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This book gathers new empirical findings fostering advances in the areas of digital and communication design, web, multimedia and motion design, graphic design, branding, and related ones. It includes original contributions by authoritative authors based on the best papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Digital Design and Communication, Digicom 2020, together with some invited chapters written by leading international researchers. They report on innovative design strategies supporting communication in a global, digital world, and addressing, at the same time, key individual and societal needs. This book is intended to offer a timely snapshot of technologies, trends and challenges in the area of design, communication and branding, and a bridge connecting researchers and professionals of different disciplines, such as graphic design, digital communication, corporate, UI Design and UX design.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

User-Centered Digital Design

Frontmatter

Empowering Digital Users Through Design for Privacy

Abstract
The research presented in this paper discusses the challenges and limitations of privacy by design as an effective tool for protecting users’ privacy. The EU data protection legislation requires all products, services, or systems that process personal data to be designed following a “privacy by design”. However, we contend that privacy by design does not have solid foundations to sustain privacy outside of its legal definitions, and it may only work as a legal compliance tool. Provided that the legal approach is not effective in protecting and enhancing users’ and citizens’ privacy, it is necessary to build a designerly understanding of privacy. The paper suggests a definition of privacy for design based on a universally acceptable ethical framework to create a common understanding of privacy for design and designers. Based on the notion of privacy for design, the paper supports creating a new design discipline to enhance users’ and citizens’ privacy: design for privacy.
Davide M. Parrilli, Rodrigo Hernández-Ramírez

Design Processes for Interactive Human–Machine Systems

Abstract
Today the system around design is “complexified”. Digital technologies have reconfigured decision-making processes and the ways in which users interact with tools and the surrounding world. It is necessary to guarantee the user, in the design of interactions, the communication with his surroundings, to increase, amplify and optimize the skills and abilities in carrying out tasks. To explore the boundaries and trace the limits and opportunities of the topics covered, the goal was to transfer the overall mapping of knowledge, good technical-scientific practices, different approaches and languages, resulting from the work of synergistic contamination between academia and industry. The present contribution documents the design processes aimed at defining new physical and digital interactive models applied to the cultural heritage, manufacturing and robotic surgery sectors starting from the study and identification of human–machine interaction factors and through Human–Computer Interaction as analysis tool. Through the interdisciplinary approach, it was therefore possible to hypothesize new models and interactive experiences through multidimensional and multimodal expedients capable of ensuring usability and ergonomic quality for all users.
Mario Buono, Sonia Capece, Giovanna Giugliano, Victor F. Muñoz Martínez

Peripheral Interaction: Shifting Between Periphery and Center of Attention When Interacting with Technology

Abstract
Peripheral Interaction is a fairly new area of interaction that arises as a way to reduce the less positive effects of the omnipresence of technology in the daily life of users, through the use of the human capacities of attention. In a predominantly technological era, the development of a new form of interaction that is less evasive and closer to the natural way human beings interact with their surroundings is essential. The exploration of this topic is motivated by the need to understand the real benefits of introducing this type of interaction into current technological systems as well as the challenges and issues that have made this concept more relevant. The goal of this research is to provide a theoretical background that introduces the concept of Peripheral Interaction, including its origin, definition, essential characteristics that define it, and examples of systems that allow us to understand how the concept can be applied in practice. In addition, this study identifies some of the essential perspectives of human attention that are known to be beneficial for the design of attention-aware systems and that are extremely important guides for the development of systems with Peripheral Interaction.
Sílvia Fernandes, Daniel Brandão, Nelson Zagalo

Understanding the Barriers and Challenges Between Older Users and Smartphones: A Systematic Literature Review

Abstract
Older adults are a significant part of the world population and new Information Technologies (ITs) will have an essential role in maintaining the quality of life and social integration of this population. However, the interfaces of different Its—especially smartphones—do not yet satisfy the characteristics, needs and expectations of older adults since they present physical, cognitive and emotional barriers that disappoint these users. The present study was based on a Systematic Literature Review (SLR), and aimed to analyze the main barriers experienced by older adults when using smartphones. Three aspects were highlighted for the present analysis: the physical, cognitive and emotional. The SLR has shown that much progress has been made to understand the interaction problems between older users and smartphones. However, many barriers remain, creating difficulties of use and limiting the effective contribution of IT to these users. Thus, guidelines based on physical, cognitive and emotional aspects, essential for the new ergonomic design of smartphones, are compiled and presented.
Luis Carlos Paschoarelli, Nathan Martins Fernandes, Larissa R. Ferro-Marques

