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2023 | Buch

Physical and Mathematical Modeling of Earth and Environment Processes—2022

Proceedings of 8th International Scientific Conference-School for Young Scientists

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Über dieses Buch

The book presents short papers of participants of the 8th International Scientific Conference-School for Young Scientists "Physical and Mathematical Modeling of Earth and Environment Processes" (Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences). The book includes theoretical and experimental studies of processes in the atmosphere, oceans, the lithosphere and their interaction; environmental issues; problems of human impact on the environment; methods of geophysical research.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter
Preliminary Study of the Opportunity to Predict Changes in Rock Samples Inner Structure Caused by Triaxial Loading Based on Stress–Strain Relationship

The paper presents a mathematical model for interpreting the stress–strain curve obtained from triaxial loading tests performed on cylindrical rock samples. The suggested model provides an opportunity to predict tendencies in sample’s inner structure changes caused by loading: relative fractions of shear fractures of various spatial orientations are evaluated for the inelastic strain accumulation process. The model is based on non-associated plastic flow law with friction hardening. The model fracture development predictions are proved by measurements of sample’s acoustic properties before, during, and after loading. The paper presents the experimental setup used for application and verification of the suggested mathematical model. Limestone samples of the Domodedovo quarry (moscovian stage) were studied following the proposed experimental scheme. The paper presents the interpretation of the obtained experimental results, highlights the main tendencies in fracture development at different loading stages, demonstrates the observed relationship between changes in elastic waves velocities in the studied rocks and evolution of their inner structure. The recommendations on applying the proposed model for solving the geomechanics problems are formulated alongside with the experimental scheme necessary for obtaining the reliable results on fracture prediction in rock masses using the proposed model.

N. V. Dubinya, D. E. Beloborodov, M. A. Krasnova, A. M. Leonova, S. A. Tikhotsky
Estimates of the Periodicity of Atmospheric Blockings Over Kazakhstan in the Spring–Summer Time According to Era 5 Reanalysis Data

The article estimated the frequency of atmospheric blockings over different regions of Kazakhstan for the spring and summer months. Its regions are identified, where during periods of these phenomena lasting 10 days or more, the greatest increase in average daily air temperatures occurs. This fact may contribute to the occurrence of drought.

A. V. Kholoptsev, Zh. K. Naurozbayeva
Relations of Interannual Variability of Topography of Water Surfaces of Oceanic Regions with Solar Activity on the Example of Black and Azov Seas

We studied the relations of “smoothed” in sliding windows of a particular duration, changes in the average annual water surface levels of various sections of the waters of the Azov and Black Seas, as well as solar activity. The example of these seas tested the validity of the hypothesis that the reason for the presence of these connections is the influence on solar activity and the dynamics of the topography of the water surface of some regions of the World Ocean, translational movement in its orbits of the giant planets of the solar system.

A. V. Kholoptsev, S. V. Palaev
Filtration of Salt Solutions Taking into Account the Osmotic Effect

Based on the previously proposed mathematical model of solution filtration with regard the osmotic effect in porous media with semipermeable inclusions, several problems have been solved. Characteristic distributions of salt concentration and pressure are given, estimates of filtration rates caused by osmosis are found. The solutions obtained make it possible to better understand the mechanism of osmotic filtration and may be of great practical importance.

M. M. Ramazanov, N. S. Bulgakova, S. R. Gadzhimagomedova
Investigation of Features of Water Circulation in the Northern Part of the Black Sea on the Basis of the Assimilation of Observational Data in the Autumn–Winter Season of 2016

A four-dimensional and energy analysis of hydrophysical fields in the limited area of the Black Sea was carried out on the basis of assimilation of hydrological data in the numerical model (autumn–winter season of 2016). The Rim Current was clearly reconstructed. Multi-scale eddies could be generated between the shore and the Rim Current during some weakening of the wind forcing. Cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies were noticed in the western area, they could merge into larger one during the further calculation. The most energetically significant components in the kinetic and potential energy budget equations were found and analyzed from 15th of November to 5th of December, 2016. Possible mechanisms of circulation features of the Black Sea were determined, analyzing of energy fields (for example, baroclinic and/or barotropic instability). The obtained results were compared with all available data of instrumental measurements.

