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This book discusses options for an improved compliance system under the Paris Climate Agreement by addressing current weaknesses. The research is based on two cases, the Compliance Mechanisms of the Montreal and Kyoto Protocols and their outcomes in practice. This book analysed the different meanings of tthe compliance concept of Compliance Mechanisms (CMs) and Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) in chapter 3, on the theories and two basic explanatory models on compliance (chapter 4), on the development of CMs and the limitations of traditional means (chapter 5), and the questions on the CMs under the Kyoto and the Montreal Protocols (chapter 6). Based on its findings, options for an improved compliance system under the Paris Climate agreement are asked (chapter 7). This book • Offers a detailed understanding of compliance and existing compliance mechanisms (CMs),• elaborates the CMs' present features on the basis of its case studies,• includes the latest information on CMs and its case studies,• discusses options for an improved compliance system under the Paris Climate Agreement figuring out the current weaknesses

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
There have been always environmental problems in human history. Of these, local and regional problems were first recognized as a major cause of concern. Global environmental problems, on the other hand, were recognized just four decades ago. Indeed, human beings realized that environmental problems constituted a major cause of global concern in the late 1960s. In this period, it was realized that global environmental problems, like global economic politics, cut across state borders and give rise to troubles and conflicts arising from interdependence; and these troubles can only be dealt with through an internationally coordinated global environmental policy that can be achieved merely through effective international cooperation.
Zerrin Savaşan

Chapter 2. Conceptual Framework Compliance and Compliance Mechanism

Abstract
As indicated above by Kant and Confucius’s words, first of all, it is necessary to clarify what is really said. Unless the meaning is understood correctly, a regulation might be applied wrongly or incompletely in practice due to substantial divergence in the ways in which it has been understood. Therefore, due to the fact that, “thinking, judging and carrying knowledge require both concepts and intuitions to which the concepts are applied” (Dicker 2004: 17), as stressed in Kant’s words, in order “to relate concepts to practice,” it is necessary to give the concepts practical meaning, content and direction (Schachter 1991: 2). Doing this also makes it possible to show the direction of the perspective pursued in the study and constrain it to the frames of these definitions.
Zerrin Savaşan

Chapter 3. Theoretical Perspectives and Explanatory Models of Compliance

Abstract
Theories can be described as the individual ways of intellectual thinking about facts, processes and relationships which could lead to a meaningful explanation of the social phenomenon under discussion.
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Chapter 4. Compliance Mechanisms: A General Overview

Abstract
In this part, two important points should be noted regarding the method of examination. Firstly, in line with the definition given in the second chapter, analysis of the CM will take into account the three integral components which complement and support each other: gathering information on the parties’ performance, institutionalised multilateral NCPs, and multilateral response measures.
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Chapter 5. Case Study I: Ozone Layer Depletion

Abstract
The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (VC) was adopted in 1985 and came into force on 22 September 1988. As it is a framework convention, it only establishes a framework on parties’ obligations. In fact, it includes no substantive detailed obligations (Arts. 2 and 3, VC), but does offer the possibility of adopting further protocols in the COPs of the Convention (Art. 8, Convention) when required to cope with issues regarding ozone depletion (see Annex A to this book for a list of COPs to the VC and MOPs to the MP, and Annex B for MOPs’ decisions relating to compliance).
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Chapter 6. Case Study II: Climate Change

Abstract
The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was signed at the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio, Brazil in 1992 and entered into force in 1994. The Kyoto Protocol , which sets out more detailed policies and measures that may be implemented by each party to achieve their commitments, was adopted at the third Conference of the Parties (COP 3 1997) to the UNFCCC in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan (see Annex G to this book for the list of COPs to the UNFCCC and MOPs to the Kyoto Protocol).
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Chapter 7. Conclusion

Abstract
In line with Mevlana’s words, in order to make the book’s argument more clear and understandable, this section presents a brief summary of the book’s previous chapters, highlighting the fundamental points that should be gleaned from them and also basic findings which suggest that there is no reason to dismiss the current structure of CMs and their possible contribution to the supply of better compliance and better GEG, although they have some weaknesses and need to be supported by strengthened coordination.
Zerrin Savaşan

Backmatter

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