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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, PERSUASIVE 2020, held in Aalborg, Denmark, in April 2020.

The 18 full papers presented in this book were carefully reviewed and selected from 79 submissions. The papers are grouped in the following topical sections: methodological and theoretical perspectives on persuasive design; persuasive in practice, digital insights; persuasive technologies for health and wellbeing; persuasive solutions for a sustainable future; and on security and ethics in persuasive technology.



Methodological and Theoretical Perspectives on Persuasive Design


On the Impact of the Application Domain on Users’ Susceptibility to the Six Weapons of Influence

Persuasive technology is gaining increasing attention nowadays. Researchers have proposed several approaches to support technology with persuasive capabilities inspired originally from the domain of social sciences. Cialdini’s six persuasive principles, known as the “six weapons of influence,” is an example of such techniques that are widely deployed in the persuasive technology domain. However, the literature lacks studies that asses the relationship between the domain, in which a persuasive technology is applied, and how the former is actually affecting the degree of persuasion achieved by Cialdini’s six persuasive principles. To bridge this gap, we investigate the effect of the application domain on users’ susceptibility to Cialdini’s principles. Two application domains were considered, namely an e-commerce recommender system and a movie recommender system. A within-subject study is conducted, and a total of 107 responses were collected. The results show that when using the same persuasive technique, the nature of the application domain affects the way users got persuaded by that technique. Hence, our findings suggest that the application area, as a contextual dimension, is an important factor that should be taken into consideration when designing persuasive systems.
Alaa Alslaity, Thomas Tran

Exploring Susceptibility Measures to Persuasion

There is increasing evidence that indicates how personalising persuasive strategies may increase the effectiveness of persuasive technologies and behaviour change interventions. This has led to a wide range of studies exploring self reported, perceived susceptibility to persuasion, which highlight the role of individual differences. Conducting such studies, while accounting for individual differences can be challenging, particularly where persuasive strategies may be considered similar due to their underlying components. In this paper, we present a study exploring perceived susceptibility to Cialdini’s principles of persuasion, with a focus on how we can distinguish perceived susceptibility measures between the most recently identified Unity principle and Social proof. This study was conducted using an online survey incorporating perceived susceptibility measures to all seven Cialdini principles and a measure of the actual effectiveness of seven corresponding persuasive strategies. Our results indicate that while we are able to distinguish perceived susceptibility measures between Unity and Social proof, together with Commitment, Scarcity and Reciprocity, we were unable to obtain these measures for Liking and Authority.
John Paul Vargheese, Matthew Collinson, Judith Masthoff

Integrating Persuasive Technology in Participatory Design Workshops: Prototypes for Participant Support

In participatory design, non-professional designers are also involved in the design process. Creativity and motivation play an important role, and non-professionals in particular can have problems of motivation or ability. Persuasive technologies can be used to positively influence participants’ behavior. Applying a design science research approach, this study developed four persuasive technology artifacts to support workshop participants, based on existing work on participatory design, persuasive technologies, and creativity support tools. The following prototypes were implemented: (1) tablet-based support; (2) Bluetooth beacons for location-based triggers; (3) QR codes for additional information; and (4) a humanoid robot assistant. Each prototype incorporates persuasive strategies to exert a positive influence on workshop participants’ behavior by enhancing motivation and ability and initiating triggers. In the absence of any previous concrete implementations of persuasive technologies for participatory design, the described artifacts extend the existing knowledge base by proposing in-person collaboration as a novel application field for persuasive technology.
Max Jalowski

Persuasive in Practice, Digital Insights


Does Traffic Information Provided by Smartphones Increase Detour Behavior?