Ageing Related Human Factors to Be Addressed in the Design of Visual Interfaces of Digital Applications Developed for Seniors: A Literature Review

Abstract
The present work seeks to identify, through a survey conducted in specialized literature, which human factors related to ageing should be addressed in the Design of visual interfaces of digital applications for elderly people, as if otherwise these may not suit the specific characteristics and limitations of this specific population, such as possible difficulties of perception and interaction experienced by them. Therefore, our aim is to map the theoretical and conceptual framework on which Interface Design for seniors is currently based on. We start by identifying and characterising, based on the approaches and research work already carried out by other researchers, the factors that these researchers claim that should be considered in Digital Interface Design for Elderly people. From this characterisation and survey, we then extract from it and present the Design Guiding Principles that the limitations and humans factors related with ageing mentioned and described by these authors suggest.
Leonardo Pereira, Daniel Brandão, Nuno Martins

The Potential of Interactive Digital Narratives Towards Literary Linear Texts

Abstract
Stories are pivotal for human beings. For centuries, oral tradition and books carried them. However, faced with an increasingly digital society, in which stories are explored mainly through digital narratives, often interactive, it is crucial to understand the literary linear texts’ place. While these linear stories are already being used to construct interactive digital narratives, it seems pertinent to ask about these interactive objects’ potentialities towards increasing the public’s interest in linear literary texts. For this purpose, we revisit literature’s history, in all of its forms, looking for the potentialities already imminent. Afterward, we will gather case studies similar to the research we intended to carry out. Finally, we go through our own experience studying interactive digital narratives’ potentialities towards linear literary texts. Our results suggest many potentialities due to interactive digital narratives captivating users/readers and facilitating reading the story. However, more studies in the field are urgent for understanding how this potential can be optimized.
Ana Isabel Ferreira, Soraia Ferreira

Real Possibility of an Entirely Open-Source Pipeline for Indie Games Design and Production. Altamira Game as a Case Study

Abstract
Videogames, and their powerful industry, constitute a hugely appealing sector for a large proportion of creative profiles—however, it is difficult for them to access this small number of companies organized as huge production conglomerates. On the other hand, the movement of free software and open source is headed in precisely the opposite direction, empowering individuals by giving back the creative control and freedoms limited by commercial software licenses. In the middle of the tension generated by these two extremes, we have tried to highlight the power that independent creators hold today through produce videogames, from their inception right through to their distribution, exclusively using open source software and free resources. This chapter, which aims to be a guide for future indie creators, analyzes these alternative offerings from their praxis, and explains the entire process. The conclusions drawn from this experience have been surprisingly positive.
Dario Lanza, María de Iracheta, Carmen Pérez, Borja Jaume, Lara Sánchez, Marcos Casero

Definition of a Digital Tool to Create Physical Artifacts: The Case of the Gamers4Nature Project

Abstract
In a context where the urgency to act towards the promotion of environmental awareness is imperative, the Gamers4Nature (G4N) project aims to encourage the active participation of students in the creation of mobile games addressing environmental-related themes. This chapter introduces the G4N Cards Set Canvas, a tool integrated into the G4N portal-repository. The G4N Cards Set Canvas is a digital tool that allows the design of environmental-related thematic cards and has two main goals: (i) to provide the G4N project with a tool to ease the creation of the thematic cards for the Toolkit to Game Design by environmental organizations and/or teachers; (ii) to be used by users with no experience in the design field. This tool will be developed following a User-Centered Design approach, with iterative and systematic reviews of the tool, and it will emphasize the connection between the physical (i.e. Toolkit) and digital (i.e. portal-repository) artifacts. A snowball literature review and an overview of design and presentation tools and platforms currently available did not reveal the existence of suitable platforms to create graphical design contents while complying with a brand’s standard’s manual for non-experienced users in the design field. Thus, an opportunity for novelty arises from this gap, adding a layer of concern with designing a usable and accessible tool for the end-users.
Pedro Beça, Sofia Ribeiro, Mónica Aresta, Rita Santos, Ana Isabel Veloso

