgereift und weisen auf den gesättigten Märkten hinsichtlich ihrer Qualität lediglich geringfügige Unterschiede auf (vgl. Kroeber-Riel/Weinberg 2003, S. 125), Angebote sind aufgrund ihrer Homogenität zunehmend substituierbar und verfügen immer seltener über innovative Attribute (vgl. Kroeber-Riel/Esch 2011, S. 35). Für die Nachfrager resultiert aus diesen Gegebenheiten, dass sie aus einem sehr großen und qualitativ ähnlichen Angebot frei wählen können, welche Produkte sie zur Bedürfnisbefriedigung präferieren (vgl. Meffert et al. 2014, S. 6).

Christoph Kochhan, Annkathrin Reiter, Holger Schunk

Chapter 1. Einleitung

Die im Zitat implizierte „Situation“ reflektiert die Problematik, mit welcher sich das Marketing heutzutage konfrontiert sieht: Angesichts einer nahezu homogenen Produkt- und Markenpräsenz (vgl. Kroeber-Riel/Esch 2011, S. 35) konkurrieren Unternehmen zunehmend um die Aufmerksamkeit der Konsumenten, die ihrerseits jedoch vermehrt versuchen, sich dieser steigenden Anzahl an Marketingaktivitäten zu entziehen. Die vorhandene Informationsüberlastung (vgl. Kroeber-Riel/Weinberg 2003, S. 90) und ein verändertes Mediennutzungsverhalten erschweren es Werbetreibenden, Rezipienten effektiv mit ihren Botschaften zu erreichen. Diese Herausforderung zeigt sich gleichermaßen und insbesondere für Verlage, da sie i. d. R. sowohl auf Werbe- als auch Lesermärkten agieren (vgl. Dierks 2009, S. 8; Thomä 2013, S. 3).

Christoph Kochhan, Annkathrin Reiter, Holger Schunk

Chapter 3. Good Environment, Bad Environment

Like those in the Eastern Hemisphere, almost all indigenous civilizations or cultural traditions in the Americas were based in river valleys or closely related to river systems. Then, why have not they given birth to an indigenous civilization that is as strong as those in the Old World? In this chapter, a comparison of two regions with contrasting ecologies—namely, the várzeas (meaning “floodplains”) as an Amazon region where there is extensive land and unlimited food resources, and the coastal valleys of Peru as a region with circumscribed agricultural land—reveals that it was the scarcity (not the abundance) of natural resources that eventually led to the establishment of agricultural societies and of more advanced civilizations. At last, I argue that the Americas’ favorable external conditions had negatively influenced their cultural evolution and development during the pre-Columbian era, and that, if the current geopolitical pattern does not change, the negative influence will continue to exist.

Rongxing Guo

Mobile: Die Zukunft liegt auf der Hand

Inzwischen lesen bereits rund 83 % der Bewerber Stellenanzeigen auf dem Smartphone oder Tablet. Tendenz steigend. Gleichzeitig riskieren Unternehmen, mit ihrem Karriere-Webauftritt im Google-Ranking abzurutschen, wenn sie davon nur eine schlechte mobile Ansicht liefern. Nur zwei Gründe, warum das Thema „mobile Recruiting“ derzeit im Personalbereich stark diskutiert wird. Denn mobile Strategien steigern die eigene Reichweite enorm, erobern neue Zielgruppen und beschleunigen und intensivieren die Interaktion zwischen Recruiter und Bewerber. Bevor sich Unternehmen jedoch für eine mobile Karriereseite, eine App oder für beides entscheiden, müssen sie sich ihre Ziele klarmachen – und anschließend für durchgängige Prozesse sorgen. Das gilt vom Employer Branding bis zum Bewerbungsprozess. Dabei ist Einfachheit Trumpf. Wer diese Punkte beherzigt, für den ist mobile Recruiting eine einmalige Chance, um die Zielgruppe mit ausgefallenen Ideen zu überraschen und an sich zu binden.

Frank Staffler

Chapter 18. Future Perspectives of the Life-Oriented Approach

This book has attempted to provide a general picture about the life-oriented approach by focusing on major life choices. In reality, there are so many types of life choices and it is therefore impossible to cover all of them in a single book. Here, first, this chapter makes brief discussions on research issues related to several life choices excluded from the previous chapters. Second, relevance of the life-oriented approach to cross-sectoral planning and policy as well as general public services is described. Third, future research from the perspective of making use of Big Data is illustrated. Fourth, it is discussed how to put the life-oriented approach into practice. Finally, this chapter describes future perspectives of the life-oriented approach in general, as a truly scientific system.

