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Über dieses Buch

This book introduces a novel approach to analysing and mapping criminal behaviours. Every crime occurs as a chain of behaviours and events, from inception and preparation through to commission and exit from the crime scene. These pathways in crime are complex, dynamic sequences that are by their very nature difficult to analyse. Keatley provides a clear and coherent introduction to Behaviour Sequence Analysis, and the chapters address a wide range of criminal offences, from deception in interrogations through to sexual assaults, serial homicide, and terrorism. Interesting additional similarities between Behaviour Sequence Analysis and other well-known methods, such as crime linkage, crime script analysis, and T-Pattern Analysis are also outlined in detail. Academic researchers in Forensic Psychology and Criminology, as well as applied practitioners and investigators will find this an invaluable book, and will gain clear insight and understanding into the method in order to apply it to their own cases.


Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction to Behaviour Sequence Analysis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Setting the Scene

Abstract
This chapter is an introduction to Behaviour Sequence Analysis (BSA) and outlines how sequences are an important part of our everyday experiences. Real-world criminal cases (e.g., Burglary) are also analysed in sequential terms to illustrate how BSA can be used to map illegal activities and the breaking of different laws. The chapter also outlines the main historical background to BSA. The background comprises several of the main researchers and academics who have studied and published in the area of BSA, giving readers a foundation on which to understand the methods outlined in the current book. The chapter ends with an outline of the entire book.
David Keatley

Chapter 2. Beginning Your Research

Abstract
The focus of this chapter is to place Behaviour Sequence Analysis (BSA) within Academic Psychology and previous research models. The chapter outlines how BSA can be used as an alternative to traditional methods, and why it may be beneficial to use it. This chapter outlines arguments for the use of BSA as another method for use in Crime and Forensic Psychology research. The chapter also outlines different sources of data that can be used to begin BSA research. Existing datasets, and prospective datasets (i.e., data that researchers need to collect prospectively) are outlined.
David Keatley

Chapter 3. Analysing Your Research

Abstract
This is the first chapter to provide a clear walkthrough guide of how to conduct Behaviour Sequence Analysis. The entire process, from data collection, through to parsing, coding, categorisations, and analysis is outlined. Every step is broken-down into simple steps with clear directions on how to progress. The chapter also outlines options for further analyses and more complex designs, if researchers are keen to make their BSA more complex; however, the chapter also gives some warnings about the limitations of over-complicating BSA.
David Keatley

Overview of Research in Behaviour Sequence Analysis

Frontmatter

Chapter 4. Interview Analysis: Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol

Abstract
Behaviour Sequence Analysis (BSA) applied to drink driving behaviours and events is outlined in this research. The chapter outlines the research conducted by Keatley and colleagues, which asked participants to relate an episode that lead to their driving a vehicle while under the influence of alcohol. The research was conducted using interview (akin to interrogations) data. The chapter outlines how to analyse qualitative, written accounts and conduct BSA on the data. This chapter is useful for anyone analysing transcripts or oral data.
David Keatley

Chapter 5. Behaviour Lists: Comparing Sequences of Violence and the Night-Time Economy

Abstract
One of the main methods for conducting Behaviour Sequence Analysis (BSA) in academic research is using a behaviour list (a pre-designed list of behaviours and events) that participants select items from and order them sequentially. This current chapter compared and contrasted two night-time economy conditions, using a behaviour list approach. This chapter was based on the research by Taylor and colleagues; however, the chapter moves a step further by outlining further analyses that could be conducted to compare sequence strings. Optimal matching analysis and Levenshtein Distances are outlined in this chapter.
David Keatley

Chapter 6. Online Behaviour Lists: Sexual Assaults and Rape Cases

Abstract
Online behaviour lists are a time-effective way of conducting Behaviour Sequence Analysis (BSA) research. The current chapter outlines how to put BSA research online and analyse the outcomes, in relation to sexual assault and rape cases. The current chapter also covers multiple research papers that were based on Police files of sexual assault and rape cases, and shows different methods for putting sequences into phases. Phases allow researchers to break-down long complex sequence strings into smaller phases or time zones. The chapter outlines the benefits of this type of approach in relation to other well-known methods, such as Crime Script Analysis.
David Keatley