S. G. Demyshev, N. A. Evstigneeva, O. A. Dymova
Propagation of Tsunami Waves in a T-shaped Bay

Based on the SWASH numerical hydrodynamic model, a study was made of the penetration of tsunami waves into a T-shaped bay, which has the characteristic dimensions and configuration of the Sevastopol Bay. To model the propagation of tsunami waves in the bay, a non-linear hydrodynamic non-hydrostatic SWASH model was used. To determine the boundary conditions at the liquid boundary of the computational domain, using the Black Sea tsunami model, we calculated sea level fluctuations at the entrance to the Sevastopol Bay during the propagation of tsunami waves from three hypothetical earthquake foci with magnitude M = 7. As a result of the penetration of a tsunami into a T-shaped bay of height waves increase by 2–2.5 times compared to the heights on the seashore of the bay. At the same time, at the top of the bay, the amplitude of sea level fluctuations can reach 0.8 m. The most intense fluctuations are observed in the first three hours of the tsunami action. Tsunamis from different foci cause seiche oscillations in the bay with periods of 49.1 min, 19.3 min, 9.2 min, 6.8 min. At the same time, the amplitude-phase characteristics of the tsunami have a significant effect on the redistribution of wave energy between the modes of seiche oscillations. Numerical experiments have shown that the presence or absence of protective breakwaters at the entrance to the bay does not lead to significant changes in the wave field and sea level heights during tsunami propagation inside the bay.

A. Yu. Belokon, V. V. Fomin, D. I. Lazorenko
The Features of Simulation of Radar Altimeter Return Waveform Using Hermite Polynomials

Currently, the main approximations of sea surface elevation in remote sensing problems are the Gram–Charlier and Edgeworth distributions. These distributions are expansions of the probability density function into an infinite series over Hermite polynomials, whose coefficients are determined by known cumulants. A limited number of known cumulants leads to distortions at the tails of the distribution. A change in the shape of the reflected pulse of an radio altimeter mounted on a spacecraft is simulated depending on the boundaries of the truncation of the distributions of elevation of the sea surface. The change in the shape of the reflected pulse of the radio altimeter installed on the spacecraft is modeled depending on the boundaries of the truncation of the distribution of the sea surface elevation. The ranges of skewness and kurtosis are chosen on the basis of wave measurement data in different areas of the World Ocean, for skewness the range is − 0.2 to 0.3, for excess kurtosis the range is − 0.4 to 1.1. It is shown that the distribution truncation effect manifests itself in the case when the truncation boundary satisfies the condition $$\xi_{b} < 3$$ (here, $$\xi$$ is normalized to the rms value of the sea surface elevation). The simulation results are compared with sea level calculations in the case when the probability density function of sea surface elevations is described by a Gaussian mixture. A significant dependence of the calculated sea level on the choice of the distribution model is shown. Differences in sea level obtained using the distribution in the form of a Gaussian mixture and the Edgeworth distribution with the same values of the first four cumulants may exceed 20%.

V. M. Burdygov
Abnormal Statistics of Sea Waves

The statistics of waves in situations that are relatively rarely observed at sea are investigated. The probability and conditions of the occurrence of situations in which the ratio of the maximum crest and maximum trough during the measurement period (ratio R) is less than one are analyzed. The condition $$R < 1$$ means that the trough is larger than the crest. The data of direct wave measurements obtained in the coastal zone of the Black Sea (depth ~ 30 m) were used. It is shown that the average probability of occurrence of values for an ensemble of situations is 13%. It is shown that as the wave steepness $$\varepsilon$$ increases, the conditional probability $$P_{\varepsilon } = P\left( {R < 1\left| \varepsilon \right.} \right)$$ also increases. The dependence of the conditional probability $$P_{\zeta } = P\left( {R < 1\left| \zeta \right.} \right)$$ on the inverse wave age $$\zeta$$ is observed only for developing waves at $$\zeta > 1.5$$ , at later stages of the wave field development it is absent. There is also a dependence of the probability of occurrence of values on the cumulants of sea surface elevations of the third $$\lambda_{3}$$ and fourth $$\lambda_{4}$$ orders (skewness and excess kurtosis). When $$\lambda_{3}$$ changing from − 0.1 to 0.3, the conditional probability $$P_{\lambda 3} = P\left( {R < 1\left| {\lambda_{3} } \right.} \right)$$ increases by about five times, when $$\lambda_{4}$$ changing from − 0.4 to 0.4, the conditional probability $$P_{\lambda 4} = P\left( {R < 1\left| {\lambda_{4} } \right.} \right)$$ increases by about one and a half times.

A. S. Zapevalov
Emission of Nanoparticles During Loading Rock Salt

Experimental studies of particle emission during loading of rock salt have been carried out. The phenomenon of emission of nanoparticles in the process of loading a sample of rock salt has been discovered. The parameters of a significant emission of nanoparticles under uniaxial compression of a crystalline rock (rock salt) have been determined. The phenomenon of phased emission of nanoparticles during loading of rock salt has been discovered.

