Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
The environment is undergoing profound change due to climatic and other anthropogenic related factors. However, we often cannot anticipate the changes before they happen and thus do not have effective base-lines for decision making, or good means of assessing the rate and extent of change. At the same time even if we could anticipate these changes, the cost of developing sufficient biological data would often be prohibitive. This paper explores the use of social data, to address biological questions. In this example we examine the resilience of near shore marine systems ability to respond to a reduction in fishing pressure as a proxy for understanding the broader ability of the system to adapt to change.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Note that the semi-structured interview approach, as well as the questionnaire was approved for exemption the MIT Committee on the Use of Humans as Experimental Subjects.
CmapTools was developed by the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC), a university-affiliated research institute of Florida: http://cmap.ihmc.us/conceptmap.html
A wider body distinguished winter migrating herring; spring spawning herring were found in the Bay of Fundy; and fall spawning herring were always the biggest.
Ironically though stop seines now seem relatively low-tech and low impact, on many of the islands fishermen consistently cite the stop sieners as having the first big impact on nearshore fish populations beginning in the 1960s, with many of the smelt runs gone by the mid 1970s.
Purse seining is also indiscriminate and must off-load catches that have too much of a restricted species. This means that both the herring and the regulated fish are killed anyway, but are then also thrown away to rot. Stop seining allows the fisherman to be more discriminate in his catch.
Argyris C (1993) On organizational learning. Blackwell, Cambridge
Bourque BJ (1995) Diversity and complexity in prehistoric maritime societies. Plenum, New York
Brown VA, Harris JA, Russell JY (2010) Tackling wicked problems. Earthscan, London
Brunner RD, Lynch AH (2010) Adaptive governance and climate change. American Meteorological Society, Boston
Checkland P (1981) Systems thinking, systems practice. Wiley, New York
Christensen V, Guenette S, Heymans JJ, Walters CJ, Watson R, Zeller D, Pauley D (2003) Hundred-year decline in North Atlantic predatory fishers. Fish Fisher 4:1–24 CrossRef
Crocker M (2008) Sharing the ocean. Tilbury House Publishers, Gardener
Curtin CG (2012) The science of open spaces: frontiers in conservation from the perspecive of place. Island, Washington, DC
Holling CS (1973) Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 4:1–23 CrossRef
Peschl MF (2007) Triple-loop learning as foundation for profound change, individual cultivation, and radical innovation. Construction processes beyond scientific and rational knowledge. Constructivist Found 2:136–145
Rittel H (1972) On the planning crisis: systems analysis of the ‘first and second generations’,” Bedriftskonomen, vol 8. Institute of Urban and Regional Development, Berkeley
Turner BL, Clark WC, Kates RW, Richards JF, Mathews JT, Meyer WB (1990) The earth as transformed by human action: global and regional changes in the biosphere over the last 300 years. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Wilson JA (2006) Matching social and ecological systems in complex ocean fisheries. Ecol Soc 11(1):9, [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss1/art9/
- Outcomes of Social-Ecological Experiments in Near-Shore Marine Environments: Cognitive Interpretation of the Impact of Changes in Fishing Gear Type on Ecosystem Form and Function
Charles G. Curtin
- Springer Netherlands
- Chapter 21