Chapter 7. Card-Sort Tasks: Self-Harm and Prison Populations

Abstract
A novel method of collecting Behaviour Sequence Analysis (BSA) data is provided in this chapter. The Card-sort task (for Self-Harm ~ CaTS) is outlined and explained in this chapter, along with reasons why it may be beneficial to use this approach. The current chapter includes research from individuals with a history of self-harm, and applies this to a prison population, who are high risk for self-harm. The data, for the prison population, are preliminary; but, provide a clear example of a hot spot (‘absorbing state’) in BSA.
David Keatley

Chapter 8. Video/Observation Analysis: Nonverbal Communication and Deception

Abstract
Research involving an expert in nonverbal communication (NVC) and deception is outlined in this chapter. Joe Navarro, an ex-FBI agent offered expert advice and input for the development and analysis of the research into NVC and Behaviour Sequence Analysis (BSA). The data in this chapter came from videos of individuals caught lying when asked a question; therefore, the analyses can be applied to any observational data source (either live-observations or any type of recorded video data). Closed-Circuit Television recordings, or interrogation recordings can be analysed in the same way as the data in this chapter.
David Keatley

Chapter 9. Big Data: Serial Homicide Database

Abstract
Data from a large spreadsheet created in Excel were analysed in this chapter. Behaviour Sequence Analysis (BSA) can be conducted on binary-type data from ‘big data’ databases. There are many potential issues with this type of data, however, and the current chapter offers guidance on how to deal with and overcome many of these issues. This chapter shows the strength of BSA to be applied to diverse sources of data. Research in the current chapter have been presented to Law Enforcement experts around the world, and feedback from these conferences and meetings is integrated into the current chapter to advise readers on how to improve their research.
David Keatley

Behaviour Sequence Analysis and Related Methods in Forensic Psychology

Frontmatter

Chapter 10. Crime Script Analysis

Abstract
The focus of this chapter will be on outlining the background of Script Analysis research, and how it was developed to be used in crime research. Examples of Crime Script Analysis will be outlined to provide readers with knowledge of the method and overlaps with Behaviour Sequence Analysis (BSA). The chapter will provide readers with an understanding of how the two approaches are complementary, and how they differ. Finally, a worked example of Crime Script Analysis being used in lone-actor terrorism will be outlined. This approach will also be linked with geographical movements that lone-actor terrorists make, as the foundation for a ‘Behaviour Tracking’ approach to crime research.
David Keatley

Chapter 11. Crime Linkage Analysis

Abstract
There are multiple research methods to link crimes, and this chapter outlines several of them. Multidimensional scaling, if-then contingencies, decision trees, and social network analysis are outlined and described to provide readers with examples of methods that can be overlapped with a Behaviour Sequence Analysis (BSA) approach. The chapter outlines each method and shows how BSA can or has been used to complement the methods. The chapter concludes with possibilities for future developments in crime linkage analysis
David Keatley

Chapter 12. T-System Analysis

Abstract
T-System Analysis is a complex method of Behaviour Sequence Analysis (BSA). T-Systems are made of T-Patterns, which are recurrent sets of sequential or concurrent event types that have invariant time lags between them. Because behaviours and events can be concurrent as well as sequential, this provides an advantage to standard lag-sequence analysis, which looks primarily at discrete, sequential behaviours. T-Pattern Analysis can also provide hierarchical patterns, showing fractal recurrence of complex sequences. The chapter provides a worked example of T-Pattern Analysis applied to false confessions.
David Keatley

Chapter 13. Indicator Waves

Abstract
A novel method of time-series analysis, Indicator Waves, is presented in this chapter. One of the limitations of traditional lag-sequence analysis is that multiple concurrent behaviours are difficult to analyse. Indicator Waves, however, allows multiple behaviours at multiple time points to be mapped, predicting the occurrence of a later outcome event. Essentially, the behaviours or events at various time points ‘indicate’ the later occurrence of a target behaviour or event. Indicator Waves applies a similar method and analysis as Behaviour Sequence Analysis (BSA), and readers will be able to understand the method quickly. A worked example, focusing on sexual assaults, is provided to guide the reader through the method, analyses, and outputs.
David Keatley

Chapter 14. Conclusions

Abstract
The final chapter of the book outlines some of the most frequently asked questions and statements regarding Behaviour Sequence Analysis (BSA). Collected from a number of publications and conference question-and-answer sessions, this chapter will provide readers with answers and considerations for some of the most common questions. The chapter will allow new researchers in BSA to answer many of the questions reviewers or audiences may ask. Finally, the chapter ends with a prospective outlook for the future of BSA and how it can be developed to be more useful in applied settings, such as working with Police and Investigators.
David Keatley

Backmatter

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