S. D. Viktorov, V. P. Malyukov
Retrospective Analysis Methods in the Study of the Existence of Anomalous Processes in Geodynamic Systems

The problem of the methodology for predicting a special nonlinear effect that occurs in the marine environment, called “Rogue waves”, is considered. Rogue waves are a phenomenon that cannot be described by means of the apparatus of the linear theory of waves, the existence of which is beyond doubt. The paper presents a formal apparatus that generalizes the concept of a dynamic system, and demonstrates a method for studying a dynamic system based on the analysis of time series.

V. K. Kazankov, S. E. Kholodova
The Analysis of the Ice Edge Position Variability in the Arctic Seas Depending on Different Types of Winter Severity

The article presents the results of research on the ice cover changes in the Arctic basin according to the satellite data. Light cloud cover satellite images of the MODIS spectroradiometer were used to estimate the parameters of the ice cover of the Arctic seas. QueryThe images of the Landsat-8 satellite were used to refine the data obtained from the MODIS spectroradiometer (Terra satellite) because of their better spatial resolution. The classification according to the severity of winter seasons for the White, Kara, Laptev and East Siberian Seas is also described in the article.

M. S. Teider, N. S. Frolova, N. A. Podrezova, K. V. Kravtsova
Interannual Variability of Ice Coverage in the Area of the Franz Josef Land Archipelago

This paper presents and analyzes the results of the study of ice coverage changes in the area of the Franz Josef Land archipelago according to the data of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute archive (AARI World Data Center for Sea Ice, [1]) over the period 1979–2018. Descriptive statistics and trends were used as statistical research methods. The paper also provides a classification by the severity of winter for the study area.

N. A. Podrezova, M. I. Zemilova
Analysis of Laboratory Hydraulic Fracturing Pressure-time Curves

Hydraulic fracturing is the process of fracture formation in the reservoir under development by pumping fracturing fluid under pressure through previously prepared well into the formation. Methods of processing the pressure drop curves, that were recorded during preliminary conducted mini hydraulic fracturing process, have always been a subject of interest. Various methods’ constant development and application has been going on until now, since such an approach to the data analysis allows to obtain a sufficient number of reservoir and fracture characteristics that significantly simplifies the further development of real deposits. In the course of this study, a series of laboratory experiments on hydraulic fracturing was conducted. The pressure-time data was recorded for each of laboratory experiment. The main aim of the work was to process the obtained dependencies using one of the standard method for analyzing hydraulic fracturing pressure drop curves. A special laboratory setup was used for laboratory modeling of hydraulic fracturing. All the materials for a series of experiments were selected in accordance with similarity criteria. Hence the conditions of laboratory experiments on hydraulic fracturing achieve maximum similarity with the conditions on real field under development. The obtained pressure-time dependencies were analyzed using two standard methods. The G-function method was used as a preliminary stage of the analysis. The focus was on pressure closure determination, as this characteristic played an important role in further analysis. Then the main stage of pressure drop curve processing was implemented. It was aimed at determination of the flow modes that were realized in the model sample with hydraulic fracture after the injection was stopped. Various flow modes can be realized in the model sample due to fluid filtration from the hydraulic fracturing zone into the model sample during the period of time after the injection is stopped. The analysis method considers two different stages: time period before fracture closure and time period after fracture closure. Thus, bilinear and linear flow regimes can be observed in the time period before fracture closure, and pseudo-linear, bilinear and pseudo-radial flow regimes can be observed in the time period after fracture closure. This approach to pressure drop curves analysis allows to determine some characteristics of the model sample and the fracture formed. After special processing of data related to a time period with a certain flow regime, it is possible to estimate the permeability of the model sample and the fracture length. Since a series of laboratory experiments was conducted, some of characteristics of the used materials are known as preliminary set parameters or as the results of the experiment. Consequently, it is possible to make a comparison of the real and theoretically obtained characteristics of the model sample.

Elena Novikova, Mariia Trimonova
Melting Ice Structure Mechanical Sustainability Numerical Study

Both thermal and mechanical problems have applications in different practical tasks connected to civil engineering. Dynamical processes in Artic region on land, sea and shelf are an example of such problems. Ice structures including icebergs, ice hummock and artificial ice islands melt, mechanically and thermally interact with each other, environment, man-made structures. This article is devoted to investigation of ways to model those interactions. Physical and numerical models are formulated for mechanical and thermal problems, along with software implementation and test calculations.

D. S. Konov, M. V. Muratov, E. K. Guseva, I. B. Petrov
Wave Asymmetry Evolution in Coastal Zone: Field Data and Xbeach Numerical Modelling Comparison

Wave asymmetry prediction is an important aspect of the coastal zone dynamics studies, as it affects wave-induced sediment transport. In this study comparison of measured during field experiment and predicted with XBeach numerical model wave asymmetry is presented. Reasons for the mismatch between measured and modelled asymmetry are discussed.