Junyi Zhang

Chapter 10. Mobility of the Elderly

This chapter briefly overviews studies on mobility of the elderly with a particular focus on its conceptualization, measurement, and evaluation. The role of mobility in the everyday life of the elderly is first explored through putting mobility discourses into a broader context. After clarifying hierarchy of travel needs, interdependencies between mobility and other life domains, and the linkage between mobility and well-being are discussed. Then, policy aspects related to mobility of the elderly are examined, aiming to draw on the potential conflicts that exist among different perspectives including social welfare, economy, and urban planning. Finally, this chapter points out the needs for conducting further cross-cutting empirical studies, establishing a clearer linkage between conceptual framework and empirical framework, developing a simple and standardized method to collectively show the importance of social aspects of transport, and exploring the potential changes in the role or position of the elderly in future.

Makoto Chikaraishi

Chapter 2. Empirical Evidence of Behavioral Interdependencies Across Life Choices

This chapter presents empirical evidence of behavioral interdependencies across more than 80 life choice variables, based on data collected from a cross-sectional survey, a panel survey, and a life history survey in Japan, respectively. Similar analyses are further conducted with respect to more than 20 indicators of life satisfaction and happiness, as a whole life and by life domain. Very complex patterns of cross-domain and within-domain interdependencies are revealed by using statistical modeling approaches. This is the first study in literature to clarify behavioral interdependencies across life choices from such a comprehensive way. Analyses also suggest a variety of research issues for promoting the life-oriented approach.

Yubing Xiong, Junyi Zhang

Chapter 5. Household Energy Consumption Behavior

This chapter deals with not only household car ownership and usage, but also ownership and usage of in-home electric and electronic appliances from the perspective of energy consumption. Household energy consumption is an outcome of a series of life choices including end-use ownership, end-use efficiency, end-use usage, time use, expenditure allocation, residential location choice, employment choice, and household structure decisions. It is related to all life domains and also has externalities such as impacts on health. Life-oriented methodology that considers the potential interactions between household energy consumption and other life choices would be more appropriate to investigate this issue. To that end, this chapter sheds light on three fundamental questions related to household energy consumption: (1) How much is the minimum energy demand for households in the context of their life choices? (2) How do factors of attitude, belief and consciousness work on residential choice and household energy consumption? (3) How can household energy demand be actively managed by designing life choice-oriented interdisciplinary policies? In this chapter, the externality of household energy use on health is discussed as well.

Biying Yu, Junyi Zhang

Chapter 4. The Car-Dependent Life

This chapter focuses on car dependence in people’s life. The authors first describe a new phenomenon about the decline in young people’s car ownership and usage by providing additional facts and insights based on literature review and a case study in Japan. Especially, the case study in Japan uses data from a longitudinal national household expenditure survey and confirmed that car ownership and usage decisions in Japan are more or less associated with decisions about other household expenditures. Second, recent research on shared mobility is reviewed from the perspective of smart use of cars. Third, existing studies on cars from the life-oriented consideration are described by looking at shopping behavior (both store-shopping and online shopping) and general purchasing behavior as well as electric vehicle ownership and usage. As for electric vehicles, the influence of lifestyle is explored. Fourth, car ownership and usage for an inclusive society are discussed, where low-income persons, children, and the elderly are focused on. Fifth, behavioral changes toward less dependence on car from a long-term perspective are illustrated. Finally, discussions on car dependence from the life-oriented perspective are given.

Junyi Zhang, Masashi Kuwano, Makoto Chikaraishi, Hajime Seya

Chapter 15. Household Time Use Behavior Analysis: A Case Study of Multidimensional Timing Decisions

This chapter investigates household time use behavior by especially focusing on timing decisions on interdependent daily activities. Timing decisions on various life choices have been unsatisfactorily presented in literature. At best, such timing decisions have been presented based on survival analysis, which has various attractive statistical features, however, ignores decision-making mechanisms. This chapter argues that the utility of activity participation and trip-making behavior changes over time, and timing decisions within a given period of time interact across activities/trips and across household members. This study derives the optimal timing functions for both nonshared and shared activities/trips by different household members, where interdependencies among activities/trips over time and household’s coupling constraints are endogenously represented. The applicability of the developed model is empirically examined. Behavioral implications of analysis results are finally discussed.

