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Über dieses Buch

Peter Fabian and Martin Dameris provide a concise yet comprehensive overview of established scientific knowledge about ozone in the atmosphere. They present both ozone changes and trends in the stratosphere, as well as the effects of overabundance in the troposphere including the phenomenon of photosmog.

Aspects such as photochemistry, atmospheric dynamics and global ozone distribution as well as various techniques for ozone measurement are treated. The authors outline the various causes for ozone depletion, the effects of ozone pollution and the relation to climate change.

The book provides a handy reference guide for researchers active in atmospheric ozone research and a useful introduction for advanced students specializing in this field. Non-specialists interested in this field will also profit from reading the book.

Peter Fabian can look back on a life-long active career in ozone research, having first gained international recognition for his measurements of the global distribution of halogenated hydrocarbons. He also pioneered photosmog investigations in the metropolitan areas of Munich, Berlin, Athens and Santiago de Chile, and his KROFEX facility provided controlled ozone fumigation of adult tree canopies for biologists to investigate the effects of ozone increases on forests. Besides having published a broad range of scientific articles, he has also been the author or editor of numerous books. From 2002 to 2005 he served the European Geosciences Union (EGU) as their first and Founding President.

Martin Dameris is a prominent atmospheric modeler whose interests include the impacts of all kinds of natural and man-made disturbances on the atmospheric system. His scientific work focuses on the connections between ozone and climate changes. For many years he has been an active contributor to the WMO scientific ozone depletion assessments, which have been used to monitor the depletion and recovery of the ozone layer in accordance with the Montreal Protocol.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Ozone (O3), formed from three oxygen atoms, is a pungent smelling poisonous gas. Although it is a rare component of the Earth’s atmosphere—in every ten million molecules of air, only about three are ozone—it is of fundamental importance for life on Earth.
Peter Fabian, Martin Dameris

Chapter 2. Discovery of Ozone in the Atmosphere

The 1770s stand out as an epoch making period in the research of the atmospheric composition. During this decade, several of the most important constituents were identified and named. In 1774, J. Priestley and C.W. Scheele independently discovered oxygen. In the same year, Scheele identified chlorine and in 1777 nitrogen. Priestley discovered nitrous oxide (N2O) in 1773, hydrogen chloride (HCl) and ammonia (NH3) in 1774, sulphur dioxide (SO2) in 1775 and carbon monoxide (CO) in 1779.
Peter Fabian, Martin Dameris

Chapter 3. The Ozone Layer

Ozone (O3) is formed in the atmosphere when oxygen atoms (O) react with oxygen molecules (O2). In the upper atmosphere solar UV radiation of wavelengths shorter than 242 nm can photolyze O2 molecules and thereby produce O atoms. Since oxygen strongly absorbs solar UV, O2 photolysis is restricted to the upper atmosphere. Figure 3.1, displaying absorption features of oxygen and ozone as a function of wavelength, shows that UV of wavelengths shorter than 242 nm is completely absorbed in the middle atmosphere and definitely does not reach the troposphere. Thus the resulting ozone layer is confined to the middle atmosphere, i.e. the stratosphere and mesosphere.
Peter Fabian, Martin Dameris

Chapter 4. Ozone in the Troposphere

The troposphere is the lowest atmospheric layer whose upper boundary, the tropopause, extends from about 18 km altitude in the tropics to 8 km in the polar region. Thus, it comprises about 90 % of the total mass of the Earth’s atmosphere. It contains the air we breathe and the water we drink. Biogenic source gases produced in soils and in the ocean are released into the troposphere, where they are carried along and mixed by winds and turbulences related to the weather systems. It is the troposphere, too, which we use as a waste dump for all kinds of waste gases of human civilisation, from industry, power plants, heating, transportation and other sources.
Peter Fabian, Martin Dameris

Chapter 5. Human Impact

Owing to the effect of catalytic reaction cycles of chlorine and nitrogen, global stratospheric ozone depletion outside the polar regions should be most obvious in the middle and upper stratosphere [3, 4]. Different measurements around the world have confirmed this expectation and with it the causes for the global depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. For example, in middle latitudes stratospheric ozone content decreased between 35 and 45 km altitude from 1979 to 1995 by about 15 % (Fig. 5.2; [5]). Further analysis has confirmed that the middle and upper stratospheric ozone decline apparent from 1979 until the mid-1990s has stopped and ozone has stabilised since about 1995, depending on the latitude [1].
Peter Fabian, Martin Dameris

Chapter 6. International Legislation: The Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol

In 1974 the world was alarmed by Molina and Rowland’s famous paper (Ref. [21], of Chap. 3) predicting a severe depletion of the ozone layer caused by the continuous liberation of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) 11 and 12, CCl3F and CCl2F2, respectively. At that time about 700,000 t of these substances were released every year, as spray can propellant, refrigerants, solvents and foam blowing agents, with about 10 % annual emission increase. These CFCs were extremely useful: inert like noble gases, non-inflammable, non-toxic, without smell or taste. But just because of their inertness they are not decomposed in the troposphere, they accumulate and gradually get mixed to the higher layers of the atmosphere, where, by UV attack and reactions with excited oxygen atoms, Cl atoms are liberated which catalytically destroy ozone (see Sect. 3.1.3).
Peter Fabian, Martin Dameris

Chapter 7. Historical Highlights

The Antarctic Ozone Hole, a significant seasonal ozone depletion over wide areas of Antarctica during Austral spring, had not been predicted and thus was a big surprise for the entire ozone community.
Peter Fabian, Martin Dameris
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