M. N. Shtremel, D. V. Korzinin
Computational Aspects of Solving the Problem of Ekman-Type Wind Currents

The aim of the work is to compare the exact analytical solution for a three-dimensional wind flow model with its numerical analogue for testing and analyzing difference discretizations and computational algorithms used in integrating the dynamic model. When integrating the equation for the current function, a multi-parametric family of difference schemes is considered, which, under certain parameters, includes schemes of central difference, directional difference, schemes of A. A. Samarsky and A. M. Ilyin. To find the velocity fields by the found current function, a projection version of the integro-interpolation method (PVIIM) is used. The results of calculations of the current function and integral velocities are compared with an analytical solution. As a result of numerical experiments, it is shown that the best results are obtained when using the Ilyin scheme and when using approximations of derivatives based on the PVIIM method. The implemented testing of difference schemes and algorithms, comparison of the results of calculations with an accurate analytical solution made it possible to implement a reasonable choice of discretizations for integrating the equations of the wind circulation model. The constructed difference discretizations allow, under all other equal conditions, to increase the accuracy of reproduction of the desired numerical solution of the model.

V. S. Kochergin, S. V. Kochergin, S. N. Sklyar
Investigation of the Influence of Foam on the Characteristics of Waves in the Framework of Laboratory Simulation

This paper describes the results of a laboratory investigations of the effect of the foam influence on the characteristics of the wavy surface in a wide range of wind speeds. The experiments were performed on the Termosratified Wind-Wave Flume of IAP RAS. Experiments were carried out for the winds with friction velocities between 0.3 and 1.5 m/s (corresponding to a 10-m wind speed of 12–33 m/s under field conditions). The water-level fluctuations were measured using wave gauges. The surface area covered with the foam was estimated basing on the shadow images of the surface filming by a high-speed camera. It was shown that the presence of foam on a wavy water surface leads to significant modifications in the characteristics of waves: evolution of the frequency and wave-number spectra, and suppression of the short-wave part of the waves (surface smoothing).

M. I. Vdovin, D. A. Sergeev, Yu. I. Troitskaya, A. A. Kandaurov
Determination of Optimal Parameters and Modes of Well Operation in Low-Permeability Reservoirs on a True Triaxial Loading Unit

This article presents the results of a series of experiments on physical modeling of mechanical and filtration processes in productive formations of the Astrakhan gas-condensate field (GCF), which may lead to an increase in permeability of reservoir rock when using the directional unloading method. The experiments were carried out on the Triaxial Independent Load Test System of the Institute for Problems in Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The stress–strain state in the vicinity of perforation holes was modeling for both cased and uncased wells. The paper presents the dependence of filtration properties of the studied specimens on the type of the stress–strain state and determines the values of pressure draw-down, leading to an increase in permeability of rocks. The obtained results indicate that the directional unloading method can be successfully applied to uncased wells drilled at the Astrakhan GCF.

S. O. Barkov, N. I. Shevtsov
Method of Liquidation of Hydrocarbon Spills Using Vortex Flow

The paper provides an overview of existing methods and sorbents for the elimination of hydrocarbons from the surface of the water, studied their characteristics and the principle of operation of devices that are currently used to eliminate oil spills. An original method of eliminating hydrocarbon spills is proposed, the main element of which is the creation of a controlled vortex funnel in a rotating cylindrical cup equipped. The principle of operation and methods of controlling the modes of operation of the vortex funnel have been confirmed by experimental studies.

T. O. Chaplina
Trends in the Risks of Natural Hazards in the Arctic Zone of Russia, with Further Warming of Its Forest Zone (Case of Eastern Siberia)

The current trends of changes in average monthly air temperatures in the Arctic and Forest landscape zone of Eastern Siberia, as well as the relationships of these processes with variations in the total area of wormwood, which are formed in the summer months in the ice cover of the seas of Laptev and East Siberia. It is shown that in many territories of the Arctic zone of Eastern Siberia, significant changes in average monthly temperatures of summer months in 2010–2020. As a result, the risks of many natural hazards could not be increased. Therefore, the probable cause of their actual increase is anthropogenic.

A. V. Kholoptsev, R. G. Shubkin, I. U. Sergeev, A. N. Baturo
Solution of Problem Questions of Astronomy and Geology Using the Optimized Galactic Model

On the basis of an optimized version of the galactic model, the problematic issues of the Galaxy spiral structure determining, as well as the geology problems associated with presence of various geochronological scales, which differ in age of boundaries the same name stratons are resolved. The galactic model establishes a close causal relationship between the cyclicity of global geological (biotic, tectonic and climatic) processes in Earth history with Sun’s movement in Galaxy and bombardments of Solar System by galactic comets. This model has been developed by the author for 30 years, being improved and refined when solving problematic issues of geology and astronomy. There are presented the results of optimization and testing of the model latest version designed to calculate the numerical values of Galaxy spiral structure parameters, which cannot be determined by astronomical methods or accuracy of their measurement is low, as well as for the justification of possibility the constructing a high-precision Phanerozoic and Precambrian geochronological scale, taking into account the intensity of bombardments of Earth by galactic comets. The optimized model is used to refine Galaxy spiral construction and to construct a geochronological scale common for the Phanerozoic and Neoproterozoic on a new physical approach.

