Skip to main content
main-content

Tipp

Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen

Erschienen in: Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft 2/2019

11.06.2019 | Aufsätze

Party institutionalization and intra-party preference homogeneity

verfasst von: Dr. Matthias Mader, Dr. Nils D. Steiner

Erschienen in: Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft | Ausgabe 2/2019

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten
share
TEILEN

Abstract

This paper studies the relation between party institutionalization and intra-party preference homogeneity in democracies. In weakly institutionalized parties, it cannot be taken for granted that party actors have similar policy views because they lack the capability or motivation to coordinate agreement and to recruit personnel in line with this agreement. This should matter most when other safeguards against preference heterogeneity are missing. Empirically, we explore the association between institutionalization and intra-party preference homogeneity at the level of candidates to the national legislature based on survey data. In a single-country study, we first look at the case of Germany in 2013 and 2017, contrasting the young and weakly institutionalized Alternative for Germany (AfD) with the older, established parties. In a second step, we study the link between party institutionalization and preference homogeneity in a cross-country analysis of 19 established democracies. We find that parties with high value infusion—parties whose candidates are committed to the party—are generally more homogenous in their policy preferences. Moreover, value infusion is more consequential when the issues in question are not constitutive for the party and when candidates are selected in a decentralized way. Similarly, routinization of internal party behavior—the second dimension of institutionalization that we account for—seems to contribute to preference homogeneity only when parties are less policy oriented and have decentralized candidate selection procedures.

Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 69.000 Bücher
  • über 500 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Testen Sie jetzt 15 Tage kostenlos.

Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft

Die Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft. Comparative Governance and Politics (ZfVP) ist die erste deutschsprachige Zeitschrift für zentrale Themen und innovative Forschungsergebnisse aus dem Bereich der Vergleichenden Politikwissenschaft.

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 58.000 Bücher
  • über 300 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Versicherung + Risiko




Testen Sie jetzt 15 Tage kostenlos.

Anhänge
Nur mit Berechtigung zugänglich
Fußnoten
1
In some circumstances, however, speaking with a single voice may be undesirable. For example, parties may send blurred messages to different audiences and take ambiguous positions in order to attract votes from different groups (e.g., Rovny 2012; Bräuninger and Giger 2018). Parties where actors hold divergent policy preferences can presumably send such mixed signals with more credibility and better target specific audiences (Tromborg 2019). Furthermore, intra-party heterogeneity in policy preferences may sometimes be an asset in coalition negotiations, allowing parties to achieve better policy compromises (Baumann et al. 2017).
 
2
While our main focus here lies on the potential effects of value infusion on preference homogeneity, is seems likely that there is in fact a reciprocal relationship between the two concepts. The willingness to follow the party line might be influenced by the degree to which party actors agree about policies. If agreement is generally high, it seems much easier—and thus more likely—to follow the party line in the rare occasion that there is disagreement. Since our research design does not allow to control for the direction of influence, our results concerning the effects of value infusion in preference homogeneity might be inflated. We come back to this issue in the conclusion.
 
3
We exclude the CSU because of the low number of candidate observations (24 in 2013, 12 in 2017). We also excluded the Pirates Party, which was included only in the 2013 GLES candidate survey.
 
4
These are Australia (2007), Austria (2008), Belgium (2007, 2010), Czech Republic (2006), Denmark (2011), Finland (2011), Germany (2005, 2009), Greece (2007, 2009, 2012), Hungary (2010), Iceland (2009), Ireland (2007), Italy (2013), Netherlands (2006), Norway (2009), Portugal (2009, 2011), Romania (2012), Sweden (2010), Switzerland (2007, 2011), and United Kingdom (2010).
 