An Examination of Emotional Persuasive Strategy by Longitudinal Online Surveys and Location Information
To ease traffic congestion on the Tohoku expressway during the nationwide summer holiday, we conducted two sets of interventional experiments applying the emotional persuasive strategy to persuade potential Tohoku expressway users to switch to the Joban expressway over a four-week period. Specifically, we first conducted a longitudinal online survey with interventional content to examine the change of intention and behavior on route decisions. At the same time, we provided the same interventional content to another set of users by means of a smartphone application and tracked their location information during the experiment period (12 days within the four weeks) to validate the results of the survey study. The results indicate that: (1) Content with emotional priming significantly increases the detour intention, and has the potential to increase detour behavior. (2) The effects vary depending on additional factors, such as previous travel experience, and the presence of small children. Overall, the study shows that the emotional persuasive strategy is an effective way to change detour intention and behavior.
Wenzhen Xu, Yuichi Kuriki, Taiki Sato, Masato Taya, Chihiro Ono

Evaluating the Susceptibility of E-commerce Shoppers to Persuasive Strategies. A Game-Based Approach

Research suggests that persuasive strategies are more effective when tailored to individuals or groups of similar individuals. Demographic data such as gender, age, culture, and personality are being used in domains such as health to tailor persuasive strategies. However, in e-commerce, these factors are unknown to e-commerce companies making it impossible to use them to tailor persuasive strategies. Other factors such as shoppers’ online motivation have been proposed as suitable factors to use in tailoring persuasive strategies in e-commerce. To contribute to research in this area, we investigated the susceptibility of e-commerce shoppers to persuasive strategies based on their online shopping motivation. To achieve this, we developed and evaluated a shopping game, ShopRight that simulates a retail store where players can shop for groceries. The healthiest product on each aisle is presented to the player along with a persuasive message. We recruited 187 participants to play ShopRight for at least three rounds. Players were classified into groups based on their online shopping motivation and their responses to the persuasive messages were recorded. Using pre- and post-game surveys, we also identified changes in attitude, intention, self-efficacy and perceived price of products.
Ifeoma Adaji, Nafisul Kiron, Julita Vassileva

Learning and Teaching Experiences with a Persuasive Social Robot in Primary School – Findings and Implications from a 4-Month Field Study

In the field of child-robot interaction (CRI), long-term field studies with users in authentic contexts are still rare. This paper reports the findings from a 4-month field study of robot-assisted language learning (RALL). We focus on the learning experiences of primary school pupils with a social, persuasive robot, and the experiences of the teachers of using the robot as a teaching tool. Our qualitative research approach includes interviews, observations, questionnaires and a diary as data collection methods, and affinity diagram as a data analysis method. The research involves three target groups: the pupils of a 3rd grade class (9–10 years old, n = 20), language teachers (n = 3) and the parents (n = 18). We report findings on user experience (UX), the robot’s tasks and role in the school, and the experience of the multimodal interaction with the robot. Based on the findings, we discuss several aspects concerning the design of persuasive robotics on robot-assisted learning and CRI, for example the benefits of robot-specific ways of rewarding, the value of the physical embodiment and the opportunities of the social role adopted by the learning robot.
Aino Ahtinen, Kirsikka Kaipainen

(Expressive) Social Robot or Tablet? – On the Benefits of Embodiment and Non-verbal Expressivity of the Interface for a Smart Environment

Smart home systems increasingly find their way into private households and efforts are being made to integrate lifelike user interfaces (e.g. social robots) to facilitate the interaction with the smart environment. Considering this, the question arises which benefits such embodied user interfaces offer compared to conventional devices. We are presenting a user study within a smart office setting in which 84 participants were either interrupted by a tablet, a non-expressive social robot, or an expressive social robot by being asked to perform tasks regarding their physical well-being. Results show that each type of user interface bears different advantages. While the tablet comes with a significantly higher usability and a lower level of perceived workload, both versions of the social robot outperform the tablet in terms of social perception and the overall evaluation of the interaction. Overall, the results provide valuable insights informing designers of smart environments which device to choose to enhance certain aspects of the quality of interaction.
Andrea Deublein, Birgit Lugrin

