Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
We examined how the cultural dimension of universalism–particularism influences managers’ attitudes toward relational favoritism (such as favoring friends or relatives in HR decisions). Paradoxically, we found in a survey study that Brazilian and Chinese managers perceived more negative consequences of relational favoritism than did American managers—even though the Brazilians and the Chinese perceived stronger particularistic cultural norms in their countries than Americans did in the United States. We attribute this pattern of results to “cultural reflexivity”—the ability of people from transforming economies to be culturally self-critical during a period of dramatic societal change. This pattern of results also emerged in a scenario study in which we asked these same Brazilian, Chinese, and American participants to assess managerial succession decisions made by a General Manager. We varied the scenarios so that the promoted manager was either a colleague with no pre-existing relation with the GM or a colleague who was a relative, a close friend, from the same town, or from the same school. Consistent with the results of the survey study, we found that perceived cultural norms of particularism were negatively related to perceptions of fairness. In other words, Brazilians and Chinese, even while living in more particularistic cultures, were more harsh in judging relational favoritism. We conclude with a discussion on the implications of these paradoxical relationships.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Adams, J. S. (1963). Towards an understanding of inequity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,67(5), 422–436. CrossRef
Adler, P. S. (2001). Market, hierarchy, and trust: The knowledge economy and the future of capitalism. Organization Science,12(2), 214–234. CrossRef
Amado, G., & Brasil, H. V. (1991). Organizational behaviors and cultural context: The Brazilian “jeitinho”. International Studies of Management and Organization,21(3), 38–61. CrossRef
Anderson, R. C., & Reeb, D. M. (2003). Founding-family ownership and firm performance: Evidence from the S&P 500. Journal of Finance, 58(3), 1301–1328. CrossRef
Armstrong, R. W. (1996). The relationship between culture and perception of ethical problems in international marketing. Journal of Business Ethics,15(11), 1199–1208. CrossRef
Bagozzi, R. P., & Edwards, J. R. (1998). A general approach for representing constructs in organizational research. Organizational Research Methods,1(1), 45–87. CrossRef
Barbosa, L. (2006). O jeitinho Brasileiro: A arte de ser mais igual do que os outros [The Brazilian jeitinho: The art of being more equal than the others]. Sao Paulo: Elsevier.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,51(6), 1173–1182. CrossRef
Belcher, D. W. (1974). Compensation administration. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Black, J. S., Gregersen, H. B., Mendenhall, M. E., & Stroh, L. K. (1999). Globalizing people through international assignments. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Bontempo, R., Lobel, S., & Triandis, H. (1990). Compliance and value internalization in Brazil and the U.S.: Effects of allocentrism and anonymity. Journal of Cross-Cutural Psychology,21, 200–213. CrossRef
Brewer, P., & Venaik, S. (2010). GLOBE practices and values: A case of diminishing marginal utility? Journal of International Business Studies,41(8), 1316–1324. CrossRef
Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology,1(3), 185–216. CrossRef
Brockner, J., & Wiesenfeld, B. M. (1996). An integrative framework for explaining reactions to decisions: Interactive effects of outcomes and procedures. Psychological Bulletin,120(2), 189–208. CrossRef
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Carmines, E. G., & Mclver, J. D. (1981). Analyzing models with unobserved variables: Analysis of covariance structures. In G. W. Bohinstedt & E. F. Borgatta (Eds.), Social measurement: Current issues (pp. 65–115). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Cass, R. (2001). The rule of law in America. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
Chang, S.-J., van Witteloostuijn, A., & Eden, L. (2010). From the editors: Common method variance in international business research. Journal of International Business Studies,41(2), 178–184. CrossRef
Chen, C. C. (1995). New trends in rewards allocation preferences: A Sino–U.S. comparison. Academy of Management Journal,38(2), 408–428. CrossRef
Chen, C. C., Chen, X. P., & Meindl, J. R. (1998). How can cooperation be fostered? The cultural effects of individualism and collectivism. Academy of Management Review,23(2), 285–304.