Junyi Zhang, Harry Timmermans

Chapter 3. Lifestyles and Life Choices

This chapter focuses on lifestyles and life choices. Although there is not a formally agreed definition of it, the ‘lifestyle’ concept—derived from sociology—might be useful in life choice studies. It highlights the importance of ‘soft’ factors next to the traditional ‘hard’ factors (e.g., demographic, socioeconomic and spatial characteristics) while explaining life choices. This chapter first provides a structured overview of the ‘lifestyle’ concept in terms of definitions and measurement methods. Two broad perspectives exists: (1) a mechanistic lifestyle approach considering a behavioral typology of activity and time use patterns, and (2) a sociographic lifestyle approach focusing on a behavioral orientations—values, attitudes and preferences—and a latent factor motivating behavior patterns. The second part of this chapter reviews how the ‘lifestyle’ concept has been used in life choice studies so far. It specifically focuses on applications in the research domains of demography and family studies, geography and urban studies, and transportation. Both perspectives are used interchangeably without little evaluation of the usefulness of various formal lifestyle classification systems. Moreover, most life choice studies consider ‘lifestyles’ as static and given, and not as something dynamic that might change over time. This calls for a more longitudinal perspective on the interaction between lifestyles and life choices. Other avenues for further research include the integration with a social network and a geographical perspective.

Veronique Van Acker

Kapitel 4. Kanalexzellenz und Erfolgsfaktoren im E-Commerce

Kanalexzellenz zeichnet erfolgreiche Online-Händler aus, die besser performen als der Durchschnitt. Sie sind in der Lage, mit ihren Leistungen im E-Commerce den Benchmark zu setzen und nutzen alle Möglichkeiten der modernen Interaktion. Insgesamt sind acht zentrale Erfolgsfaktoren für das Vorliegen von Web-Exzellenz im B2C zu beachten. Eine große Herausforderung spielt jedoch zunehmend die Nachhaltigkeit der Erfolgsfaktoren, da der Wettbewerb sich immer schneller anpasst.

Gerrit Heinemann

Chapter 10. Gender at Work: An Experiment in “Doing Gender”

Gender at Work is a virtual, transnational, feminist network with over twenty-six associates and a small complement of staff based in 12 countries that support organizational and institutional change to end discrimination against women and build cultures of equality in organizations. The linking of virtual and transnational aspects of Gender at Work enables us to be in many places at the same time, to explore approaches to organizational and institutional change that are acutely sensitive to context, and to exchange and co-create knowledge that subverts the traditional North/South divide. At the same time, the small management core with primary fundraising responsibility and part-time, intermittent nature of associate’s participation poses significant organizational challenges such as: How to support communication across the network and beyond? How to facilitate learning and knowledge building? How to develop approaches to accountability that resonate with our values? How to develop and resource institutionalized ways of supporting such functions and processes that don’t by default lead us into a hierarchal mode of operating or push up operating costs. This chapter will discuss the development of Gender at Work’s organizing strategy, how it functioned, how it was challenged by the growth of the organization, and how Gender at Work dealt with those challenges. It will also discuss how Gender at Work’s strategy may differ from other Social Sector Organizations (SSOs) and what difference that makes to “doing gender.”

Aruna Rao, David Kelleher, Carol Miller, Joanne Sandler, Rieky Stuart, Tania Principe