Persuasive Technologies for Health and Wellbeing


Persuasive Feedback for Fitness Apps: Effects of Construal Level and Communication Style

Persuasive technologies to support behaviour change (e.g., fitness trackers) have become increasingly popular among consumers and healthcare providers. However, studies show that such technologies often fail to offer long-term engagement and tangible health benefits. In this regards, the specific design of persuasive messages provided by the device and users’ reactions to it may play a critical role. Our research explores the potential of applying theories of construal level and communication style to formulating feedback messages in self-improvement technologies. Two experiments (N = 190, N = 177) examine the influence of these two factors on goal commitment and affect-based evaluation for situations of fitness goal attainment and failure. Overall, construal level and communication style were relevant factors with independent influence. In the positive situation of goal attainment, high construal level and a friendly communication style resulted in significantly more goal commitment and positive affect than low construal level and a dominant communication style. In the negative situation of failure, results were overall less unambiguous and need to be consolidated by further research. Implications for the design of persuasive feedback are discussed.
Jasmin Niess, Sarah Diefenbach, Paweł W. Woźniak

Persuading from the Start: Participatory Development of Sustainable Persuasive Data-Driven Technologies in Healthcare

Data-driven technologies can persuade humans to optimize their behavior and context based on objective data. However, current data-driven technologies have limited persuasive powers, because of a misfit between technology, end-users and context. Neglecting end-users in the development process contributes to this misfit and to limited engagement with the to-be-developed technology. This threatens sustainable (long-term) implementation. Therefore, this paper demonstrates how a bottom-up participatory development approach can improve the persuasive design of data-driven technologies and simultaneously increase engagement of end-users to foster sustainable implementation. This is done by describing part of the development of an Audit & Feedback system for healthcare workers at a Dutch regional general hospital. The system intends to contribute to reducing antimicrobial resistance. The rationale for, questions asked at and results of a questionnaire and two focus groups are described.
Julia Keizer, Nienke Beerlage-de Jong, Nashwan Al Naiemi, J. E. W. C. van Gemert-Pijnen

HeartHealth: A Persuasive Mobile App for Mitigating the Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease

Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) is the leading cause of early deaths globally. It has been named as the leading cause of deaths in the United States and the second in Canada. The key risk factors of IHD include high blood cholesterol and high blood pressure, both of which can be prevented and managed through heart-healthy diets containing low saturated fats, trans fats, and sodium. Therefore, the goal of our work is to design a persuasive mobile app (called HeartHealth) that motivates people, especially adults, to keep their blood cholesterol and blood pressure at safe levels by eating heart-healthy diets. Our approach is in four stages. First, we create a low-fidelity prototype that implements ten persuasive strategies, and then assess the perceived persuasiveness of selected users towards the strategies through an online survey. Second, we analyze the responses collected and then select the most effective strategies which, in turn, are used to design the high-fidelity prototype. Third, we conduct another study on the high-fidelity prototype which requires participants to interact with the prototype and provide comments through an online survey. Fourth, we perform thematic analysis on the comments and then refine the prototype based on the results.
Oladapo Oyebode, Boma Graham-Kalio, Rita Orji

Learning to Stop Smoking: Understanding Persuasive Applications’ Long-Term Behavior Change Effectiveness Through User Achievement Motivation

Compromising smoking cessation applications’ effectiveness, many users relapse. We propose that long-term adoption of persuasive technology is (partly) dependent on users’ motivational orientation. Therefore, we studied the potential relationship between user’s achievement motivation and the long-term behavior change effectiveness of persuasive technology. One-hundred users of a smoking cessation app filled out a questionnaire assessing their motivational orientation and (long-term) behavior change rates. Based on research findings, we expected that participants with stronger learning goal orientation (who are focused on self-improvement and persistent when facing failure) would report a higher long-term behavior change success rate. In contrast, we expected that participants with a stronger performance goal orientation (focused on winning, for whom solitary failures can undermine intrinsic motivation) would report lower long-term success. Results confirmed our hypotheses. This research broadens our understanding of how persuasive applications’ effectiveness relates to user achievement motivation.
Jaap Ham, Sitwat Usman Langrial

