Skip to main content

Tipp

Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen

Erschienen in: Telecommunication Systems 2/2021

08.03.2021

Performance monitoring and evaluation of FTTx networks for 5G backhauling

verfasst von: Engin Zeydan, Omer Dedeoglu, Yekta Turk

Erschienen in: Telecommunication Systems | Ausgabe 2/2021

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten
share
TEILEN

Abstract

One of the main challenges in today’s access networks for 5G base stations (BSs) is the final links (or the last mile) of the network. The links that constitute the main backbone of the network are mostly based on Internet Protocol (IP)/Multi-protocol Label Switching networks with connection over fiber cables. However on the access network side, Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) may also benefit from existing copper lines in addition to fiber and microwave lines. Therefore, developing a 5G deployment strategy to connect BSs that are installed indoor and outdoor locations with these different connection types to the backhaul network, will be important to ensure cost-effective installations. Utilizing Fiber-to-the-x (FTTx) networks that are already installed for broadband connectivity will provide MNOs significant initial investment benefits. In this paper, we have analyzed 5G readiness of the backhaul links of a real infrastructure provider using the proposed evaluation methodology. Our large-scale experimental analysis identifies the problematic sites (where possible solutions and suggestions are also proposed) and determines the suitability of the copper circuits for services that can be provided over the next generation networks. At the end of the paper, we also discuss about the challenges and advantages of utilizing different 5G services when FTTx is used as a backhaul and propose an ordering of the measurable FTTx specific quality parameters according to next generation service deployment scenarios.
Literatur
1.
Zurück zum Zitat Jaber, M., et al. (2016). 5G backhaul challenges and emerging research directions: A survey. IEEE Access, 4, 1743–1766. CrossRef Jaber, M., et al. (2016). 5G backhaul challenges and emerging research directions: A survey. IEEE Access, 4, 1743–1766. CrossRef
2.
Zurück zum Zitat Edward, J. O., & Zoraida, F. (2018). The cost, coverage and rollout implications of 5g infrastructure in Britain. Elsevier Telecommunications Policy, 42(8), 636–652. CrossRef Edward, J. O., & Zoraida, F. (2018). The cost, coverage and rollout implications of 5g infrastructure in Britain. Elsevier Telecommunications Policy, 42(8), 636–652. CrossRef
4.
Zurück zum Zitat Recommendation ITU-T G.9701. Fast access to subscriber terminals (G.fast)—Physical layer specification. Telecomunication Standardization Sector of ITU (2014). Recommendation ITU-T G.9701. Fast access to subscriber terminals (G.fast)—Physical layer specification. Telecomunication Standardization Sector of ITU (2014).
5.
Zurück zum Zitat Wang, N., Hossain, E., & Bhargava, V. K. (2015). Backhauling 5G small cells: A radio resource management perspective. IEEE Wireless Communications, 22(5), 41–49. CrossRef Wang, N., Hossain, E., & Bhargava, V. K. (2015). Backhauling 5G small cells: A radio resource management perspective. IEEE Wireless Communications, 22(5), 41–49. CrossRef
7.
Zurück zum Zitat Araujo, M., Ekenberg, L., & Confraria, J. (2018). Rural networks cost comparison between 5G (mobile) and fttx (fixed) scenarios. In 2018 IEEE 29th Annual international symposium on personal, indoor and mobile radio communications (PIMRC), IEEE, pp. 259–264. Araujo, M., Ekenberg, L., & Confraria, J. (2018). Rural networks cost comparison between 5G (mobile) and fttx (fixed) scenarios. In 2018 IEEE 29th Annual international symposium on personal, indoor and mobile radio communications (PIMRC), IEEE, pp. 259–264.
8.