Chen, C. C., Chen, Y.-R., & Xin, K. (2004). Guanxi practices and trust in management: A procedural justice perspective. Organization Science,15(2), 200–209. CrossRef
Chen, Y., Friedman, R., Yu, E., & Sun, F. (2011). Examining the positive and negative effects of guanxi practices: A multi-level analysis of guanxi practices and procedural justice perceptions. Asia Pacific Journal of Management,28(4), 715–735. CrossRef
Chen, C. C., Peng, M. W., & Saparito, P. (2002). Individualism, collectivism, and opportunism: A cultural perspective on transaction cost economics. Journal of Management,28(4), 567–583. CrossRef
Chen, N. Y., & Tjosvold, D. (2007). Guanxi and leader member relationships between American managers and Chinese employees: Open-minded dialogue as mediator. Asia Pacific Journal of Management,24(2), 171–189. CrossRef
Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling,9(2), 233–255. CrossRef
Christie, P. M. J., Kwon, I. W., Stoeberl, P. A., & Baumhart, R. (2003). A cross-cultural comparison of ethical attitudes of business managers: India, korea and the united states. Journal of Business Ethics,46(3), 263–287. CrossRef
Chua, R. Y. J., Morris, M. W., & Ingram, P. (2009). Guanxi versus networking: Distinctive configurations of affect- and cognition-based trust in the networking of Chinese versus American managers. Journal of International Business Studies,40(3), 490–508. CrossRef
Coleman, J. (1990). Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
Creed, W. D., & Scully, M. A. (2011). Songs of ourselves: Employees’ deployment of social identity in workplace encounters. Journal of Management Inquiry, 20(4), 408–429. CrossRef
DaMatta, R. (1991). Carnivals, rouges, and heroes: An interpretation of the Brazilian dilemma (J. Drury, Trans.). Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
De Jong, B. A., & Elfring, T. (2010). How does trust affect the performance of ongoing teams? The mediating role of reflexivity, monitoring, and effort. Academy of Management Journal,53(3), 535–549. CrossRef
Dennis, L. E., & Stroh, L. K. (1997). A little jeitinho in Brazil: A case study in international management. Journal of Management Education,21(2), 255–261. CrossRef
Duarte, F. (2006). Exploring the interpersonal transaction of the Brazilian jeitinho in bureaucratic contexts. Organization,13(4), 509–527. CrossRef
Durvasula, S., Netemeyer, R. G., Andrews, J. C., & Lysonski, S. (2006). Examining the cross-national applicability of multi-item, multi-dimensional measures using generalizability theory. Journal of International Business Studies,47, 468–483.
Earley, P. C. (1989). Social loafing and collectivism. Administrative Sciences Quarterly,39(4), 565–581. CrossRef
Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Fleury, A., & Fleury, M. T. L. (2011). Brazilian multinationals: competences for internationalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
French, W., Zeiss, H., & Scherer, A. G. (2001). Intercultural discourse ethics: Testing Trompenaars’ and Hampden–Turner’s conclusions and Americans and the French. Journal of Business Ethics,34(3/4), 145–159. CrossRef
Geertz, C. (1983). Common sense as a cultural system. In C. Geertz (Ed.), Local knowledge (pp. 73–93). New York: Basic Books.
Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. The Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), 219–247. CrossRef
Guthrie, D. (1998). The declining significance of guanxi in China’s economic transition. China Quarterly,154, 254–282. CrossRef
He, W., Chen, C. C., & Zhang, L. (2004). Rewards allocation preferences of Chinese employees in the new millennium: Effects of ownership reform, collectivism, and goal priority. Organization Science,15(2), 221–231. CrossRef
Hewstone, M., Rubin, M., & Willis, H. (2002). Intergroup bias. Annual Review of Psychology,53, 575–604. CrossRef
Hewstone, M., & Ward, C. (1985). Ethnocentrism and causal attribution in Southeast Asia. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,48(3), 614–623. CrossRef
Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (2004). Culture, leadership and organizations: The globe study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Husted, B. W., & Allen, D. B. (2008). Toward a model of cross-cultural business ethics: The impact of individualism and collectivism on the ethical decision-making process. Journal of Business Ethics,82(2), 293–305. CrossRef
Hutchings, K., & Weir, D. (2006). Guanxi and wasta: A comparison. Thunderbird International Business Review,48(1), 141–156. CrossRef
Hwang, K. K. (1987). Face and favor: The Chinese power game. American Journal of Sociology, 92(4), 944–974. CrossRef
Ingram, P., & Zou, X. (2008). Business friendships. Research in Organizational Behavior,28, 167–184. CrossRef
Khatri, N., Tsang, E. W. K., & Begley, T. M. (2006). Cronyism: A cross-cultural analysis. Journal of International Business Studies,37(1), 61–75. CrossRef
Kirkman, B. L., Lowe, K. B., & Gibson, C. B. (2006). A quarter century of culture’s consequences: A review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede’s cultural values framework. Journal of International Business Studies,37(3), 285–320. CrossRef
Kurman, J., & Ronen-Eilon, C. (2004). Lack of knowledge of a culture’s social axioms and adaptation difficulties among immigrants. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology,35(2), 192–208. CrossRef
Levine, R. A., & Campbell, D. T. (1972). Ethnocentricism: Theories of conflict, ethnic attitudes and group behavior. New York: Wiley.
Lindell, M. K., & Whitney, D. J. (2001). Accounting for common method variance in cross-sectional research designs. Journal of Applied Psychology,86(1), 114–121. CrossRef
Little, T. D. (1997). Mean and covariance structures (MACS) analyses of cross-cultural data: Practical and theoretical issues. Multivariate Behavioral Research,32(1), 53–76. CrossRef
MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods,1(2), 130–149. CrossRef
Maseland, R., & van Hoorn, A. (2010). Explaining the negative correlation between values and practices: A note on the Hofstede-GLOBE debate. Journal of International Business Studies,40(3), 527–532. CrossRef
McDonald, G. (2000). Cross-cultural methodological issues in ethical research. Journal of Business Ethics,27(1/2), 89–104. CrossRef
Mehra, A., Kilduff, M., & Brass, D. J. (1998). At the margins: A distinctiveness approach to the social identity and social networks of underrepresented groups. Academy of Management Journal, 41(4), 441–452. CrossRef
Meredith, W. (1993). Measurement invariance, factor analysis and factorial invariance. Psychometrika,58(4), 525–543. CrossRef
Michailova, S., & Worm, V. (2003). Personal networking in Russia and China: Blat and guanxi. European Management Journal,21(4), 509–519. CrossRef
Morris, M. W., & Moore, P. C. (2000). The lessons we (don’t) learn: Counterfactual thinking and organizational accountability after a close call. Administrative Science Quarterly,45(4), 737–765. CrossRef
Morris, M. W., Podolny, J., & Sullivan, B. N. (2008). Culture and coworker relations: Interpersonal patterns in American, Chinese, German, and Spanish divisions of a global retail bank. Organization Science,19(4), 517–532. CrossRef
Nunnally, J. (1967). Psychometric methods. New York: McGraw Hill.
Padgett, M. Y., & Morris, K. A. (2005). Keeping it “all in the family:” Does nepotism in the hiring process really benefit the beneficiary? Journal of Leadership and Organization Studies,11(2), 34–45. CrossRef
Parsons, T., & Shils, E. A. (1951). Toward a general theory of action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. CrossRef
Pearce, J. L., Branyiczki, I., & Bakacsi, G. (1994). Person-based reward systems: A theory of organizational reward practices in reform-communist organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior,15(3), 261–282. CrossRef
Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management,12(4), 531–544. CrossRef
Richardson, H. A., Simmering, M. J., & Sturman, M. C. (2009). A tale of three perspectives: Examining post hoc statistical techniques for detection and correction of common method variance. Organizational Research Methods,12(4), 762–800. CrossRef
Rigdon, E. E. (1996). CFI versus RMSEA: A comparison of two fit indexes for structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling,3(4), 369–379. CrossRef
Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York, NY: Free Press.