23. Prägung der Identität einer Luxusmarke durch ihren Gründer am Beispiel von Chronoswiss

Die Gründer von Luxusgüterunternehmen stellen einen wesentlichen Bestandteil der Markenidentität dar. Mit ihren vorausschauenden unternehmerischen Entscheidungen, ihren Wertvorstellungen, ihrer besonderen Liebe zu den Produkten und den handwerklichen Details und ihren hohen Ansprüchen an Qualität und Ästhetik sind sie in der Lage, die Marke langfristig zu prägen. Ihr Einfluss reicht oftmals weit über die Zeit ihres aktiven Wirkens im Unternehmen hinaus. Luxusmarken wie Chanel, Saint Laurent, Louis Vuitton oder Dior sind konkrete Belege dafür. Oftmals wird die Luxusmarke in all ihren Facetten erst dann hinterfragt und konsequent weiterentwickelt, wenn die Gründerin oder der Gründer aus dem Unternehmen ausgeschieden oder verstorben, und die Marke deshalb dazu gezwungen ist [9, S. 360] Obwohl die Relevanz des Gründers für die Entwicklung einer Luxusmarke außer Frage steht, wurde dieser Problemstellung bisher wenig Bedeutung geschenkt. In diesem Beitrag wird – in Anlehnung an den identitätsorientierten Ansatz zur Luxusmarkenführung und den Artikel von Verena König zum „Einfluss des ursprünglichen Schöpfers einer Luxusmarke auf die Marken identität am Beispiel von Louis Vuitton und Dorothee Schuhmacher“ [10] – die ursprünglich deutsche und noch relativ junge Luxusuhrenmarke „Chronoswiss“ und der Einfluss des Gründers Gerd-Rüdiger Lang auf die einzelnen Facetten der Markenidentität untersucht. Lang hat die Marke praktisch aus der Garage heraus in knapp 30 Jahren zu einer der führenden „deutschen Luxusmarken“ entwickelt. Im Jahr 2012 wurde das Unter nehmen dann an das Schweizer Unternehmerehepaar Ebstein verkauft. Heute hat Chronoswiss seinen Hauptsitz in der Schweiz und steuert in Luzern die Geschicke der Marke. Der Gründer ist aus dem Unternehmen ausgeschieden.Die Analyse dieses Fallbeispiels birgt folgende Herausforderungen, die beachtet werden müssen: 1. Es handelt sich um eine verhältnismäßig junge Luxusmarke. 2. Durch die erst kürzlich erfolgte Veräußerung des Unternehmens kann über die mittel- bis langfristigen Folgen des Ausscheidens von Lang nur gemutmaßt werden. 3. Die größte Herausforderung besteht jedoch darin, aus einer unvollständigen Informationslage eine klare Prägung durch den Gründer auf die Markenidentität abzuleiten. Um diesen Herausforderungen gerecht zu werden, wurde im Anschluss an eine Basisrecherche über die wichtigsten Veröffentlichungen zur Marke ein mehrstündiges Interview mit Lang geführt, in dem die Meilensteine der Markengeschichte skizziert worden sind. Zudem stellt eine Materialsammlung aus dem Archiv des Gründers, zur Entwicklung des Unternehmens, den wichtigsten Produkten und den Geschichten zur Marke (Bücher, Zeitschriften- und Zeitungsartikel, Unternehmens- und Produktpräsentationen) eine wichtige Informationsgrundlage dar. Die anschließenden Überlegungen hinsichtlich der Weiterentwicklung der Marke ohne den Gründer beruhen auf der Auswertung von Beiträgen in Fachzeitschriften und aktuellen, öffentlich zugänglichen Informationen des Unternehmens. Des Weiteren fand ein Besuch der Uhrenmesse „Munich Time“ statt, bei dem persönliche Interviews mit dem Vertriebspersonal des Unternehmens geführt wurden.

Lisa Huber, Werner M. Thieme

Chapter 6. Vielfalt und Komplexität aktueller Werbeformen in systematischer Darstellung

Werbung differenziert sich immer weiter aus. Mit der Folge, dass das gesamte Feld der Werbung immer undurchschaubarer wird. Um die Werbung systematisieren und die Besonderheiten ihrer Erscheinungsformen herausarbeiten zu können, wurde in diesem Lehrbuch 2005 die zweidimensionale IP Matrix entwickelt. Dazu wurden die Integration in den redaktionellen Kontext und der Personalisierungsgrad der Werbung als relevante Verortungsdimensionen vorgestellt. Auch in der zweiten Auflage 2010 wurde die zweidimensionale Matrix beibehalten, obwohl sich bereits zeigte, dass der Interaktivitätsgrad der Werbung wichtiger wird.

Gabriele Siegert, Dieter Brecheis

Chapter 2. Rahmenbedingungen, Meta-Entwicklungen und Geschichte der Werbung

Werbung zu Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts steht in einer engen Wechselwirkung mit verschiedenen Rahmenbedingungen. Sie wird von Politik, Recht, Technologie, Ökonomie und Kultur massgeblich beeinflusst. Vice versa beeinflusst sie ihrerseits diese Rahmenbedingungen – wenn auch ungleich stark.

Gabriele Siegert, Dieter Brecheis

Understanding the new, Negotiated Phase of Relationship Marketing: A Proposed Research Agenda

Marketing and marketing communications have changed dramatically over the past 50 years. This article traces the changes through a set of models, starting with Customer Marketing (CM) then Customer Relationship Marketing (CRM) and finally CN2, the Customer Networked/Negotiated system. Illustrative details are provided for each of the systems. Based on this evolution, a new academic/professional research agenda is proposed.

Don Schultz, Edward C Malthouse, Doreen Pick

Is Neo-Liberal Capitalism Eating Itself or Its Young?

As we finalise the introduction to what we think is an important, and timely, examination of the relationships between a globalising neo-Liberal capitalism, a post-2008–2009 Global Financial Crisis (GFC) environment of recession and austerity, and the moral economies of young people’s health and well-being, it appears that neo-Liberal, globalised capitalism might be about to eat itself … again. And if not itself, then it will continue, it seems, to devour its young.