Azariy Barenbaum
Analysis of Wind Speed Profiles in Hurricane Irma

This work is devoted to the analysis of the wind speed profiling method in hurricanes. The profiling method is based on the self-similarity of the wind speed profile in the atmospheric boundary layer. Hurricane Irma is simulated within the WRF LES model using CFSV2 wind reanalysis as initial and boundary conditions. A comparison between the simulated wind speed profiles and the wind speed profiles from the NOAA GPS-dropsondes is performed.

E. I. Poplavsky, A. M. Kuznetsova, Yu. I. Troitskaya
Evolution of Approaches to Modelling Geomechanical Processes in Oil and Gas Reservoirs

The article describes the main stages of approaches evolution to modeling geomechanical processes in oil and gas science. The paper outlines the key ideas of physical modeling and the leading directions of mathematical modeling used for studying geomechanical processes, production forecasting and evaluation of maximum recoverable oil reserves. Disclosed the main disadvantages and advantages of analytical, statistical and numerical methods, as well as indicating their applicability limits. The analysis of scientific works, devoted to the development of mathematical methods of modeling, dedicated to the prediction of development indicators on the basis of displacement characteristics and decline curves, is carried out.

S. O. Barkov, V. V. Khimulia
An Angle Fall of a Drop Onto a Deep Water

A direct numerical simulation of oblique fall of a drop is carried out in Basilisk software package for process parameters corresponding to second regime of drop impact from the work (Reijers et al. in Oblique droplet impact onto a deep liquid pool, 2019) (see (Reijers et al. in Oblique droplet impact onto a deep liquid pool, 2019) Fig. 2b, e). The dynamics of the drop and water surface is obtained, which corresponds to results of (Reijers et al. in Oblique droplet impact onto a deep liquid pool, 2019). Size distributions of secondary droplets are constructed for various maximum mesh refinement levels. To check reliability of the obtained distribution, further calculations with higher mesh resolution are required.

A. N. Zotova, Y. I. Troitskaya, D. A. Sergeev
Investigation of the Pancake Ice Influence on the Wind–Wave Interaction Within Laboratory Modeling

Presented work concerned on the investigation of the ice cover influence on the wind–wave interaction in the marine atmospheric boundary layer. Unique laboratory experiments on the modeling of influence of pancake type of forming floating ice were carried out on the ring wind-wave facility AEOLOTRON University of Heidelberg. The round rubber pucks were used as artificial ice floes. Experiments were carried out for wide range of wind–wave states and ice concentration. Simultaneous measurements of surface elevation, air flow parameters, and are of artificial floe ice coverage was carried out. For the case of the ice presence, the evolution of the surface had threshold behavior. The obtained threshold of the excitation of long waves (the length is much greater than the average size of the ice elements and the distance between them), depended on the wind speed and ice concentration.

D. A. Sergeev, A. A. Kandaurov, Yu. I. Troitskaya
Sequestration of Organic Carbon in Salt Marsh Formations of Lagoons of Sakhalin

The oil and gas specialization of the economy, the limited potential of forestry, and the insular position of the Sakhalin Oblast make it very important to assess the role of coastal marine geosystems in the runoff and emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to determine their contribution to the overall GHG balance of the territory. The paper deals with the issues of sedimentation in the lagoonal waters of the island. Sakhalin is a coastal wetland with a total area of about 2200 km2 and a coastline of 2150 km. The change in the area of marches in lagoonal geosystems of various types for the period 1952–2019 is shown. Some mechanisms of the formation of geomorphological forms and sedimentary strata that accumulate a large amount of organic carbon are presented.

Victor V. Afanas’ev, A. B. Faustova
Features of Organogenic Sedimentation Within the Coastal Zone of Aniva Bay

Many processes are involved in the emission and absorption of greenhouse gases (GHGs), as a result of which the variability of fluxes in various blue carbon systems is very high and cannot always be explained from the standpoint of existing research approaches. Additional large-scale studies are needed to reliably quantify flows and understand the factors causing the variability of GHG flows in coastal marine ecosystems. Including those concerning the issues of determining the geomorphological position of areas with increased intensity of organogenic sedimentation. In this paper, for the first time, the coasts with bench areas on which marches and muddy dries are formed are considered. The change of morphometric parameters and the thickness of sediments of marshes and silty drainages is shown, as they move away from the estuary zone of the river—the source of sediments of the open sea. Some mechanisms of formation of geomorphological forms and sedimentary strata accumulating a large volume of organic carbon are indicated.