Needs, Expectations and Preferences of Potential Young Readers of the Digital Edition of Diario de Sevilla

Abstract
This paper aims to help the generalist digital media to overcome a problem that affects them all: attracting, keeping and retaining young readers. Our approach focuses on the geographical area of the province of Seville and is based on the data provided by the newspaper Diario de Sevilla (Seville, Spain), although it is intended to be the proposal of a universal model for approaching the problem. For the development of the research, we have used techniques typical of the initial and generative phases of User-Centred Design, such as semi-structured interviews, of which we bring here a good example. The aim is to gain in-depth knowledge of the habits and motivations of this type of young audience, with an emphasis on qualitative findings. The results reveal a type of reader attached to their mobile phone and social networks, also interested in the most serious current affairs, but in need of references capable of interpreting the reality of the news in a rigorous and truthful way.
Juan-Ramon Martin-Sanroman, Juan-Carlos Zambrano, Fernando Suarez-Carballo

Research Methods and Strategies

Frontmatter

It Takes Two to Tango—Research and Education Cross Pollination at Design Higher Education

Abstract
Design Research and Education relationship can be viewed as a complex and rich ‘dancing process’, supported by rules and constant training, but also dependent on human passion and intensity, like ‘Tango’. This text reflects the research that has been developed for several years centered on Higher Education, trying to understand the intrinsic relationship that can be established between Education, Research and Society, working on the specificities of each of them, in order to find bridges that can lead to a holistic and epistolary stance of what should be the understanding between these three vectors that determine a new way of acting at the Higher Education System level. The bidirectional relationship between research and education implies to understand and describe the ways research support teaching as well as the modes teaching feeds research, having in attention the different ‘actors’ and correlations that we can take advantage of. In the case of the Design area we recognize two ways of researching while educating: researching through design and researching through education. It is intended that this investigation may be founder of an urgent reflection on this dynamic process of cross-pollination between Education, Research and Society.
Rita Almendra, Fernando Moreira da Silva

Synthesis Models of Project and Design Methodologies Applied in Research Projects in Communication Design

Abstract
The present study results from a set of studies developed in the scope of project and design methodologies. Through non-interventionist and interventionist methodologies with qualitative basis, the methodologies of several research projects in communication design were analysed. In this way, this study evidences the importance of using suitable methodologies, applying project management and design management concepts, and lastly demonstrates how Design Thinking and visual thinking methods can improve the outcomes of the projects when all these disciplines are used together. This study has as main goals the development of methodologic synthesis models that help in the decision-making process, and to simplify the design process through the visual thinking and Design Thinking tools that allowed the designers to have a holistic perspective of each project. Besides this, it was expected that these synthesis models could be applied in other research projects in the communication design field.
Daniela Oliveira, João Neves, Daniel Raposo, José Silva

Building an Archive of Perception: The Role of Observation and Intuition in Design Practice and Research

Abstract
As a recent field of study, design resorts to a perspective of methodological integration or mixed method research. Both as a discipline and a practice, design is driven by the endeavour to develop creative and innovative solutions for the most diverse issues outside its scope, through a particular way of thinking and knowing. Within this framework, combining both the areas of design and health (psycho-oncology), this study aims to identify and understand the role and contribution of design practice to the borrowed methodological tools used in the pursuit of deep observation of systemic and contemporary phenomena by means of data collection methods and analysis methodology. Specifically designed to collect information through contextual inquiry (Beyer and Holtzblatt in Contextual design: defining customer-centered systems, San Francisco, 1998) and interview (Coutinho in Metodologia de investigação em ciências sociais e humanas: teoria e prática., 2a edição. Almedina, Coimbra, 2016) methods and applied in personal interviews to breast cancer patients from the São João Hospital Breast Centre in Porto, a field research instrument in the form of a questionnaire/interview was analysed from its design and application to the results obtained from the collected information. The conducted analysis revealed that the appliance of design’s unique vision allowed to go beyond a methodical and pragmatic approach by seeking beauty, poetry or a hidden meaning through personal observation. Through this, designers are able to assemble an archive of perceptions that nurtures inspiration enhancing the creative process and the development of creative solutions. It is shown that multidisciplinary research teams may benefit from the early integration of designers through their challenging ‘designerly’ ways of thinking and knowing (Cross in Design Research Now: Essays and Selected Projects, Birkhäuser Verlag AG, Germany, 2007), granting from the start that the ethnographic collection constitutes relevant and valuable material capable of fostering innovation.
Renata Arezes, Joana Quental, Anabela Pereira, Raquel Guimarães

