Spacecraft are becoming more susceptible to space weather hazards for a number of reasons. The types of missions being flown are increasingly demanding and payloads are becoming more sophisticated. In addition, commercial pressures can result in selection of more lightweight spacecraft and less radiation hardened components. Non-availability of radiation-hardened components in some areas can lead to the use of technologies that are sensitive to radiation effects. New types of space weather effects are also emerging. Traditionally the concerns have been with effects such as single event upsets and latch-up, internal and external electrostatic charging, drag effects and some communications effects. Modern systems have to contend with new kinds of problems, for example ion-induced circuit transients, and with increasing complexity associated with other problems such as interference with sensors. To these problems must be added the hazards to man in space, especially in the light of ambitions to progress beyond low Earth orbit. Serious problems persist with capabilities to evaluate space weather hazards to spacecraft. For example, single event upset and internal charging anomalies remain difficult to predict quantitatively. This contribution reviews the trends and problems arising, and proposes actions that are needed to address the problems.
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- Outlook on Space Weather Effects on Spacecraft
- Springer Netherlands
- Chapter 5
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