5
Table A1 in the online appendix reports question wording and response categories of all items used here. To summarize: Positions on the economic dimension were measured with statements on whether government should provide social security, redistribute wealth and income, and intervene in the economy. The socio-cultural dimension aggregates views on whether immigrants should adjust to the customs of the country, on stiffer sentences for criminal offenders, on the use of torture to prevent terrorism, on same sex marriages, and on abortion. Preferences about European integration were derived from assessments of EU membership, the preferred level of European unification, and satisfaction with the way democracy works in the EU.
 
6
We calculated a party heterogeneity score only for parties from which at least ten candidates reported a preference—the measures would likely be unreliable if calculated on the basis of fewer candidates.
 
7
Another limitation is that the DALP data are from a one-time expert survey conducted in 2008 and 2009. While this timing corresponds reasonably well with the timing of the CCS data we use (see footnote 4), we have to invoke the—we believe: reasonable—assumption that routinization and other variables drawn from DALP (see below) are mostly stable over the short- to medium-run. Note that our results are robust to including only one election per country and thus to merging the DALP information only once (see the online appendix).
 
8
To test Hypothesis 3 we also need corresponding measures of preference homogeneity regarding these constitutive issues. We measured homogeneity on environment protection with an item asking whether stronger measures should be taken to protect the environment. Based on the responses to this item, van der Eijk’s (2001) measure of agreement for ordered rating scales was computed. For homogeneity on social justice, we first computed an additive index composed of the two available social justice items (social security and income redistribution) and then calculated the within-party standard deviation. Both measures were reversed and rescaled to range from zero to one.
 
9
In the online appendix, we present result from models that deal with the clustering of observations differently: Fixed effect models which include only one (the last) election per country and multilevel models with random intercepts at the election and country level. These alternative estimations lead to similar findings.
 
10
Note that the pattern for environment protection is more in line with our expectation in that the line for ecological parties is basically flat: Value infusion is not relevant when issues are constitutive. The convergence is exclusively driven by value infusion increasing homogeneity for the other parties. In contrast, the convergence for social justice at high values of value infusion is partly a result of a contra-intuitive downward sloping line for the socialist/social democratic parties.
 
11
To avoid over-specifying the regression, we relied on separate models to test H4 and H5 (while also continuing to test for the effects of routinization and value infusion in different models). The results for value infusion and party routinization, respectively, remain substantively the same, however, when the interactions with policy orientation and centralization of candidate selection are included in one model. See Figures A1 and A2 in the online appendix.
 