Participatory Co-design: Approaches to Enable People Living with Challenging Health Conditions to Participate in Design Research

Abstract
People are living longer and are affected by challenging chronic, lifestyle- and age-related conditions such as dementia and stroke. The increasing number of people living with challenging health conditions highlights social concerns and their implications for the successful delivery of healthcare services. Research on improving dementia care [Alzheimer’s Disease International (2016) World Alzheimer Report 2016: Improving healthcare for people living with dementia: coverage, quality and costs now and in the future. Alzheimer’s Disease International, London] shows a need to involve people living with dementia, their families, and health and social care professionals when designing improvements to their healthcare services. In addition, involving patients recovering from stroke in discussions about rehabilitation services has been considered important to enable making decisions that better address their health care needs [Kristensen HK, Tistad M, Koch LV, Ytterberg C (2016) The importance of patient involvement in stroke rehabilitation. PLOS One 11(6). 10.1371/journal.pone.0157149]. This paper presents two case studies of a participatory co-design approach used to engage people; (a) living with dementia, and (b) recovering from stroke in design research, where co-design-led methods were used to enable participation. The paper describes the importance of each of the roles of—and relationships between—individuals involved in the participatory co-design research process and how people living with challenging health conditions are enabled to participate in a form of three-way relationship. It discusses lessons learned, reflections and recommendations for a new collaborative model for people living with challenging health conditions engagement to enable a more equal and reciprocal partnership for participation in design research into healthcare improvements.
S. Neves, A. Macdonald, M. Poole, K. Harrison Dening

Quality Perception with Attrakdiff Method: A Study in Higher Education During the Covid-19 Period

Abstract
The Attrakdiff method assists in understanding the holistic quality perception, through four dimensions. In the year 2020 many things changed with the SARS-COV-2 pandemic, among so many changes at the end of March 2020, in the city of Recife, classes were suspended and returned only in remote mode. Aiming to deepen the Attrakdiff method, two groups of students were invited voluntarily to participate in the survey, answering about their perceptions over the course of nine months. The first group being accompanied in the first semester of 2020: April, start of the remote classes, and June—end of the academic semester. And the second group was accompanied in four moments in the second semester: September, at the end of academic enrollments; October, a little before the first week of academic tests; November, in the period between tests; and December, at the end of the semester. We had 143 valid questionnaires, subdivided in: 28 students in Abril, 17 in June, 18 in September, 33 in October, 30 in November and 17 in December. As a main result, there was a convergence in responses, with subtle variations according to the events during the school year.
Iara Margolis Ribeiro, Bernardo Providência

A Strategic Framework for Biodiverse Speculative Practices

Abstract
This chapter provides an emerging framework for approaches to speculative practices that engage with the intersecting challenges of diversifying the practice of speculative research, particularly with respect to speculative design, and the challenge of taking action against the ongoing biodiversity and other related environmental crises. By using more than human and queer lenses, this framework explores a number of strategies toward the related goals of caring for a diverse world, taking action to protect it, and staking a claim for biodiverse futures; these strategies are storytelling, material practice, play and performance, and time travel, and the hope is that they inform a toolkit for novel speculative design approaches for biodiversity activism.
Craig C. Jeffcott, Ana Margarida Ferreira

Pedagogy, Society and Design Practice

Frontmatter

The 4th Industrial Revolution—The Future of Design Research and Doctoral Programs

Abstract
The main goal of this work is to demonstrate, that it is important to reflect on what the future of design research and doctoral programs in design will be, to know if universities are prepared for the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) reality. This research work begins by identifying the changes in society, technology and education, which resulted in the increase of many curricular innovations and the creation of new educational institutions. The impacts of the emerging 4IR will require a rethinking of the curriculum in higher education, to prepare students for a technological, economical, personal and social response from a holistic point of view. The main findings are, among others, the recognition of the expansion of the artificial world, and that design plays a relevant role in the management of complex systems. Thus, it was important to survey the doctoral programs in design, recognizing that they have to be restructured and redesigned, focusing mainly on practical solution and on the transferring of knowledge to society, companies and industry.
Maria João Félix, Fernando Moreira da Silva