Mobile-based Text Messages for Improved Pediatric Health in Rural Areas of Pakistan: A Qualitative Study

Persuasive Technology (PT) as a field of research provides tremendous opportunities for helping people improve their health and wellbeing. This paper highlights opportunities for empowering rural female population through a simple text-based persuasive intervention. The study was performed in June 2019 in a remotely located population in North-Eastern Pakistan. The target population were young mothers who were frequent users of mobile phones and able to read text messages. The study investigated whether simple Mobile-based Text Messages based on Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) could bring a positive behavior change in mothers such as breastfeeding, avoiding self-medication when a child is sick and having the child immunized regularly. For data collection, we opted to conduct Focus Group Discussions in order to gain richer insights. The findings revealed that a high majority of the participants found the text messages to be useful. More interestingly, just over the span of one month, these participants reported to have a natural change in their behaviors.
Sitwat Usman Langrial, Jaap Ham

Persuasive Solutions for a Sustainable Future


Persuasive Mobile Apps for Health and Wellness: A Comparative Systematic Review

While majority of previous research focus on reviewing mobile health (mHealth) apps targeting specific health domain, this paper provides a comparative systematic review of mHealth apps across multiple health domains with the aim of deconstructing the persuasive strategies employed and their implementation. Specifically, we targeted four health domains (i.e., physical activity and fitness, diet, emotional and mental health, and health assessment and healthcare). We retrieved a total of 639 apps from Google Play out of which 80 popular apps were extracted (20 apps in each category). Three expert reviewers coded the apps using 32 persuasive strategies (PSs) based on Persuasive System Design (PSD) Model and Cialdini’s Principles of Persuasion. Overall, out of the 80 mHealth apps reviewed, personalization is the most commonly employed PS (n = 77), followed by surface credibility (n = 69), trustworthiness (n = 66) and self-monitoring (n = 64). How the apps are implemented varies depending on the domain. Based on our findings, we offer suggestions for designing mHealth apps to improve their persuasiveness.
Oladapo Oyebode, Chinenye Ndulue, Mona Alhasani, Rita Orji

Persuasive Mobile Apps for Sustainable Waste Management: A Systematic Review

This paper provides a systematic review of mobile apps for waste management with the main aim of uncovering the persuasive strategies employed, their operationalizations, the relationship between the number of persuasive strategies employed and the apps’ effectiveness to achieve specific target behavior. Specifically, we systematically investigated 125 mobile apps for waste management and identified distinct persuasive strategies, from the primary task support category of the PSD model. Furthermore, we classified these strategies based on the kind of waste management activities that the app was designed to support. Secondly, we uncovered how each of the persuasive strategies was implemented in the waste management apps to achieve the targeted outcome. Thirdly, we evaluated the relationship between the number of persuasive strategies employed in the apps design and the effectiveness of the apps (measured by user ratings). The results show that the apps cumulatively employed 251 persuasive strategies spread across the seven distinct primary task support persuasive strategies as follows: reduction (n = 76), tunneling (n = 9), tailoring (n = 37), personalization (n = 75), self-monitoring (n = 31), simulation (n = 7) and rehearsal (n = 16). In addition, our findings show that appropriate waste disposal, collection, recycling, and general waste management challenges were some of the waste management issues that the mobile apps targeted. Based on our results, we offer some design recommendations for operationalizing persuasive strategies in waste management app to increase their effectiveness.
Banuchitra Suruliraj, Makuochi Nkwo, Rita Orji

Not (B)interested? Using Persuasive Technology to Promote Sustainable Household Recycling Behavior