Peter Kelly, Jo Pike

Approach to Engineering the Temperature Sensing E-textile: A Lightweight Thermistor as an Active Sensing Element

In this paper, we describe an approach to fabricating conductive textiles with temperature sensing capability. The key point of our approach is in combining electronic properties of a molecular organic semiconductor with clothing. A polycarbonate film covered with organic molecular semiconductor was used as the temperature measurement element. To minimize the electrical response of the developed bi layer thermistor to deformations, the thermistor was attached to a rigid film-like platform specifically fabricated in the textile by its local melting. Our study shows that the developed platform enables engineering of the conductive fabric the electrical resistance of which exclusively responded to temperature changes. Such e-textiles may be easily prepared using a simple fabrication procedure and, therefore, they are compatible with conductive sensing fabrics prepared by printing techniques. The developed organic thermistor, being cheap, lightweight and biocompatible, is highly attractive for applications in wearable biomedical technology.

Victor Lebedev, Elena Laukhina, Vladimir Laukhin, Andrey Somov, Alexander Baranov, Concepcio Rovira, Jaume Veciana

Analytics im eBranding

In den Anfangstagen des World Wide Web wurde die Frage, warum eine Webseite benötigt wird, selten gestellt: Es war neu und modern, vielleicht auch nur schick, irgendetwas mit www auf die Visitenkarte drucken lassen zu können. Und wenn der Betreiber tatsächlich wissen wollte, was auf seiner Webseite los war, dann wurde entweder ein Besucherzähler eingeführt oder, in der professionellen Variante, Server-Logdateien ausgewertet. Zu dieser Zeit bereits entstand die Währung der Page Impressions.

Tom Alby

Chapter 2. Becoming ‘White-Collar Beauties’ in Urban China

This chapter examines the social, economic and cultural processes that lead to the making of a ‘white-collar beauty’ identity in post-Mao China. It is revealed how the discourse is embedded in a framework infused with state and market neoliberal forces: young educated heterosexual women are constructed to embody nationalist and neoliberal desires to break from the past ideology attached to socialist factory workers so as to endorse the youth, intelligence, beauty and materiality that are valued by a market economy. This chapter proceeds with an introduction of the research setting and a personal account of my research experience, reflecting upon how fieldwork relations were mediated by my own as well as participants’ positionalities.

Liu Jieyu

Grenzen der politischen Kommunikation von Unternehmensverbänden

Wirtschaftsverbände sind wie alle Verbände intermediäre Organisationen. Sie stehen damit zwischen dem staatlich-administrativen Bereich auf der einen Seite sowie den eigenen Mitgliedern und der demokratischen Öffentlichkeit auf der anderen Seite. Zwischen diesen beiden Umwelten gilt es zu vermitteln.

Rudolf Speth, Sascha Kristin Futh

Increasing Civic Engagement Through Market Segmentation

Most societies depend on the willingness of community members to donate their time for the provision of essential services, such as delivering meals to homes of people with mobility issues, distributing food to the homeless, and protecting people’s homes and lives in cases of natural disasters. However, somewhat alarmingly, recent figures indicate that after 15 years of consistent increases in the number of adults demonstrating civic participation through volunteering, rates fell from a high of 36 % in 2010 down five percentage points to 31 % in 2014. As a consequence, many organisations that rely on volunteers for the provision of a range of services are under substantial pressure to retain current, and recruit more, volunteers. This chapter discusses the potential benefits of marketing techniques for organisations that depend on individuals donating their time to help a social cause; elaborates on why market segmentation is a suitable approach to encourage civic participation and why it is likely to outperform mass marketing; and offers practical examples of how market segmentation has been applied to (1) increase the participation of community members from distinctly different cultural backgrounds in environmental volunteering, (2) identify different patterns of volunteering motivations which can be targeted with marketing messages to increase recruitment, and (3) determine which sections of the general population represent promising targets for foster carer recruitment. The key message of this chapter is that organisations with noble missions would benefit from overcoming the perception that marketing is not noble enough for them to engage in. Instead, they should embrace marketing in general, and market segmentation specifically, as effective tools which will help them achieve their goals.

Melanie Randle, Sara Dolnicar

Chapter 9. The Art of Copywriting

Writing copy for an overstimulated world

What is copywriting? Simply put, you can think of it as salesmanship in written form. It is used for the purpose of relaying a client’s advertising or marketing message. Great copywriting has the ability to deliver messages of value to the right people at the right time. Effective messaging will motivate readers to respond with thoughts, words, or actions. If they are not motivated to act or at least consider taking action, the copy was not successful. You may be thinking, “Yeah. Sure. Whatever. That’s easy. It’s just words.” Don’t underestimate the power of good copywriting.