Foundations, Research, and Transdisciplinarity: Re-shaping Education for the 21st Century at a School of Design and Technology in Portugal

Abstract
This chapter proposes a preliminary structure for an undergraduate course in Design based on a pragmatic understanding of the learning process. Starting from a systematic literature review and based on first-hand experience as teachers, we argue that pragmatism, like phenomenology, strongly influences design education. Following this insight, we contend that Design may be regarded as a normative discipline and thus propose a macrostructure that contemplates (1) tradition and foundations; (2) practice and research; and (3) business and transdisciplinarity. Our proposal focuses on a flexible academic trajectory that understands creativity as a novel idea development process that connects existing knowledge and solves problems through making. Everyone involved with teaching and learning design will find in this chapter references of interest since the changing nature of the requirements for design education forces us to think and re-make our field from a plural standpoint.
Rodrigo Hernández-Ramírez, Rodrigo Morais, Carlos Rosa

The Politics of a Passport to Design Practice

Abstract
This chapter shares perspectives on the notion of a portfolio functioning as a passport that provides access to professional design practice from transnational design students and graduates. By comparing a design portfolio as a passport to professional practice with the political and geographic system of passports as objects that regulate mobility, the research presents a case of how a system requiring passports can perpetuate inequalities in educational and professional opportunities. The ethnographic insights shared are part of a doctoral project on the commodification of education and the global trade of higher education services, specifically, transnational design education. Transnational education is a system of education where students live in a country different from where the awarding institution is based; higher education services, not students, cross national borders. The qualitative research explores the value of a British design education in Sri Lanka, a country with a different social, economic, and cultural context by examining a franchise partnership between a university in England and a private, franchised design institute in Sri Lanka. The lived experiences of students and graduates in Sri Lanka provide diverse perspectives on accessing professional communities of local and global design practice in a place where design, as a discipline or service, is not particularly valued.
Pushpi Bagchi

SLOType: Empowering Users’ Autonomous Learning Within a Hybrid Methodology for Formal Type Design Education

Abstract
The purpose of this research is to assess the effects of employing an agile pedagogical methodology can have on the creative and educational processes of typeface design. The time available for students in public higher education institutions to learn is increasingly scarce due to all the academic solicitations and current courses’ structure. It is especially challenging to apply their recently acquired knowledge into practice. We have developed the SLOType workshop methodology supported by Gerrit Noordzij’s “The Stroke” theory to be used in a learning environment. And a companion digital online application to support the activities by providing increasingly complex type design prompts synchronized with the theoretical approach. This methodology aims to kickstart the acquisition of theoretical knowledge, practical skills and, at the same time, to promote autonomous learning by challenging the students by gamifying the user experience. The preliminary analysis of three editions of an experimental study of the workshop in two different master courses in public higher education institutions with 127 participants seems to indicate that practice helps to promote creativity; the SLOType methodology and digital application have a slightly positive effect on the visual quality and originality of results generated, and the tool seems to trigger the necessary curiosity and drive users to further research type design history and references. The workshop method has been adapted to an online mode during the COVID-19 pandemic, which has also promoted the use of tools and the definition of features that have improved and will improve future editions.
Pedro Amado, Ana Catarina Silva, Eduardo Napoleão

Reviving Type: From Manuscript to 3D-Printed Type

Abstract
In typography and particularly in type design looking backwards is a rewarding exercise. Nowadays besides being a practice totally inserted in the digital context, type design has its own manual and centenary roots. That past can be even more relevant if appropriate to promote something new through innovation. A type revival seeks to develop new faces, to today’s needs, usually from a historical reference. Considering the past this study aims to explore the developing process of a type revival from a manuscript source to a digital font, and considering innovation, it also addresses the process of modelling a digital font to a 3D-printed letterpress type. This study begun with a visual research, document analysis and literature review about typography and type design specificities. Simultaneously, a critical analysis was made, and the developing process of the type revival and of the 3D-printed type is presented. Finally, this study aims to contribute to inspire future research on type revivals, in practical and historical strands, as well as on new ways to ensure and expand letterpress in the post-digital era.
Ângelo Gonçalves, Vítor Quelhas