Literatur
Zurück zum Zitat Andeweg, Rudy B., and Jacques Thomassen. 2011. Pathways to party unity: sanctions, loyalty, homogeneity and division of labour in the Dutch parliament. Party Politics 17(5):655–672. CrossRef Andeweg, Rudy B., and Jacques Thomassen. 2011. Pathways to party unity: sanctions, loyalty, homogeneity and division of labour in the Dutch parliament. Party Politics 17(5):655–672. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Arter, David, and Elina Kestilä-Kekkonen. 2014. Measuring the extent of party institutionalisation: the case of a populist entrepreneur party. West European Politics 37(5):932–956. CrossRef Arter, David, and Elina Kestilä-Kekkonen. 2014. Measuring the extent of party institutionalisation: the case of a populist entrepreneur party. West European Politics 37(5):932–956. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Arzheimer, Kai. 2015. The AfD: finally a successful right-wing populist Eurosceptic party for Germany? West European Politics 38(3):535–556. CrossRef Arzheimer, Kai. 2015. The AfD: finally a successful right-wing populist Eurosceptic party for Germany? West European Politics 38(3):535–556. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Bäck, Hanna, Marc Debus, and Wolfgang C. Müller. 2016. Intra-party diversity and ministerial selection in coalition governments. Public Choice 166(3–4):355–378. CrossRef Bäck, Hanna, Marc Debus, and Wolfgang C. Müller. 2016. Intra-party diversity and ministerial selection in coalition governments. Public Choice 166(3–4):355–378. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Basedau, Matthias, and Alexander Stroh. 2008. Measuring party institutionalization in developing countries: A new research instrument applied to 28 african political parties. GIGA Working Paper 69:1–28. Basedau, Matthias, and Alexander Stroh. 2008. Measuring party institutionalization in developing countries: A new research instrument applied to 28 african political parties. GIGA Working Paper 69:1–28.
Zurück zum Zitat Baumann, Markus, Marc Debus, and Martin Gross. 2017. Strength of weakness? Innerparteiliche Heterogenität, divergierende Koalitionspräferenzen und die Ergebnisse von Koalitionsverhandlungen in den deutschen Bundesländern. PVS Politische Vierteljahresschrift 58(2):179–204. CrossRef Baumann, Markus, Marc Debus, and Martin Gross. 2017. Strength of weakness? Innerparteiliche Heterogenität, divergierende Koalitionspräferenzen und die Ergebnisse von Koalitionsverhandlungen in den deutschen Bundesländern. PVS Politische Vierteljahresschrift 58(2):179–204. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Bolleyer, Nicole. 2013. New parties in old party systems: persistence and decline in seventeen democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef Bolleyer, Nicole. 2013. New parties in old party systems: persistence and decline in seventeen democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Bolleyer, Nicole, and Evelyn Bytzek. 2013. Origins of party formation and new party success in advanced democracies. European Journal of Political Research 52(6):773–796. CrossRef Bolleyer, Nicole, and Evelyn Bytzek. 2013. Origins of party formation and new party success in advanced democracies. European Journal of Political Research 52(6):773–796. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Bolleyer, Nicole, and Saskia P. Ruth. 2018. Elite investments in party institutionalization in new democracies: a two-dimensional approach. The Journal of Politics 80(1):288–302. CrossRef Bolleyer, Nicole, and Saskia P. Ruth. 2018. Elite investments in party institutionalization in new democracies: a two-dimensional approach. The Journal of Politics 80(1):288–302. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Bräuninger, Thomas, and Nathalie Giger. 2018. Strategic ambiguity of party positions in multi-party competition. Political Science Research and Methods 6(3):527–548. CrossRef Bräuninger, Thomas, and Nathalie Giger. 2018. Strategic ambiguity of party positions in multi-party competition. Political Science Research and Methods 6(3):527–548. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Carroll, Royce A., and Hiroki Kubo. 2019. Measuring and comparing party ideology and heterogeneity. Party Politics 25(2):245–256. CrossRef Carroll, Royce A., and Hiroki Kubo. 2019. Measuring and comparing party ideology and heterogeneity. Party Politics 25(2):245–256. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Casal Bértoa, Fernando. 2017. Political parties or party systems? Assessing the ‘myth’ of institutionalisation and democracy. West European Politics 40(2):402–429. CrossRef Casal Bértoa, Fernando. 2017. Political parties or party systems? Assessing the ‘myth’ of institutionalisation and democracy. West European Politics 40(2):402–429. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat CCS. 2016. Comparative candidates survey module I—2005–2013. Lausanne: FORS. CCS. 2016. Comparative candidates survey module I—2005–2013. Lausanne: FORS.