Eleazar Hernández

Chapter 7. The Art of the Critique

How to evaluate your team’s work constructively

Any creative who tells you that they don’t have a personal attachment to the work they produce is lying to you. When we create solutions to marketing challenges, we do so from a very personal basis. Sure, we use research or client information provided to us to come up with creative solutions, but regardless of where the information came from, the act of creating is always personal. We pour a little bit of ourselves into every project. The reality is that all designers, art directors, copywriters, illustrators, and so on infuse a little bit of their personality and aesthetics in all their work.

Eleazar Hernández

Chapter 8. The Art of the Pitch

Get ready for the spotlight.

Coming up with good ideas is hard enough, but convincing others that they are good is a whole other ballgame. Part of the responsibility of being creative lead is that it is your job to present or “pitch” ideas to both internal team members and clients. I am not advocating that you learn how to sell ideas like one of those slick car wheeler-dealers, but you do need to thoroughly communicate the benefits of your creative solutions to teammates and the clients. You must develop the ability to be at ease when speaking to a group of people so that you can present your team’s ideas in a confident, knowledgeable manner. If you can’t, you risk having very good ideas end up in the recycle bin.

Eleazar Hernández

Chapter 4. Leading a Design Creative Team

Fighting the war against visual corruption

Running a design team in a studio is similar to running an advertising agency creative team with several exceptions. For large studios, you will most likely have account executives to act as a buffer between the creatives and clients. At small studios, chances are the creatives deal directly with clients. In both configurations, you will still be leading your team to ideate and produce work that solves communication challenges that your client is experiencing. However, there is a difference. While an ad agency creative team is addressing communications challenges with solutions that include TV or radio spots, out-of-home tactics, and print campaigns, design studios deal with visual challenges in ways that require visual solutions in the form of visual identities, environmental design, package design, websites, and so on.

Eleazar Hernández

Chapter 3. Leading an Advertising Creative Team

Where are all the Mad Men and Women at?

A creative team in the field of advertising consists of the people who actually work to create the idea or concept that attempts to satisfy the communication challenges faced by their clients. The team has two specialties: art and copy. Advertising agencies generally refer to their resident experts in the visual and verbal as their “creative team.”

Eleazar Hernández

Chapter 11. Career Trajectories to Creative Leadership

How do I get there?

Is there a magic formula or an actual outlined path that someone should follow to become a creative leader? I’d like to say in my best Yoda voice, “Path to creative leadership, yes there is.” Unfortunately, almost every creative director has taken a path all his or her own. What works for one may not work for another. Senior Art Director A might be thrust into a leadership role because they happen to be in the right place at the right time. Multimedia Designer B is given responsibility and is suddenly thrust into the role of creative director as part of their in-house team, but doesn’t understand the role. Newly promoted Creative Director C took the slow and steady path to creative director starting as a junior art director and, through creative blood, sweat, and tears at the same agency, makes their way to creative leadership. More often, creative leaders grow, learn, and progress by spending time at an agency, developing expertise in their current position, and then moving on to another agency for a higher title with more responsibility.

Eleazar Hernández

Chapter 6. Creative Exploration Tools

Sketching and Thumbnails

Too many times, creatives begin their visual explorations on a computer before having ideas fully formed. They worry about fonts, colors, and images before they even have a concept. Why do so many creatives skip a critical step in the ideation process and begin working on the computer so quickly? This, in my opinion, is due to either a lack of creative confidence or bad habits that were developed during their time in school or as young professionals. They start working with the end in mind rather than thinking beyond the obvious. They sometimes gravitate to familiar solutions that have worked for them in the past. Without careful consideration, this method of idea development may result in ideas that could be off-brand or off-target.

Eleazar Hernández

Unique Challenges of Reentry for Convicted Sex Offenders

Managing sex offenders within communities is a daunting task, given the nature of this type of criminal offending. This chapter highlights the important aspects of the sex offending literature, with a focus on reentry efforts for sex offenders. Obstacles and consequences of sex offending are provided, along with significant management strategies that communities have attempted to address sex offending and sex offenders. This chapter reviews the major models of sex offender management and prospects and barriers to their implementation. It is concluded that there is no one type of sex offender and no one best method to manage sex offenders in the community. Instead, sex offending, like other criminal offending, must be understood as diverse and dynamic, and as such, there must be a comprehensive and eclectic approach to successfully managing sex offenders in the community.