Digital Design Branding

Frontmatter

Brands Should Be Distinct! The Contribution of Ad’s Narrative and Joy to Distinctiveness

Abstract
With the COVID-19 pandemic consumer needs are changing and marketing communications must be effective in order to be recognized in the consumer’s mind. Trends in the production of content with images and videos that allow consumers to immerse themselves in the content are contents that are more successful in the future.
The production of video ads that use storytelling play an important role in the interpretation of the message where counter arguments can decrease through narrative transportation. Thus, consumers understand that brands will be unique and distinct from others.
In this sense, we conducted a cross-sectional research that aimed to test a model using equations that was analyzed through AMOS software. The analyzed model with a sample of 326 participants shows that a structure of the narrative, joy and a narrative transportation expresses a positive influence in the distinction of the brand. As a result of this study, we present the theoretical and possible contributions for managers in the area of strategic marketing.
Sara Santos, Pedro Espírito Santo, Sónia Ferreira

Would Plato Really Find Coca Cola Inside the Cave? Design-Led Branding Explained by Everyday Social Practices

Abstract
This research analyses the epistemological assumptions of the canonical marketing-led branding positioning models to explore the necessity of new epistemological stances and how design-led branding models could be of use when reaching these stances. Qualitative research has been done to explore how three well-known brands make use of design-led strategies (promoting the customisation of their labels with personal forenames or messages directly related to everyday experiences and activities) to seize the scope of everyday social practices as a source of inspiration and contact with their audiences. The epistemological scope of everyday life, normally avoided by scientific-oriented marketing-led models, presents itself as a perfect place where brands and audiences could interact and, through design-led strategies, build up meaning together. Plato’s theory of knowledge, especially considering his metaphorical style (highlighting its heideggerian interpretation), has given the research a theoretical framework to understand how design-led branding could expand the epistemological scope of marketing-led branding and work in a complementary way, developing a new and more holistic practitioner branding journey. This way, this research aims to contribute to the discussion regarding the relevance of design in branding and hopes to open a new area of research that could bring more benefits to the branding industry.
Bernardo Meza Guzman, Catarina Lelis

Benchmarking and Rebranding a Handcraft Brand

Abstract
Brand management is a complex and dynamic process, playing an important role in the competitiveness of companies. The main purpose of this work was to carry out a benchmarking and develop the rebranding of a Portuguese handicraft brand to improve its attractiveness. In order to achieve this goal, authors applied a mixed-model research design, combining a synchronized approach of marketing and design principles. The results obtained show that the proposed methodology is appropriate for a rebranding process. Accordingly, the marketing mix and the visual identity of the brand received several updates.
Sérgio Dominique-Ferreira, Andreia Roque, Catherine Prentice

From Design History to Its Transdisciplinarity

Frontmatter

The School of Carlos Ramos: A Lasting Legacy of a Revolution

Abstract
This paper aims to contextualise the educational legacy of Architect Carlos Ramos among the rise of an avant-garde school of thought, over the 20 yrs that preceded the Carnation Revolution, in the midst of a cultural, social and political turmoil. It is argued that these were the circumstances that enabled the subsequent groundwork for the curricular formulation of the Design degree in 1975. The conducted research acknowledges a need to consolidate the understanding of the circumstances surrounding a particular school model in the 1960s, confirming Architect Carlos Ramos as a central figure for an innovative template to have emerged, as a single occurrence among national Schools of Fine Arts, at a time of political unrest in which censorship represented a powerful State policy tool.
A set of ethnographic interviews were conducted with artists and teachers from this time span, articulating testimonies, direct and indirect observation, and existing documentation. From a total of 44 interviews, 8 interviewees stand out, given their close contact with Carlos Ramos, either as a student, assistant or even as a close friend.
Through the contribution to knowledge by this generation of Artists and Designers from ESBAP we aim to recover and disseminate methodologies and pedagogical practices developed under this period and thus mapping the framework that favoured the rise of the model currently known as the “School of Porto”, as an important milestone in the history of Portuguese Art and Design.
Eliana Penedos-Santiago, Susana Barreto, Cláudia Lima, Nuno Martins, Pedro Santiago