Zurück zum Zitat Cross, William P., and Richard S. Katz. 2013. The challenges of intra-party democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef Cross, William P., and Richard S. Katz. 2013. The challenges of intra-party democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Däubler, Thomas. 2012. The preparation and use of election manifestos: Learning from the Irish case. Irish Political Studies 27(1):51–70. Däubler, Thomas. 2012. The preparation and use of election manifestos: Learning from the Irish case. Irish Political Studies 27(1):51–70.
Zurück zum Zitat Dix, Robert H. 1992. Democratization and the institutionalization of latin American political parties. Comparative Political Studies 24(4):488–511. CrossRef Dix, Robert H. 1992. Democratization and the institutionalization of latin American political parties. Comparative Political Studies 24(4):488–511. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Dolezal, Martin, Laurenz Ennser-Jedenastik, Wolfgang C. Müller, Anna Katharina Winkler. 2012. The life cycle of party manifestos: The austrian case. West European Politics 35(4):869–95. CrossRef Dolezal, Martin, Laurenz Ennser-Jedenastik, Wolfgang C. Müller, Anna Katharina Winkler. 2012. The life cycle of party manifestos: The austrian case. West European Politics 35(4):869–95. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Goertz, Gary. 2006. Social science concepts: a user’s guide. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Goertz, Gary. 2006. Social science concepts: a user’s guide. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Harmel, Robert, and John D. Robertson. 1985. Formation and success of new parties. International Political Science Review 6(4):501–523. CrossRef Harmel, Robert, and John D. Robertson. 1985. Formation and success of new parties. International Political Science Review 6(4):501–523. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Harmel, Robert, and Lars Svåsand. 1993. Party leadership and party institutionalisation: three phases of development. West European Politics 16(2):67–88. CrossRef Harmel, Robert, and Lars Svåsand. 1993. Party leadership and party institutionalisation: three phases of development. West European Politics 16(2):67–88. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Harmel, Robert, Lars Svåsand, and Hilmar Mjelde. 2016. Party institutionalizartion and de-institutionalization: concepts and indicators. ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops, Pisa, 04.2016. Harmel, Robert, Lars Svåsand, and Hilmar Mjelde. 2016. Party institutionalizartion and de-institutionalization: concepts and indicators. ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops, Pisa, 04.2016.
Zurück zum Zitat Hazan, Reuven Y., and Gideon Rahat. 2010. Democracy within parties: candidate selection methods and their political consequences. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef Hazan, Reuven Y., and Gideon Rahat. 2010. Democracy within parties: candidate selection methods and their political consequences. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Hogg, Michael A., and Dominic Abrams. 1988. Social identifications: a social psychology of intergroup relations and group processes. London: Routledge. Hogg, Michael A., and Dominic Abrams. 1988. Social identifications: a social psychology of intergroup relations and group processes. London: Routledge.
Zurück zum Zitat Hogg, Michael A., and Joanne R. Smith. 2007. Attitudes in social context: a social identity perspective. European Review of Social Psychology 18(1):89–131. CrossRef Hogg, Michael A., and Joanne R. Smith. 2007. Attitudes in social context: a social identity perspective. European Review of Social Psychology 18(1):89–131. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Huntington, Samuel P. 1968. Political order in developing societies. New Haven: Yale University Press. Huntington, Samuel P. 1968. Political order in developing societies. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Janda, Kenneth. 1980. Political parties: a cross-national survey. New York: Free Press. Janda, Kenneth. 1980. Political parties: a cross-national survey. New York: Free Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Katz, Richard S., and Peter Mair. 1993. The evolution of party organizations in Europe: the three faces of party organization. American Review of Politics 14(4):593–617. Katz, Richard S., and Peter Mair. 1993. The evolution of party organizations in Europe: the three faces of party organization. American Review of Politics 14(4):593–617.
