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Über dieses Buch

In this volume, the editors have assembled an expert panel of social and forest scientists to consider the nature of forests in flux and how to best balance the needs of forests and the rural communities closely tied to them. The book considers the temperate moist-coniferous forests of the US Pacific Northwest, but many of the concepts apply broadly to challenges in forest management in other regions and countries. In the US northwest, forest ecosystem management has been underway for two decades, and key lessons are emerging. The text is divided into four parts that set the stage for forests and rural forest economies, describe dynamic forest systems at work, consider new science in forest ecology and management, and ponder the future for these coniferous forests under different scenarios.



Framework for Moist Temperate Forest Management


Chapter 1. Introduction: The Human-Forest Ecosystem

Close your eyes while standing in a mature forest along the North Pacific coast of North America in spring and you will smell the wet moss and feel its softness beneath your feet. You might detect the scent of a nearby cedar or hear the long and trembling song of a wren. You would sense the presence of tall and stately conifers nearby, and perhaps the wind lifting and bouncing their rain-heavy branches. Coniferous forests of the North Pacific coast of North America have an air of permanence where they remain intact, although this book will explore their heterogeneity and the uncertainties in their future. Aesthetically they are unparalleled in grandeur, being graced with long days during the growing season, mild winter and summer temperatures, and abundant rainfall. An active geology has been favorable as well: as the Juan de Fuca plate dives under the North American plate, the products of mountain uplift and volcanoes often mix with rocks ground by glaciers to provide young, nutrient-rich substrates. This setting supports forests of extraordinary productivity and biodiversity from northwestern California to Southeast Alaska (fig. 1.1; plate 1; chap. 2) that are greatly valued by their human inhabitants. Abundant moist temperate plants and animals have nurtured some of the wealthiest nonagricultural Native cultures ever known from North America. Visions of this productive landscape drove many of the Europeans migrating along the Oregon Trail early in the nineteenth century, and the forests provided a strong economic engine for the growing region through the twentieth century.
Deanna H. Olson, Beatrice Van Horne, Bernard T. Bormann, Paul D. Anderson, Richard W. Haynes

Chapter 2. Setting the Stage: Vegetation Ecology and Dynamics

The moist coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest are notable for the dominance of long-lived evergreen conifers, productivity, and the massiveness of the older forests (Franklin and Dyrness 1988; Franklin and Halpern 2000) (plate 2A). The environment of this region is extremely favorable to forest growth, with its moderate temperatures, high precipitation, and relatively fertile soils. The dominance of evergreen conifers is unusual, however, as most moist temperate forest regions of the world are dominated by hardwoods (angiosperms) (e.g., Kuchler 1946; Askins 2014). The climate allows photosynthesis to occur on essentially a year-round basis, which has been identified as one factor favoring evergreen conifers (Waring and Franklin 1979). Although the high productivity of the forests is important, the massiveness of the older forests is as much the consequence of the dominance of tree species present in these forests: for example, Douglas-fir is capable of continuous growth over many centuries and also produces decay-resistant heartwood, which persists for several more centuries. Hence, older forests have accumulations of organic matter (biologically sequestered carbon) that are among the greatest in the world (plate 1B).
Jerry F. Franklin, Thomas A. Spies, Frederick J. Swanson

Chapter 3. People and Forest Plants

Newcomers to the northwestern coast of North America can easily overlook the continuing legacy of settlement wars on forests. Battles were fought in homelands of indigenous people because settlers sought arable land and United States government policies encouraged westward expansion. Within two generations, profound changes have altered regional landscapes, cultures, and systems of learning. Women and men born in the early twentieth century share their knowledge of earlier times with children and grandchildren. Yet, as this elderly generation dwindles and immigration increases, fewer and fewer residents know directly of the traditional practices and historic events that influence regional waters, forests, people, and plants. Tribally reserved and ceded lands cover thousands of hectares along the Pacific Northwest coast, but estimates of their extent and use vary among state and federal agencies, treaty and nontreaty tribes (OTR 2015). Reserved lands are for exclusive tribal use, whereas ceded lands are off-reservation lands where tribal people retain some rights. Old lessons about people and forest plants can inform modern questions about the entire region. Relearning and adapting these old lessons will need new generations of leaders who understand the interrelationship of all life.
Susan Stevens Hummel, Jane E. Smith

Chapter 4. Wood-Products Markets, Communities, and Regional Economies

Moist coniferous forests have played a significant role in the economic and social well-being of the Pacific Northwest. The region’s forest-products industry has evolved in the context of federal forest policy that changed from discussions about selling off federal land to consideration of (1) conservation and sustainable yield; (2) active management and planning; (3) multiple use and preservation; and (4) the present emphasis on ecosystem management and ecological forestry. As the dialogues changed, the alliance between forest industry and forest policy, which was once at the heart of Northwest forest management, also changed.
Richard W. Haynes, Claire A. Montgomery, Susan J. Alexander