V. V. Afanas’ev, A. V. Uba, A. I. Levitsky, A. B. Faustova
Coastal Marches and Silt Drainage of Sakhalin in the Context of Climate Change

The role of coastal wetlands as natural sinks of “blue carbon”, despite the extremely high rate of its burial, is still greatly underestimated. Moreover, even studies of the modern spatial distribution of marches and silty lands are very fragmentary and far from complete. In light of the growing need for global data on the distribution, size, and sequestration potential of these critical ecosystems, and in order to draw attention to critical geoecological issues, geospatial parameters are considered and an assessment is made of the organogenic sedimentation of coastal marine marshes and mudflats on the island Sakhalin. It is recognized that further research is needed to better quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and understand the factors that cause their variability.

A. B. Faustova, V. V. Afanas’ev
Methanotrophic Ability of Cryptogamic Communities of Coastal Ecosystems

Cryogenic ecosystems are crucial elements of the biosphere, acting as a repository of organic matter on a global scale. However, recent trends in average annual temperatures increasing in these regions are leading to rapid permafrost thaw and promoting the release of organic carbon through microbial degradation and further methane emission into the atmosphere. The methanogenic and methanotrophic microbial communities are the key elements of the methane cycle. We studied associations of methanotrophs with mosses, lichens, and algae in subpolar ecosystems, with the maritime climate since the process of permafrost thawing is most pronounced in coastal areas. In incubation experiments, the methane-oxidizing capacity of methanotrophs associated with cryptogamic communities growing in tundra ecosystems of the Lena River Delta (Yakutia) and King George Island (South Antarctica) was measured. It has been shown, that moss and lichen associates of the studied subpolar ecosystems have a pronounced methanotrophic activity. In addition, increasing moisture changed the methanotrophic ability of the Antarctic cryptogamic communities to the methanogenic one.

V. K. Kadutskiy, S. Yu. Evgrafova, N. N. Lashchinskiy, A. E. Detsura, A. A. Sergeeva, A. V. Zarenkova, G. K. Zrazhevskaya
Estimation of Carbon Stock in Forest Soils of Sakhalin Region

Forests play a significant role in the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide and carbon sequestration for a long time. In forests, the long-term carbon depositing mainly takes place in two pools: in tree biomass and in soil organic matter that have different sensitivity to the natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Estimation of these pool sizes and ratio is the first step to the assessment of regional forest carbon budget and prognosis of its feedback to the climate change and disturbances. In this study, we estimated carbon stock in forest soils of Sakhalin region using the information system developed to assess a spatially distributed soil organic carbon with the high resolution (1 km2). It was found that soil organic matter of forest ecosystems in the region have accumulated about 1230.9 Mt C that is three folds higher than carbon stock in the tree biomass. Forest litter contributes not more than 10% in the northern forest ecosystems and up to 3–4% in the southern forests. Distribution of total carbon stock (live tree biomass + soil organic matter) between above- and belowground pools indicated that 80.0–82.5% of the carbon is allocated in the soil, and forest litter—the component the most vulnerable to disturbances, accounts not more than 5–6% of this stock.

L. V. Mukhortova, D. G. Schepaschenko
Refinement of the Model of the Geological Structure of the Southern Urals According to the Peculiarities of the Distribution of the Area of Epicenters of Seismic Events (Methodological Aspect)

The object of the study. Orenburg segment of the Southern Urals. Materials and methods. The results of drilling, geological survey, seismic survey, seismic monitoring (epicenters of seismic events, presumably associated with natural factors). The interpretation of the complex of geological and geophysical data is carried out. Results. The position of the southern part of the East Kizilsky fault has been mapped. It is shown that the West Kizilsky fault, mapped according to the results of geological survey, does not develop to the south. The geological hypothesis is substantiated: there is a system of diagonal tectonic disturbances of the north-western strike in the region. The zoning of the Magnitogorsk megasynclinorium zone, the most promising for oil and gas, has been carried out. Methodological conclusions. According to the peculiarities of the distribution in the region of the epicenters of seismic events associated with natural factors, it is possible to solve regional geological and prospecting tasks, as well as to identify tectonic disturbances that determine the prospects of oil and gas potential of local areas. The reliability of forecasts will increase with the development of the database of observed events and an increase in the accuracy of their localization. The latter can be achieved by installing at least two new seismic stations in the region.