Zurück zum Zitat Kitschelt, Herbert. 2000. Linkages between citizens and politicians in democratic polities. Comparative Political Studies 33(6–7):845–879. CrossRef Kitschelt, Herbert. 2000. Linkages between citizens and politicians in democratic polities. Comparative Political Studies 33(6–7):845–879. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Kriesi, Hanspeter. 2012. Personalization of national election campaigns. Party Politics 18(6):825–44. CrossRef Kriesi, Hanspeter. 2012. Personalization of national election campaigns. Party Politics 18(6):825–44. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Laver, Michael, and Kenneth A. Shepsle. 1990. Government coalitions and intraparty politics. British Journal of Political Science 20(4):489–507. CrossRef Laver, Michael, and Kenneth A. Shepsle. 1990. Government coalitions and intraparty politics. British Journal of Political Science 20(4):489–507. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Levitsky, Steven. 1998. Institutionalization and Peronism: the concept, the case and the case for unpacking the concept. Party Politics 4(1):77–92. CrossRef Levitsky, Steven. 1998. Institutionalization and Peronism: the concept, the case and the case for unpacking the concept. Party Politics 4(1):77–92. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Levitsky, Steven. 2001. An ‘organised disorganisation’: informal organisation and the persistence of local party structures in Argentine Peronism. Journal of Latin American Studies 33(1):29–65. CrossRef Levitsky, Steven. 2001. An ‘organised disorganisation’: informal organisation and the persistence of local party structures in Argentine Peronism. Journal of Latin American Studies 33(1):29–65. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Luebbert, Gregory M. 1986. Comparative democracy: policymaking and governing coalitions in Europe and Israel. New York: Columbia University Press. CrossRef Luebbert, Gregory M. 1986. Comparative democracy: policymaking and governing coalitions in Europe and Israel. New York: Columbia University Press. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat MacAllister, Ian. 2007. The personalization of politics. In The Oxford Handbook of Political Behavior, ed. Russell J. Dalton, Hans-Dieter Klingemann, 570–588. Oxford: Oxford University Press. MacAllister, Ian. 2007. The personalization of politics. In The Oxford Handbook of Political Behavior, ed. Russell J. Dalton, Hans-Dieter Klingemann, 570–588. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Mader, Matthias. 2014. Notes on the German federal election, 2013. Electoral Studies 34:353–356. CrossRef Mader, Matthias. 2014. Notes on the German federal election, 2013. Electoral Studies 34:353–356. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Mader, Matthias, and Harald Schoen. 2019. The European refugee crisis, party competition, and voters’ responses in Germany. West European Politics 42(1):67–90. CrossRef Mader, Matthias, and Harald Schoen. 2019. The European refugee crisis, party competition, and voters’ responses in Germany. West European Politics 42(1):67–90. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Norris, Pippa. 1995. May’s law of curvilinear disparity revisited: leaders, officers, members and voters in British political parties. Party Politics 1(1):29–47. CrossRef Norris, Pippa. 1995. May’s law of curvilinear disparity revisited: leaders, officers, members and voters in British political parties. Party Politics 1(1):29–47. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Panebianco, Angelo. 1988. Political parties: organization and power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Panebianco, Angelo. 1988. Political parties: organization and power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Payton, Mark E., Matthew H. Greenstone, and Nathaniel Schenker. 2003. Overlapping confidence intervals or standard error intervals: what do they mean in terms of statistical significance? Journal of Insect Science 3(1):34–34. CrossRef Payton, Mark E., Matthew H. Greenstone, and Nathaniel Schenker. 2003. Overlapping confidence intervals or standard error intervals: what do they mean in terms of statistical significance? Journal of Insect Science 3(1):34–34. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Randall, Vicky, and Lars Svåsand. 2002. Party institutionalization in new democracies. Party Politics 8(1):5–29. CrossRef Randall, Vicky, and Lars Svåsand. 2002. Party institutionalization in new democracies. Party Politics 8(1):5–29. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Rattinger, Hans, Sigrid Roßteutscher, Rüdiger Schmitt-Beck, Bernhard Weßels, Christof Wolf, Aiko Wagner, and Heiko Giebler. 2014. Candidate campaign survey 2013, survey and electoral/structural data (GLES). Cologne: GESIS Data Archive. https://​doi.​org/​10.​4232/​1.