Zurück zum Zitat Zhang, J. A., et al. (2013). Evolving small-cell communications towards mobile-over-fttx networks. IEEE Communications Magazine, 51(12), 92–101. CrossRef Zhang, J. A., et al. (2013). Evolving small-cell communications towards mobile-over-fttx networks. IEEE Communications Magazine, 51(12), 92–101. CrossRef
9.
Zurück zum Zitat Chandra, K., Prasad, R. V., & Niemegeers, I. (2015). An architectural framework for 5G indoor communications,. In 2015 International wireless communications and mobile computing conference (IWCMC), IEEE, pp. 1144–1149. Chandra, K., Prasad, R. V., & Niemegeers, I. (2015). An architectural framework for 5G indoor communications,. In 2015 International wireless communications and mobile computing conference (IWCMC), IEEE, pp. 1144–1149.
10.
Zurück zum Zitat Weis, E., Behrens, C., Krauß, S., & Breuer, D. (2018). Technologies for convergence of fixed and mobile access: An operator’s perspective. IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, 10(1), 37–42. CrossRef Weis, E., Behrens, C., Krauß, S., & Breuer, D. (2018). Technologies for convergence of fixed and mobile access: An operator’s perspective. IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, 10(1), 37–42. CrossRef
11.
Zurück zum Zitat Turk, Y., & Zeydan, E. (2018). An experimental measurement analysis of congestion over converged fixed and mobile networks. Wireless Networks, 26, 1–16. Turk, Y., & Zeydan, E. (2018). An experimental measurement analysis of congestion over converged fixed and mobile networks. Wireless Networks, 26, 1–16.
12.
Zurück zum Zitat Chuah, T. C., & Lee, Y. L. (2019). Qos-aware cross-layer optimization of hybrid DSL-LTE access networks. IEEE Systems Journal, 14, 2175–2186. CrossRef Chuah, T. C., & Lee, Y. L. (2019). Qos-aware cross-layer optimization of hybrid DSL-LTE access networks. IEEE Systems Journal, 14, 2175–2186. CrossRef
13.
Zurück zum Zitat Ge, X., et al. (2016). 5G ultra-dense cellular networks. IEEE Wireless Communications, 23(1), 72–79. CrossRef Ge, X., et al. (2016). 5G ultra-dense cellular networks. IEEE Wireless Communications, 23(1), 72–79. CrossRef
14.
Zurück zum Zitat Fazlollahi, A. H., & Che, J. (2015). Copper makes 5G wireless access to indoor possible. In IEEE global communications conference (GLOBECOM), IEEE, pp. 1–5. Fazlollahi, A. H., & Che, J. (2015). Copper makes 5G wireless access to indoor possible. In IEEE global communications conference (GLOBECOM), IEEE, pp. 1–5.
15.
Zurück zum Zitat Medeiros, E., et al. (2016). Crosstalk mitigation for lte-over-copper in downlink direction. IEEE Communications Letters, 20(7), 1425–1428. CrossRef Medeiros, E., et al. (2016). Crosstalk mitigation for lte-over-copper in downlink direction. IEEE Communications Letters, 20(7), 1425–1428. CrossRef
16.
Zurück zum Zitat Fazlollahi, A. H., & Chen, J. J. (2016). Copper-assisted fifth generation (5G) wireless access to indoor (Online; accessed 15-Jan-2020). Fazlollahi, A. H., & Chen, J. J. (2016). Copper-assisted fifth generation (5G) wireless access to indoor (Online; accessed 15-Jan-2020).
17.
Zurück zum Zitat Morper, H. J., & Riegel, M. (2019). Ultra high-speed mobile network based on layer-2-switching (Online; accessed 16-Jan-2020). Morper, H. J., & Riegel, M. (2019). Ultra high-speed mobile network based on layer-2-switching (Online; accessed 16-Jan-2020).
18.
Zurück zum Zitat Mian, A., & Reed, D. (2018). Tomorrow’s backhaul: Comparative analysis of backhaul cost for policy decisions. In IEEE 5G world forum (5GWF), IEEE, pp. 123–128. Mian, A., & Reed, D. (2018). Tomorrow’s backhaul: Comparative analysis of backhaul cost for policy decisions. In IEEE 5G world forum (5GWF), IEEE, pp. 123–128.
19.
Zurück zum Zitat Plachy, J., Becvar, Z., & Mach, P. (2016). Path selection enabling user mobility and efficient distribution of data for computation at the edge of mobile network. Computer Networks, 108(1), 357–370. CrossRef Plachy, J., Becvar, Z., & Mach, P. (2016). Path selection enabling user mobility and efficient distribution of data for computation at the edge of mobile network. Computer Networks, 108(1), 357–370. CrossRef