Sims, R. L., & Gegez, A. E. (2004). Attitudes towards business ethics: A five nation comparative study. Journal of Business Ethics,50(3), 253–265. CrossRef
Smith, A., & Hume, E. C. (2005). Linking culture and ethics: A comparison of accountants’ ethical belief systems in the individualism/collectivism and power distance contexts. Journal of Business Ethics,62(3), 209–220. CrossRef
Smith, P. B. S., Torres, C., Leong, C.-H., Budhwar, P., Achoui, M., & Lebedeva, N. (2012). Are indigenous approaches to achieving influence in business organizations distinctive? A comparative study of guanxi, wasta, jeitinho, svyazi and pulling strings. International Journal of Human Resource Management,23(2), 333–348. CrossRef
Steenkamp, J. E. M., & Baumgartner, H. (1998). Assessing measurement invariance in crossnational consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research,25, 78–90. CrossRef
Stouffer, S. A., & Toby, J. (1951). Role conflict and personality. American Journal of Sociology, LUI,56, 395–406. CrossRef
Swidler, A. (1986). Culture in action: Symbols and strategies. American Sociological Review,51(2), 273–286. CrossRef
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Tajfel, H. (1982). Social identity and intergroup relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychologfica of intergroup relations (pp. 33–47). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Taras, V., Kirkman, B. L., & Steel, P. (2010a). Examining the impact of culture’s consequences: A three-decade, multi-level, meta-analytic review of Hofstede’s cultural value dimensions. Journal of Applied Psychology,95(3), 405–439. CrossRef
Taras, V., Steel, P., & Kirkman, B. L. (2010b). Negative practice–value correlations in the GLOBE data: Unexpected findings, questionnaire limitations and research directions. Journal of International Business Studies,41(8), 1330–1338. CrossRef
Tavakoli, A. A., Keenan, J. P., & Cranjak-Karanovic, B. (2003). Culture and whistleblowing an empirical study of croatian and united states managers utilizing hofstede’s cultural dimensions. Journal of Business Ethics,43(1/2), 49–64. CrossRef
Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Triandis, H. C., & Gelfand, M. J. (1998). Converging measurement of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,74(1), 118–128. CrossRef
Trompenaars, F. (1994). Riding the waves of culture. New York, NY: Irwin.
Trompenaars, F., & Hampden-Turner, C. (1998). Riding the waves of culture: Understanding cultural diversity in global business. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Tsui, A. S., & Farh, J.-L. L. (1997). Where guanxi matters: Relational demography and guanxi in the Chinese context. Work and Occupations,24(1), 56–79. CrossRef
Tsui, A. S., Nifadkar, S. S., & Ou, A. Y. (2007). Cross-national, cross-cultural organizational behavior research: Advances, gaps, and recommendations. Journal of Management,33(3), 426–478. CrossRef
Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods,3(1), 4–70. CrossRef
Warren, D. E., Dunfee, T. W., & Li, N. (2004). Social exchange in China: The double-edge sword of guanxi. Journal of Business Ethics,55(4), 355–372. CrossRef
West, M. A. (2000). Reflexivity, revolution, and innovation in work teams. In M. M. Beyerlein, D. A. Johnson, & S. T. Beyerlein (Eds.), Product development teams (pp. 1–29). Stamford, CT: JAI Press.
Wines, W. A., & Napier, N. K. (1992). Toward an understanding of cross-cultural ethics: A tentative model. Journal of Business Ethics,11(11), 831–841. CrossRef
Xin, K. R., & Pearce, J. L. (1996). Guanxi: Connections as substitutes for formal institutional support. Academy of Management Journal,39(6), 1641–1658. CrossRef
Zahra, S. A. (2003). International expansion of US manufacturing family businesses: The effect of ownership and involvement. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(4), 495–512. CrossRef
Zhang, N. (2006). Social networks and women’s rural-urban migration in contemporary China. Labour, Capital & Society,39(2), 104–125.
- Paradoxical Relationships Between Cultural Norms of Particularism and Attitudes Toward Relational Favoritism: A Cultural Reflectivity Perspective
Chao C. Chen
Joseph P. Gaspar
Michael C. Nippa
- Springer Netherlands
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, Best Practices zu agiler Qualität