Chapter 5. An Ecosystem Services Framework

Ecosystem services are the full range of social, ecological, and economic benefits that people obtain from nature (Millennium Assessment 2003; Smith et al. 2011). These services include both biophysical (e.g., water, food, and fiber) and intangible (e.g., cultural or health) benefits. The concept originated in ecological economists’ attempts to assign monetary valuations to the goods and services humans receive from naturally functioning ecosystems, so that the full array of direct and indirect benefits are captured in environmental policy, management, and decision making (Westman 1977). The importance and value of ecosystem services are being recognized internationally (Farley and Costanza 2010; Muradian et al. 2010), as illustrated by the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES 2012), which is currently supported by 124 nations. Many US state and federal natural resource agencies have adopted policies that include analyses of ecosystem services in planning and decision making. The US Environmental Protection Agency, US Geological Survey, and US National Park Service all have new initiatives regarding the identification and mapping of ecosystem services. Specific to national forestlands, the US Forest Service’s new planning rule (USDA 2012) requires all 175 national forests to report key ecosystem services for forest plan assessments and revisions.
Dale J. Blahna, Stanley T. Asah, Robert L. Deal

Dynamic Systems as a New Paradigm


Chapter 6. Ecosystem Services with Diverse Forest Landowners

Pacific Northwest moist coniferous forests provide a wide array of globally important goods and services, including water, carbon sequestration, wood products, fish and wildlife habitat, cultural values, and world-class recreation. These forests are owned and managed by a mix of public, private, and tribal landowners (plates 6, 7), however, who often have different forest-management objectives. Overall, this diverse landownership provides a highly variable forest landscape with forest-management objectives ranging from intensive management on industrial forestlands, to longer rotations on state and tribal lands, to an emphasis on preservation and restoration of late-successional forests to support endangered species and water quality on federal lands. In this chapter, we synthesize some of the objectives of different landowners in the region and the potential opportunities and challenges of integrating goods and services (ecosystem services) into forest management. We show how broad assessment of ecosystem services can be used to plan management activities and to evaluate trade-offs of managing public and private lands to provide a suite of goods and services.
Robert L. Deal, Paul E. Hennon, David V. D’Amore, Raymond J. Davis, Jane E. Smith, Eini C. Lowell

Chapter 7. Patterns of Change across the Forested Landscape

The scope and extent of past natural disturbances and human-derived changes to the forest landscape often provide the historical context for management but are often insufficiently accounted for in forest planning. In particular, static components of many management plans are not easily adapted to unforeseen system dynamics. For example, when the Northwest Forest Plan was designed in 1993, the inherently dynamic nature of the forest ecosystem and landscape was acknowledged, but there was a general lack of scientific information about the ecological processes that would shape forests of the future. The expectation was that both management and natural disturbances would influence change in the forested landscape, but how management would then adapt to these altered conditions was not clear. At the time, climate change was not well understood and was just beginning to be discussed in relation to forests.
Raymond J. Davis, Andrew N. Gray, John B. Kim, Warren B. Cohen

Chapter 8. Learning to Learn: The Best Available Science of Adaptive Management

Of all the dynamic processes in the human-forest ecosystem that determine long-term sustainability, learning and learning-based planning and decision making (adapting) are among the most important. In the framework of human-forest ecosystem sustainability (chap. 1), adaptive management is a social ecosystem process to be considered equally with ecological processes such as energy capture and flow, nutrient and water cycling, and diversity- and structure-based resilience to disturbance.
Bernard T. Bormann, Byron K. Williams, Teodora Minkova

Chapter 9. The Emergence of Watershed and Forest Collaboratives

Recent decades have seen the emergence of collaborative organizations for forest governance in landscape-scale management. A collaborative is defined as an organized collection of landowners, stakeholders, resource agencies, tribes, or other organizations that come together to address common issues and resolve problems through deliberation, consensus building, and cooperative learning (Goldstein and Butler 2010). Collaboratives are designed to be transparent, diverse, and inclusive (Wondolleck and Yaffee 2003). Although some collaboratives are community driven or place based, with the goal of protecting local interests or access, others are sparked by land managers who seek integrated solutions to multiple interests and objectives.
Rebecca L. Flitcroft, Lee K. Cerveny, Bernard T. Bormann, Jane E. Smith, Stanley T. Asah, A. Paige Fischer

Science-Based Management: How Has New Science Shaped Our Thinking?