20.
Zurück zum Zitat Turk, Y., & Zeydan, E. (2019). Evaluation of fttx access network migration for IPTV services. In 10th IFIP International conference on new technologies, mobility and security (NTMS), IEEE, pp. 1–5. Turk, Y., & Zeydan, E. (2019). Evaluation of fttx access network migration for IPTV services. In 10th IFIP International conference on new technologies, mobility and security (NTMS), IEEE, pp. 1–5.
21.
Zurück zum Zitat Chitimalla, D., et al. (2017). 5G fronthaul-latency and jitter studies of CPRI over ethernet. IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, 9(2), 172–182. CrossRef Chitimalla, D., et al. (2017). 5G fronthaul-latency and jitter studies of CPRI over ethernet. IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, 9(2), 172–182. CrossRef
22.
Zurück zum Zitat Matera, A., & Spagnolini, U. (2019). Analog mimo radio-over-copper downlink with space-frequency to space-frequency multiplexing for multi-user 5G indoor deployments. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 18(5), 2813–2827. CrossRef Matera, A., & Spagnolini, U. (2019). Analog mimo radio-over-copper downlink with space-frequency to space-frequency multiplexing for multi-user 5G indoor deployments. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 18(5), 2813–2827. CrossRef
23.
Zurück zum Zitat Grzybowski, L., & Verboven, F. (2016). Substitution between fixed-line and mobile access: the role of complementarities. Journal of Regulatory Economics, 49(2), 113–151. CrossRef Grzybowski, L., & Verboven, F. (2016). Substitution between fixed-line and mobile access: the role of complementarities. Journal of Regulatory Economics, 49(2), 113–151. CrossRef
24.
Zurück zum Zitat Ali, M., et al. (2017). Smart heterogeneous networks: a 5G paradigm. Telecommunication Systems, 66(2), 311–330. CrossRef Ali, M., et al. (2017). Smart heterogeneous networks: a 5G paradigm. Telecommunication Systems, 66(2), 311–330. CrossRef
25.
Zurück zum Zitat Sutton, A. et al. (2017). Mobile network design: Orange UK 2G to 3G mobile backhaul evolution. PhD thesis, University of Salford. Sutton, A. et al. (2017). Mobile network design: Orange UK 2G to 3G mobile backhaul evolution. PhD thesis, University of Salford.
28.
Zurück zum Zitat Broadband Forum. DQS: DSL quality management techniques and nomenclature. TR-197: Issue 2 (2014). Broadband Forum. DQS: DSL quality management techniques and nomenclature. TR-197: Issue 2 (2014).
29.
Zurück zum Zitat ITU-T G.998.4 Recommendation. Improved impulse noise protection for digital subscriber line (DSL) transceivers. Telecommunication Standardization Sector of ITU (2018). ITU-T G.998.4 Recommendation. Improved impulse noise protection for digital subscriber line (DSL) transceivers. Telecommunication Standardization Sector of ITU (2018).
30.
Zurück zum Zitat Viswanathan, H., & Mogensen, P. E. (2020). Communications in the 6G Era. IEEE Access, 8(1), 57063–57074. CrossRef Viswanathan, H., & Mogensen, P. E. (2020). Communications in the 6G Era. IEEE Access, 8(1), 57063–57074. CrossRef
31.
Zurück zum Zitat Rappaport, T. S., et al. (2019). Wireless communications and applications above 100 GHz: Opportunities and challenges for 6G and beyond. IEEE Access, 7(1), 78729–78757. CrossRef Rappaport, T. S., et al. (2019). Wireless communications and applications above 100 GHz: Opportunities and challenges for 6G and beyond. IEEE Access, 7(1), 78729–78757. CrossRef
Metadaten
Titel
Performance monitoring and evaluation of FTTx networks for 5G backhauling
verfasst von
Engin Zeydan
Omer Dedeoglu
Yekta Turk
Publikationsdatum
08.03.2021
Verlag
Springer US
Erschienen in
Telecommunication Systems / Ausgabe 2/2021
Print ISSN: 1018-4864
Elektronische ISSN: 1572-9451
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11235-021-00767-0

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 2/2021

Telecommunication Systems 2/2021 Zur Ausgabe