In many recycling systems around the world, waste is separated at the source. Their success therefore depends on an active participation of households. However, especially young people have been found to not consistently follow their local recycling schemes. A promising approach to tackle such suboptimal household recycling behavior (HRB) is the use of persuasive technology. While existing studies have highlighted its potential, they also commonly relied on waste container augmentation. To better understand the requirements of augmentation-independent HRB-related persuasive technology, a two-phase study was carried out with young adults in Sweden. First, an online survey (N = 50) was used to establish the target users’ recycling-related problems, attitudes and interests. Then, based on the survey results, a mobile phone application was designed and evaluated in an iterative manner. This led to the following design recommendations: (1) easy access to information about optimal household recycling behavior, (2) employment of several motivational strategies, (3) recognition of recycling scheme differences, (4) regard of users as equals and (5) use of a readily accessible technology channel. The technological format of persuasive technology interventions was found to spark the users’ curiosity. Within a well-functioning recycling system and along with engaging content, it could encourage repeated use and elicit reflection to help break unsustainable household recycling habits.
Christina Bremer

Persuasive Virtual Reality: Promoting Earth Buildings in New Zealand

Earth built environments are popular around the world due to their health benefits, indoor environment quality, passive solar gains, aesthetics, thermal efficiency, weathertightness, low cost of building materials and high functionality. However, residential earth buildings are unpopular in New Zealand (NZ), despite their numerous benefits. Previous literature has shown that the lack of awareness of earth buildings and their benefits is one of the main barriers to earth construction. Persuasive technology is defined as the technology that is designed to change attitudes or behaviour of the users through persuasion. Previous studies looked at the applications of persuasive technology in enhancing student engagement and motivation in educational settings. The primary purpose of this paper is to apply Virtual Reality (VR) as a persuasive technology tool to promote residential earth buildings in NZ. The study initially explored the reasons why earth buildings are unpopular in NZ using Subject Matter Experts (SME) views combined with a review of past literature. We then designed and implemented a VR model of a sustainable earth building including earth walls, rainwater harvesting tank, dry toilet, solar panels, and green wall as a sustainable building model. The VR model incorporated the key design principles of persuasive technology proposed in the literature. This model was then showcased at Auckland Build Expo 2018 (ABE2018), for the public to view. The viewers who engaged with our VR model were educated on the benefits of living in earth buildings. We believe that this exploratory research will eventually contribute to making advancements in finding new ways to effectively promote earth buildings for living in NZ.
Don Amila Sajeevan Samarasinghe, Nilufar Baghaei, Lehan Stemmet

On Security and Ethics in Persuasive Technology


PHISHER CRUSH: A Mobile Persuasive Game for Promoting Online Security

Phishing has become a major security threat in this Internet age. Dubious computer geeks and malicious hackers tend to make use of this mode of cyberattack due to the ability of phishes to deceive unsuspecting users without being prevented by various system security measures. The major reason why people fall for phishing attacks is that they are mostly unaware of how to detect them. This paper presents the design and implementation of a mobile persuasive game for promoting online security by teaching people how to detect and avoid phishing links. We also present the results and insights from the playability and persuasiveness evaluation of the game. The evaluators reported an overall high level of playability according to the Heuristic Evaluation for Playability (HEP). Above all, the results show that the game is highly persuasive, hence is expected to effectively motivate the desired behaviour of promoting online security. Based on our results, we provided some design consideration and insights from the evaluators’ comments.
Chinenye Ndulue, Oladapo Oyebode, Rita Orji

GDPR and Systems for Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review

eHealth systems for behavior change need to cope with a wide variety of privacy requirements specified by governmental and other regulations. We conducted a systematic review of scientific articles. Analysis of the articles revealed General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) compliant eHealth technologies, challenges posed by GDPR as well as early solutions for them. In addition, we highlight key GDPR issues to be considered when designing persuasive technologies.
Eunice Eno Yaa Frimponmaa Agyei, Harri Oinas-Kukkonen


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