M. Yu. Nesterenko, A. M. Tyurin, A. V. Kolomoets, V. S. Belov, V. P. Petrishchev
Development of Mathematical Models for Optimization of the Road Network, Taking into Account Geographical and Natural Factors

When developing schemes for the transport development of the forest area, it is of great importance to correctly establish the optimal distance between the main portages. The complexity of choosing the optimality criterion for forest transportation design is determined, on the one hand, by the duration of developing the forest resource base in time and, on the other hand, by the static nature of the mathematical models being developed, in which time is not a variable. The sum of road and transport costs is nothing more than the operating costs for the development of the base, consisting of two components—road and transport. Thus, the minimum amount of road and transport costs for the development of the forest resource base is taken as the optimality criterion in static mathematical models. The presented methodology allows considering the presence of natural, technological, and economic factors. When arranging an optimal road network, it is necessary to take into account the developed complex of intelligent information systems, which allows obtaining an option close to the optimal in terms of economic indicators.

Vladimir Valentinovich Nikitin, Vyacheslav Gennadievich Kozlov, Aleksey Vasilyevich Skrypnikov, Galina Anatolyevna Pilyushina, Dmitry Gennadievich Kozlov, Andrey Nikolaevich Bryukhovetsky, Irina Alevtinovna Vysotskaya, Vladimir Vladimirovich Denisenko
Mathematical Modeling of Hemodynamic Processes Taking into Account Effects of Border Deformation

A mathematical model is investigated that describes the dynamics of blood flow through blood vessels, taking into account the effects of wall deformation. A mathematical model is presented as a model of hydrodynamic processes in a blood vessel. In particular, variants of motion in plane and cylindrical coordinate systems are considered, taking into account the peculiarities of the effects of wall deformation. Functional dependencies are obtained for the amplitudes of the voltage acting on the surface of the blood vessel, which depends on the amplitude, wave number and oscillation frequency. The results obtained allow us to formulate a method for assessing blood dynamics from known values of pulse and pressure.

S. I. Peregudin, S. E. Kholodova, K. M. Cherkay
The Influence of Technical Objects on the Dynamics and Structure of the Environment

The problem of the dynamics of the restoration of the stratifying distribution of the sea density after the removal of a disturbance source from a certain spatial region is investigated. Similarities and differences in density distributions and its gradients in cases of salt and temperature stratifications are shown.

A. V. Kistovich
A Novel Physical Model to Enhance Precision and Performance of Multidimensional Force Sensors

Multidimensional force (load) sensors (transducers) are widely used in modern robotics (including tactile feedback for artificial arm, artificial leg, prosthesis), medical cell tensile experiments, cell mechanical research (Zhou et al. in J Healthc Eng 2017:1587670, 2017 [1]; He et al. in J Healthc Eng 2018:8504273, 2018 [2]), engineering systems to measure three-dimensional forces (feedback strains). For research of multidimensional strain force feedback due to fluid flow pressure developed new physical model. During validation via application of this novel method to the SWMTF (South Western Mooring Tests Facility) 10 times precision increase was obtained for the multidimensional force readings. The method is effective for wide range of measuring equipment based on vector sensors including electronic (strain gauge), piezoelectric, fiber optic load sensors, hydraulic, mechanical (in proving rings) load cells. In particular, the developed method is very effective for accelerated (fast) data processing of loading measurements to achieve real-time sensor-guided robot motions (including those for industrial robot arm, real-time actuators).

Maxim Glebovich Ponomarev
Experimental Validation of Novel Physical Model for Improvement of Sensing Multidimensional Fluid Flow Loads and Responses in Real Sea Conditions with South Western Mooring Test Facility

Multi axis load cells (transducers) are widely used in modern engineering systems to measure multidimensional forces. This paper deals with analysis and calibration methodology for the multi axis load cells, considering them in specific installation South Western Mooring Test Facility as a key instrument to measure the mooring leg tension in its x-, y- and z-component for wave energy device development. Cross-validation model has been applied for the multicomponent system.

Maxim Glebovich Ponomarev, Lars Johanning, David Parish
Skimmer Using the Phenomenon of Vortex Cavity Formation

Various methods can be used to deal with oil spills. A widely used method is when mechanical means are used to remove oil products from the surface of the water. As a rule, booms are used to concentrate spilled oil, after which it is possible to clean the localized slick with the help of skimmers and pump oil into storage tanks. There are many varieties of skimmers, the technical features of which are optimized for specific tasks, different scales of cleaning operations, types of oil products and environmental conditions. This paper describes the requirements for the successful application of skimmers in various situations, as well as a unique new model and its parameters.

V. P. Pakhnenko
Studies of the Construction of Horizontal Underground Workings-Tanks Under the Impact of Solution on Rock Salt

Studies of the construction of horizontal underground workings-tanks (caverns) were carried out on 4 large-scale models in real conditions with a hydrodynamic effect on rock salt in the Khoja-Mumyn salt mountain (Republic of Tajikistan). Extended horizontal workings with vaulted cross-sections close to equal in size were obtained, as well as analytical dependencies for calculating the technological parameters of the process of constructing horizontal workings in rock salt [1–11].