Jamie Yoder, Mary Ann Farkas

Social Efficiency in Energy Conservation

Global energy use, fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and atmospheric CO2 levels continue to rise, despite some progress in mitigation efforts. Improving energy efficiency is seen as an important means of reducing emissions, but absolute reductions in global energy use remain elusive because of continued growth in the numbers of important energy-using devices such as transport vehicles, and energy rebound. Limiting the rise in average surface temperature above preindustrial to 2 °C is widely regarded as the limit for avoiding dangerous anthropogenic climate change. Given the magnitude of CO2 emission reductions necessary for this limit to be met, other approaches are needed for reducing energy use and its resultant emissions. This chapter discusses social efficiency (nontechnical means for reducing energy use) and stresses the social and environmental context in which energy consumption occurs in various sectors. Three important sectors for energy use, transport, buildings, and agriculture, are used to illustrate the potential for social efficiency in energy reductions. We argue that by focusing more clearly on the human needs energy use is meant to satisfy, it is possible to find new, less energy-intensive ways of meeting these needs.

Patrick Moriarty, Damon Honnery

Chapter 9. Corporate Cash Piles and Falling Interest Rates

Bernanke blamed the global savings glut for the relatively low yields on longer-term US Treasuries in 2004, singling out the savings of emerging economies. Bernanke omitted, however, that US corporate demand for US Treasuries was at least as large. It would be more apt to speak of a corporate savings glut, especially because emerging market’s savings consist also for a large part of corporate savings. Also, it is too simple to blame foreign capital inflows for the housing bubble as causality runs from rising house prices to the deterioration of the current account, not the other way around. More importantly, there is a long-term trend toward lower interest rates that is, foremost, the result of the shift in income from labor to capital.

Heleen Mees

Chapter 31. Reflecting on LivingLabs and Future Trends

As technology has advanced so has the future role of living labs evolved. With the increased availability of wireless monitoring technologies including climate and activity sensors as well as self-reporting tools, the capability to convert virtually every house or building into a living lab has become a reality. ICT enables now the connectivity and merging of data sets across multiple living labs and monitored homes, providing a unique infrastructure for accelerating the adoption and marketing of innovations focused on sustainable living. The LivingLab approach is gaining more and more importance as a mechanism to study and shape sustainable behavior from the public and private perspective.

David V. Keyson, Carolin Baedeker

Chapter 11. Exploring the German Living Lab Research Infrastructure: Opportunities for Sustainable Products and Services

Living Labs for Sustainable Development aim to generate low-resource innovations in production-consumption systems by integrating users and actors. This chapter presents the results of a German study investigating potentials of and measures towards the realization of a German Living Lab infrastructure to support actor-integrated sustainability research and innovations in Germany Geibler et al. (2014). Generally, as the status quo analysis revealed, the sustainability and Living Lab communities in Germany are hardly intertwined. However, twelve Living Labs that explicitly consider sustainability aspects could be identified. The analyses of drivers and barriers as well as SWOT (Strengths and Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) provided the foundation to identify options for the promotion of a user-integrating research infrastructure supporting sustainable products and services. The measures suggested for Germany include a funding program for actor-integrated, socio-technical research based on a Living Lab network, a communication campaign, and programs to foster networking and the inclusion of SMEs. Some of the suggested measures have already been taken up.

Justus von Geibler, Carolin Baedeker, Christa Liedtke, Holger Rohn, Lorenz Erdmann

Chapter 9. Out-of-Home Becomes Relevant Again

“OUT-OF-HOME” IS TRADITIONALLY DEFINED AS any advertising that we see while outside of our houses, such as billboards or display boards in subways, airports, or movie theaters. The out-of-home sector has also worked to shed its image as purveyors of eyesore billboards by attempting to change their industry moniker to such kitschy titles as “play space media” (which I guess refers to every place outdoors being a “playground”) but also innovating with video billboards. The latter still draw the scorn of regulators because of the distraction to drivers—locally and nationally—but they certainly take advantage of the ever-progressing “jumbotron” television evolution. It is still shocking to see how crisp and true-to-life these large screens are becoming from the roadside boards to those in stadiums. In all instances, the out-of-home marketing and advertising industry has really failed to catapult itself beyond intrusiveness, but there are glimmers of hope, and mobile can help deliver the opportunities.

Michael Dru Kelley

Chapter 1. All Thumbs

The Simple Rule of Thumb for Mobile Experiences

A few days before I embarked on writing this book, I met with a Fortune 100 CEO and CMO. Both were tapping away on their phones as the meeting started—a common scene in corporate conference rooms across the globe—and they apologized, saying that they needed a few minutes to respond to some urgent texts and e-mails. I sat patiently and turned off my own phone, putting it safely in my coat pocket—a practice I have embraced as common courtesy during meetings of any type. I watched them as they both continued to tap at their devices. I observed that both were using their thumbs, and the CEO held up his index in a perpetual “just wait a minute” pose, almost forgetting he had done it. The CMO was alternating between two devices—a Blackberry and an Android. The CEO had three devices.

