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Über dieses Buch

The thesis focuses on the control of blood glucose devices and design of implantable devices, and offers valuable insights on diabetes mellitus and related physiology and treatments. Diabetes mellitus is a widespread chronic disease in the modern world that affects millions of people around the globe. In Singapore, one in ten of the population has diabetes, and the severity of the problem has prompted the country’s prime minister to talk about the disease at the National Day Rally in 2017.

Designing an artificial pancreas that can provide effective blood glucose control for individuals with diabetes is one of the most challenging engineering problems. The author reports on research into the development of an implantable artificial pancreas that can regulate blood glucose levels by delivering appropriate dosages of insulin when necessary.

By sensing blood glucose and injecting insulin directly into the vein, the implantable device aims to remove delays that occur with subcutaneous blood glucose sensing and insulin delivery. Preliminary in-vitro and in-vivo experimental results suggest that the implantable device for blood glucose control could be a clinically viable alternative to pancreas transplant.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
The artificial pancreas aims to improve the quality of life of diabetics by automatically regulating blood glucose levels. This thesis presents my research and development of the mechanism and control of an implantable artificial pancreas.
Yvonne Ho

Chapter 2. Glucose Metabolism and Diabetes

Abstract
Glucose is the primary source of energy for the human body. It is also commonly known as dextrose and is a monosaccharide i.e. a simple sugar and has a chemical formula of \(C_6H_{12}O_6\). It is obtained from carbohydrates ingested and then broken down into simpler sugars in the small intestine, where it leaves through the walls of the small intestine, aided by glucose transporter GLUT2, into the bloodstream.
Yvonne Ho

Chapter 3. Literature Review

Abstract
This chapter presents the prior work on Artificial Pancreas development including current clinical trials, development and research direction. The literature related to control schemes and physiological models are reviewed.
Yvonne Ho

Chapter 4. Design of an Implantable Artificial Pancreas

Abstract
This chapter presents an overview of the implantable artificial pancreas and its modular components including: (a) scalable micropumps which passively reduce flow rate from the micropump enabling flow reduction of up to 20 times, (b) the insulin reservoir which minimizes the probability of air bubbles, if any, leaving the reservoir and (c) two fluidic flow connections which integrate blood glucose sensing and drug delivery.
Yvonne Ho

Chapter 5. Model Predictive Controller using Interior Point and Ant Algorithm

Abstract
This chapter presents an adaption of the Ant System for implementing the optimization routine of the Model Predictive Controller. A hybrid optimization scheme for Model Predictive Control (MPC) is also proposed, comprising both Primal-Dual Interior-Point (PDIP) method used in [1] and the search heuristic based Ant System optimization methods developed in this chapter.
Yvonne Ho

Chapter 6. In Vivo Experiment of the Implantable Artificial Pancreas

Abstract
This chapter discusses the in vivo experiment, done in collaboration with National University Hospital (NUH) and Institute for Infocomm Research (I2R), with our implantable artificial pancreas prototype. The prototype’s mechanical design is described in Chap. 4 and the control algorithm in Chap. 5.
Yvonne Ho

Chapter 7. Parameter Estimation for Nonlinear Mathematical Model

Abstract
In this chapter, parameters are estimated for mathematical models of physiology, using glucose sensor data of free-living patients, who live their normal lifestyle of activities and meals, and are not in a clinical setting.
Yvonne Ho

Chapter 8. Conclusion and Future Work

Abstract
The artificial pancreas employing subcutaneous sensing and delivery is progressing at a steady pace and a commercially available one looks highly possible in a few years time. However there is still much scope for work on an implantable artificial pancreas. The sensor, pumps, power and electronics have to last the lifetime of the patient or at least a few decades due to the invasiveness of the surgery required. Wireless technology for communication with electronics across the organs, muscles and tissues needs to be powerful yet consume little energy. The electronics have to meet the reliability and safety requirements for implantable devices. Further studies have to be done to assess implant sites, including the one proposed in the iliac crest which is a site where herniation can occur.
Yvonne Ho
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