​12043. ZA5716 Data file Version 3.0.0. CrossRef Rattinger, Hans, Sigrid Roßteutscher, Rüdiger Schmitt-Beck, Bernhard Weßels, Christof Wolf, Aiko Wagner, and Heiko Giebler. 2014. Candidate campaign survey 2013, survey and electoral/structural data (GLES). Cologne: GESIS Data Archive. https://​doi.​org/​10.​4232/​1.​12043. ZA5716 Data file Version 3.0.0. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Rovny, Jan. 2012. Who emphasizes and who blurs? Party strategies in multidimensional competition. European Union Politics 13(2):269–292. CrossRef Rovny, Jan. 2012. Who emphasizes and who blurs? Party strategies in multidimensional competition. European Union Politics 13(2):269–292. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Sieberer, Ulrich. 2006. Party unity in parliamentary democracies: a comparative analysis. The Journal of Legislative Studies 12(2):150–178. CrossRef Sieberer, Ulrich. 2006. Party unity in parliamentary democracies: a comparative analysis. The Journal of Legislative Studies 12(2):150–178. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Steenbergen, Marco R., and David J. Scott. 2004. Contesting europe? The salience of European integration as a party issue. In European integration and political conflict, ed. Gary Marks, Marco R. Steenbergen, 165–192. New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef Steenbergen, Marco R., and David J. Scott. 2004. Contesting europe? The salience of European integration as a party issue. In European integration and political conflict, ed. Gary Marks, Marco R. Steenbergen, 165–192. New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Steiner, Nils D., and Claudia Landwehr. 2018. Populist conceptions of democracy and voting for the alternative for Germany: evidence from a panel study. Politische Vierteljahresschrift 59:463–491. CrossRef Steiner, Nils D., and Claudia Landwehr. 2018. Populist conceptions of democracy and voting for the alternative for Germany: evidence from a panel study. Politische Vierteljahresschrift 59:463–491. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Steiner, Nils D., and Matthias Mader. 2019. Intra-party heterogeneity in policy preferences and its effect on issue salience: developing and applying a measure based on elite survey data. Party Politics 25(3):336–348. CrossRef Steiner, Nils D., and Matthias Mader. 2019. Intra-party heterogeneity in policy preferences and its effect on issue salience: developing and applying a measure based on elite survey data. Party Politics 25(3):336–348. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Tavits, Margit. 2013. Post-communist democracies and party organization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef Tavits, Margit. 2013. Post-communist democracies and party organization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Tromborg, Mathias. 2019. Issue salience and candidate position taking in parliamentary parties. Political Studies 67(2):307–325. CrossRef Tromborg, Mathias. 2019. Issue salience and candidate position taking in parliamentary parties. Political Studies 67(2):307–325. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Van der Eijk, Cees. 2001. Measuring agreement in ordered rating scales. Quality and Quantity 35(3):325–341. CrossRef Van der Eijk, Cees. 2001. Measuring agreement in ordered rating scales. Quality and Quantity 35(3):325–341. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Volkens, Andrea, Judith Bara, Ian Budge, Michael D. McDonald, and Hans-Dieter Klingemann. 2013. Mapping policy preferences from texts: statistical solutions for manifesto analysts. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef Volkens, Andrea, Judith Bara, Ian Budge, Michael D. McDonald, and Hans-Dieter Klingemann. 2013. Mapping policy preferences from texts: statistical solutions for manifesto analysts. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Volkens, Andrea, Pola Lehmann, Theres Matthieß, Nicolas Merz, and Sven Regel. 2016. The manifesto data collection. Manifesto project (MRG/CMP/MARPOR). Berlin: WZB. Volkens, Andrea, Pola Lehmann, Theres Matthieß, Nicolas Merz, and Sven Regel. 2016. The manifesto data collection. Manifesto project (MRG/CMP/MARPOR). Berlin: WZB.
Metadaten
Titel
Party institutionalization and intra-party preference homogeneity
verfasst von
Dr. Matthias Mader
Dr. Nils D. Steiner
Publikationsdatum
11.06.2019
Verlag
Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden
Erschienen in
Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft / Ausgabe 2/2019
Print ISSN: 1865-2646
Elektronische ISSN: 1865-2654
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12286-019-00421-9

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 2/2019

Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft 2/2019 Zur Ausgabe

Premium Partner