Chapter 10. Silviculture for Diverse Objectives

Several factors have influenced silvicultural practices over the last three decades in the moist coniferous forests of the US Pacific Northwest. Since the peak of timber harvesting during the 1980s, attitudes, expectations, and understanding have shifted dramatically among segments of the public, management, and science communities regarding management objectives. On many landownerships, the historical focus on timber and employment in rural communities has been replaced by societal expectations for sustainability of numerous ecosystem services, including habitat for species of conservation concern or endemic old-growth-associated species, recreation, and other cultural values (chap. 5).
Paul D. Anderson, Klaus J. Puettmann

Chapter 11. Long-Term Forest Productivity

Planning for forest sustainability has been a hallmark of US national resource management, beginning with the work of several visionaries of the previous century, including Gifford Pinchot and US presidents Grover Cleveland and Theodore Roosevelt. Their efforts created the US national forests in 1905 to address concerns about sustainable, long-term supplies of both water and timber. Congress subsequently passed the Multiple-Use Sustained Yield Act of 1960 to fulfill needs beyond water and timber resources. The National Forest Management Act of 1976 better assured sustainably by defining it as “the achievement and maintenance in perpetuity of a high-level annual or regular periodic output of the various renewable resources of the national forests without impairment of the productivity of the land.”
Bernard T. Bormann, Steven S. Perakis, Robyn L. Darbyshire, Jeff Hatten

Chapter 12. Managing Carbon in the Forest Sector

There is an increasing need to manage forest carbon (Mackey et al. 2013). Forests store much of the globe’s terrestrial carbon (US forest carbon density, plate 1B) and could play a significant role in climate mitigation by decreasing the amount of atmospheric carbon (Smith et al. 2014). However, forests respond to natural disturbances and management, which means that forests could be subject to future carbon losses if climate change increases the occurrence and severity of natural disturbances altering forests (Law & Waring 2015). These possible losses explain why forests are a focus of climate adaptation strategies designed to increase the resilience of forests to natural disturbance, even when such efforts result in lower carbon stocks at present.
Mark E. Harmon, John L. Campbell

Chapter 13. Biodiversity

Sustainability of a human-forest ecosystem refers to its continuing capacity to maintain characteristic species, processes, and functions; to be resistant or resilient to most perturbations; and to provide commodities, uses, and other public benefits in the face of changing environmental, social, economic, and cultural circumstances. The nature of these societal benefits is expected to change during the twenty-first century, and this may be especially true for biodiversity values.
Deanna H. Olson, Brooke E. Penaluna, Bruce G. Marcot, Martin G. Raphael, Keith B. Aubry

Chapter 14. Aquatic-Riparian Systems

As water plays a defining role for the development of moist coniferous forests, aquatic-riparian systems are defining components of these landscapes. In the Pacific Northwest, aquatic-riparian ecosystems in moist forests are increasingly being recognized as multistate systems, with a complex mix of heterogeneous habitats within and among watersheds and a host of disturbances at play over time (box 14.1). Although a mosaic of conditions has been recognized previously for aquatic systems (e.g., Pringle et al. 1988), there is a renewed focus on the thermal (Torgersen et al. 1999; Armstrong and Schindler 2013) and habitat (Stanford et all 2005) heterogeneity of aquatic-riparian systems and on multifaceted approaches for their management (Rieman et al. 2015).
Deanna H. Olson, Sherri L. Johnson, Paul D. Anderson, Brooke E. Penaluna, Jason B. Dunham

Chapter 15. Watersheds and Landscapes

Our understanding of what constitutes the freshwater ecosystems, watersheds, and landscapes in moist coniferous forests is continually evolving. To date, much of the aquatic-system focus has been on relatively small spatial scales, such as stream habitat units and reaches (chap. 14). However, a variety of entities, including interested publics, interest groups, scientific review and evaluation teams, regulatory agencies, and policy and decision makers, are calling for development of policies and practices to manage aquatic and riparian resources at the watershed and landscape levels. In the disciplines of watershed and landscape ecology, significant conceptual advances have occurred since the 1980s. In this chapter, we provide a conceptual background for watershed- and landscape-scale management approaches and go on to address contemporary challenges, including the integration of landscape-ecology and disturbance-ecology frameworks in aquatic ecosystem management along with selected examples underscoring the contemporary integration of dynamic ecosystems with forest management.
Gordon H. Reeves, Thomas A. Spies