Open Shop: Technological Change in London’s Printing Industry, 1980–1992

Abstract
This chapter adds to the discussion of how technological transformation occurred in London’s printing businesses between 1980–1992. By plotting the shift in power between the print Unions and the print consumer, it argues that the impact of digital technologies on practices in the workplace was a slow and complex process. As we shall see, the 1980s and 1990s were a time of political upheaval that drove complications with technological use. Analysing what Thomas Misa has called ‘sociotechnical change’ enables us to examine the social and technological entanglements that drive industrial transformation. This chapter explores what technological change looked like from the perspective of multiple actors. Questioning training through teaching apprenticeships and on-the-spot training within the workplace allows for this. We shall see how training print workers in digital technologies took time, money and required different skills that were not easily embedded. We shall also observe that by changing who and what was being taught, industrial transformation was perpetuated. Oral history work provides a focus for understanding as does archival document research, including an examination of trade literature and Union minutes. Together, such sources give a view from a variety of responses to industrial transformation.
Alex Heslop

The Designer Trail: José Brandão, A Life in Design Education

Abstract
This study analyses the professional life and work of José Brandão, the first educator in a BA in Design in Portugal, with a first degree in the field. Brandão graduated in Communication Design from the Ravensbourne College of Art and Design, London, and distinguished himself in the field of communication design, not only for the vast legacy of graphic works carried over 50 years, but also for his academic contribution to the creation of BA, Master and PhD courses in Design in the country. This study is focused on Brandão’s pedagogical experiences in Design, as a student and as an educator, as well as his contribution to the establishment of the first Communication Design course in public higher education at the Lisbon School of Fine Arts. The study also addresses Brandão’s pedagogical methodologies, in a context and at a time when this area was underdeveloped: Design courses in Higher Education were in their infancy, and the resources available for learning were scarce. The research methodology includes document analysis and ethnography, namely interviews conducted with José and Salette Brandão at their studio in Lisbon. This study was carried out within the framework of Wisdom Transfer: towards the scientific inscription of individual legacies in contexts of retirement from art and design higher education and research (POCI-01–0145-FEDER-029038); the research stems from the evidence that there is insufficient inscription of individual knowledge and experience of retired academics and researchers in art and design.
Cláudia Lima, Heitor Alvelos, Susana Barreto, Eliana Penedos-Santiago, Nuno Martins

Functional Graphic Design for a Musical Writing: Criteria of Constructive Graphics and Sound Interpretation in Ernest Robson’s Work on Phonetic Electronics

Abstract
The study and analysis of the use of graphic design mechanisms in the field of musical notation have been strongly neglected. This article aims to observe the graphic qualities of Ernest Robson's visual and sound work. His work reveals a very insightful graphic manipulation creating new communication graphics associated with electronics. We intend to observe the interpretative strategies based on the graphics itself and thus reveal an unknown work, through the analytical and original lens of graphic design. In 1981 Robson edited the work Phonetic Music With Electronic Music where he developed his graphic system which he also used in the field of experimental poetry and electronic music. His concrete work presents visual and scientific strategies for performative reading, presenting a very consistent graphic design, inspired in the notation of Isidore Isou and the lettrism movement.
Jorge dos Reis

Data Artification: Knowledge Design Against and Beyond Data Factories and Regimes

Abstract
Although artification is an emerging concept, it encompasses processes that have been around us for a long while. Its current theory combines the sociological and behavioral perspectives on various forms of conversion from non-art to art (Shapiro in Cultural Sociology 13:265–275, 2019) and our intimate responses to the surrounding world (Dissanayake in AVANT VII I:15–32, 2017). Data, on the other hand, have hardly been discussed in the context of artifying processes. Data art or the intent to make something artful for the sake of aesthetics are not, however, synonymous with data artification. It is primarily concerned with the will to know and create when datafied things and activities entangled with our lives in ubiquitous, automated, and overused ways lose their meaning. The binaries of non-art and art limit our consideration of knowledge crisis as a premise of artifying modes of knowing. In this paper, I will argue that this notion is instrumental in developing the phenomenological strand of artification theory. By drawing on the artwork of Nathalie Miebach and Fabio Lattanzi Antinori, I will consider in which ways their artistic practices apply a critical lens to the inner workings of data factories and regimes, and eventually produce knowledge in ways that defy disciplinary centers.
Gabriele Salciute Civiliene
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