Michael Dru Kelley

Chapter 2. Mobile Is the Action Screen

Stop Calling It “Second Screen”

THE TERM “SECOND SCREEN” HAS PROLIFERATED on the scene almost as quickly as “mobile optimization.” Many of us refer to the mobile screen as part of the second–screen family (which also includes iPad, iPod Touch, DS Gameboy etc.), because it is viewed as the companion screen to the “primary screens” of TV, magazines, web, and even in–store point–of–sale (POS) displays, among others.

Michael Dru Kelley

Chapter 7. Read, Snap, and Enjoy

Mobile Just Might Save Print

It has been my goal over the last seven years or so to drive more value out of magazine and newspaper print publishing. Even today I work with a number of celebrity and lifestyle magazines, and I can assure you that images and stories in print sell publications to legions of fans—even with huge social (and virtual) followings. Regardless of how mobile advances the transition of print publications like Vanity Fair and InStyle to electronic platforms, consumers still love to see fashions, their favorite performers, and other content in images with the richness and representation that only print can provide. Yet I don’t need to overstate the research to show that if we include video with print pictures and make it easy to activate with mobile, a good percentage of the readership will also become viewership. If new forms of mobile-activated media are rising up all around us, why haven’t the print publishers responded?

Michael Dru Kelley

Introduction

The Focus and Goal of All Thumbs

MY GOAL FOR ALL THUMBS IS TO DELIVER TO THE reader the experience and practical know-how I’ve attained as a seasoned marketing executive and entrepreneur. I have struggled, like many of you, with less knowledge, less time to market, and certainly less budget when making big decisions and needing big results. To keep things simple, here is what All Thumbs will focus on. With mobile devices reaching a penetration rate covering the vast majority of adult Americans and nearly half of the world’s population, I will focus on the simple premise that marketers must make every piece of marketing mobile ready. Whether these are 30-second TV spots, radio ads, out-of-home, direct-mail pieces, newspaper ads, e-mail, in-store displays, or even online video, the mobile experiences we create must be easily activated with the press of a thumb and allow consumers to use a coupon, engage with a 90-second “how-to” video, or interact in any number of ways to drive sales of our brands, large and small.

Michael Dru Kelley

Ambient Media in the View of the General Public and Their Relation to this Communication Form

The chapter presents detailed results of a broadband research on the topic of the general public perception of the ambient media in the context of the communication efficiency carried out by means of a mobile platform in more than 70 countries. Commercional and non-commercional entities are forced to search for new opportunities when communicating to their target group and rights of the opportunities may be perceived as the use of the ambient media. In the chapter, the author concludes from the responses of the respondents and demonstrates the value of the ambient media use as well as shows the opportunity for enhancing competitiveness of companies/brands or products by means of the ambient media.

Tomáš Šula, Milan Banyár

1. A New Lens on the Migration-home Nexus

Home is an everyday, vernacular notion which potentially holds very significant conceptual implications. Migration and the search for home defines it as a special kind of relationship with place – a culturally and normatively oriented experience, based on the tentative attribution of a sense of security, familiarity and control to particular settings over all others. Irreducible to either house or dwelling, home is an emplaced interpersonal process with irremediably prescriptive bases. It is also a valuable lens, and a research venue and subject, for migration studies. The migrant condition is unique in casting light on home by default, or from afar, and on the opportunities and dilemmas related to its achievement. Transnational migration need not entail a simple loss of home; rather, the complex interaction between home and migration should be critically and contextually explored. The concepts of migration-home nexus and of homing point to a way ahead to do so.

Paolo Boccagni

13. Kommunikationspolitik

Die Kommunikationspolitik stellt eine immer wichtigere Komponente des Marketingmix dar. In vielen Märkten hat eine Verschiebung vom Produkt- hin zum Kommunikationswettbewerb stattgefunden (vgl. Esch 2008). Deshalb können Unternehmen ihre Produkte häufig nur verkaufen, wenn sie ein entsprechendes Maß an Kommunikation gegenüber dem Kunden betreiben (z.B. mittels Werbung). Die hohe Bedeutung der Kommunikationspolitik lässt sich unter anderem an der Höhe der Brutto-Werbeausgaben für verschiedene Werbeträger in Deutschland erkennen (vgl. Nielsen 2014, Tabelle 13-7).

Christian Homburg
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