Alternative Futures for Coniferous Forests


Chapter 16. Climate-Smart Approaches to Managing Forests

The climate of Pacific Northwest moist forests is characterized by abundant rainfall (1644 mm [65 in] annually) and mild temperatures throughout the year, averaging 9°C (48°F). Most precipitation falls in winter on the two major mountains ranges, the Coast and Cascade Ranges. Global warming is bringing distinct changes to the climate of these forests. Emissions of heat-trapping gases by human activities since industrialization have sharply increased global average temperatures and altered global precipitation patterns in the last 50 years. In the Northwest, the annual average temperature has risen 0.7°C (1.3°F) in the last century. The long-term trend is unclear for precipitation, but spring precipitation has increased in the last century (Abatzoglou et al. 2014), and year-to-year variability has increased since 1970 (Dalton et al. 2013). Under a business-as-usual scenario, the average annual temperature of the Northwest is projected to increase by 6°C (~11°F) by the end of this century compared with the 1950–2005 mean. For precipitation, enhanced seasonal cycles are projected, with a small change (−5% to +14%) in the annual mean precipitation by midcentury (2041–2070) (Dalton et al. 2013). The pace of climate change is projected to be rapid: the average annual temperatures of Washington and Oregon are predicted to depart from historical ranges within the next 3 to 5 decades (plate 14).
John B. Kim, Bruce G. Marcot, Deanna H. Olson, Beatrice Van Horne, Julie A. Vano, Michael S. Hand, Leo A. Salas, Michael J. Case, Paul E. Hennon, David V. D’Amore

Chapter 17. Next-Generation Products and Greenhouse Gas Implications

The social and economic benefits of wood harvest from forests depend on the demand for different ecosystem services, including products desired from trees. Although uses of species such as Douglas-fir and western hemlock for finished lumber, plywood, and paper have dominated past demand in moist coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest, the emergence of new uses and technologies has expanded opportunities for wood utilization. This changes what, when, and how wood is harvested from the forest and how different management activities may intersect with restoration targets and ecosystem services—some of which are only just emerging.
Eini C. Lowell, Vikram Yadama, Laurence R. Schimleck, Kenneth E. Skog

Chapter 18. Enhancing Public Trust in Federal Forest Management

The connections between social and biophysical sciences are being forged in new ways as researchers and practitioners of natural resources seek to understand how lands can be managed for the benefit of human societies and the broader biotic community. Increasingly, we recognize that social and physical systems are tightly integrated, with human actions and decisions both shaping and shaped by the ecological systems in which they are embedded (e.g., Carpenter et al. 2009). In this context, a variety of social actors, including scientists, managers, policy makers, and the public, are collectively playing a larger role in decisions about environmental governance (e.g., collaboratives, chap. 9), drawing upon an accumulating body of knowledge describing the dynamics of complex socioecological systems. Learning-based approaches using adaptive-management experiments (chap. 8) represent one particular type of formal tool that can be appropriated to this process of adaptive environmental governance.
Michael Paul Nelson, Hannah Gosnell, Dana R. Warren, Chelsea Batavia, Matthew G. Betts, Julia I. Burton, Emily Jane Davis, Mark Schulze, Catalina Segura, Cheryl Ann Friesen, Steven S. Perakis

Chapter 19. The Future of Human-Forest Ecosystem Sustainability

In this book we have woven a socioecological synthesis to describe how forests and communities have changed over the last two to three decades, especially in the moist coniferous forest zone of the US Pacific Northwest. Lessons have emerged from the social, physical, and biological studies of these forests, from contemporary forest resource management, and from traditional, indigenous resource and environmental management (table 19.1). In this chapter, we take a broad perspective on what we have learned and highlight the emerging principles from our cross-disciplinary review, with an eye toward improving management of moist coniferous human-forest ecosystems. In the next and final chapter, we continue this theme and focus on some tangible steps to sustain the best these landscapes have to offer into the future.
Deanna H. Olson, Beatrice Van Horne, Bernard T. Bormann, Robert L. Deal, Thomas H. DeLuca

Chapter 20. Visions: 20 Years Hence

In this chapter we peer into an admittedly misty future, again with a lens on the northwest portion of the moist coniferous forest landscape in the United States. Serious hazards are apparent for these forests and the people who depend on them if we continue to follow our current trajectory. Alternatively, changes in political, policy, ecological, or economic conditions could produce other trajectories. We know that management policies have changed in unexpected ways in the past and that the future holds many uncertainties. This point resonates in the sentiments we have heard from luminaries who have built their careers from these forests and their resources, who say things like “Never in a million years would I have dreamed of a riparian reserve as wide as two site-potential tree-heights”; “Who would have thought that our forests would be managed by the judicial system and court injunctions?”; and “How crazy was it that the bottom dropped out of the housing market and overseas wood markets changed exactly when the new federal land allocations were implemented?”
Beatrice Van Horne, Deanna H. Olson, Thomas Maness


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