V. P. Malyukov
Influence of Langmuir Circulations on the Intensity of Turbulent Mixing in the Near-Surface Layer of the Sea

The purpose of the article is to describe an experimental study of the effect of Langmuir circulations (CL) on surface turbulence. A technique has been developed for determining the main dynamic characteristics of the CL using instrumental measurements of the flow velocity components with an ADCP DVS-6000 acoustic meter, background horizontal currents using the «Vostok-M» complex, and turbulent fluctuations of hydrophysical quantities recorded by the «Sigma-1» complex. The velocities of descending and ascending flows in the zones of convergence and divergence in coherent Langmuir structures are determined. Based on synchronous measurements of the velocities of currents and turbulent pulsations, the velocity of the transverse displacement of the Langmuir bands in various hydrometeorological conditions is calculated using correlation coefficients. To assess the influence of the studied CL on turbulent exchange, the dissipation rate of turbulent energy $$\varepsilon$$ was calculated. The calculation of ε was carried out from the pulsation components of the current velocity vector using the hypotheses of Kolmogorov and Taylor. The visualization of the Langmuir stripes for photographic and video filming was achieved by spreading paper markers on the sea surface. With a steady wind of 7–17 m/s, markers and algae in the water, sea foam, etc. lined up in clearly visible bands, which made it possible to determine the spatial scales of the CL. To estimate the distribution of the rate of dissipation of turbulent energy over depth, measurements of turbulent characteristics by the «Sigma-1» complex were carried out at several horizons from 1 to 7 m with an exposure time of 15–20 min. All measurements were accompanied by registration of background hydrometeorological conditions (surface wave parameters, wind speed and direction, water and air temperature, etc.). During 9 days of active observations, 74 Langmuir cells were detected. To assess the dynamics of the CL, the following parameters were chosen: the velocity of displacement of structures perpendicular to the direction of the wind, the number of observed cells for the selected observation period; width of convergence and divergence zones and vertical velocities in them. When analyzing the dynamic characteristics of the CL and comparing it with the intensity of turbulence, it was shown that the effect of the CL on turbulence in the near-surface layer depends primarily on the wind speed and direction and on their variability. The conditions under which CLs have a noticeable effect on the turbulent regime are determined. In experiments, the mode was noted when the highest intensity of turbulence from the CL occurs at a wind of about 5 m/s, while the wind direction must be stable, changing by no more than 10°–15° for 10 min. The maximum speed in downdrafts ~ 5–32 mm/s was observed with small changes in wind direction at a speed of 3.7 m/s, in the range 5º–12º. With a sharp change in wind direction by 20º–150º, the number of observed cells and the speed in the convergence zones decrease every 10–40 min. In this case, the dissipation rate becomes much lower, $$\varepsilon \sim \left( {1.7 - 8.89} \right) \times 10^{ - 6} \,{\text{m}}^{2} /{\text{s}}^{3}$$ . The developed technique for registering CLs and taking into account their influence on turbulent mixing has shown sufficient efficiency. The results obtained provide new useful information about the role of CL in near-surface turbulence.

M. I. Pavlov, A. M. Chukharev
On the Solution of Dirichlet Problem for Sobolev-Type Equations for Four-Dimensional Cylindrical Domain

The paper discusses an initial boundary value problem for four-dimensional, by spatial variables, Sobolev-type equation. The domain, in which this equation is valid, is a classical cylinder in $${\mathbb{R}}^{4}$$ , i.e. one of the coordinate directions, which the cylinder axis is parallel to, is specially singled out; and the cylinder base is located in the subspace set up by the rest of the coordinate directions. It should be pointed out that the spheres from $${\mathbb{R}}^{3}$$ lie in the cylindrical domain bases. In this case, it is possible to consider solutions with specific radial symmetry by three variables, which makes it possible to obtain precise solutions in the form of Fourier series of Dirichlet boundary value problem for such domain. The theorem of uniqueness is further presented in the paper with the use of integral identities technique.

N. V. Kalenova, A. M. Romanenkov
Reasons and Consequences of Sedimentation Layer Formation in Tray Part of Pipes of Waste Water Gravity Flow Networks

Reasons and consequences of sedimentation layer formation in tray part of pipes of waste water gravity flow networks are presented. The formula for calculating the given pipe diameter with internal sedimentation is developed and proposed for use. The comparison of values of hydraulic characteristics of new pipes and pipes with sedimentation in tray part is given on the particular example. The deviation percentage of hydraulic slope values in the rate range from 1.0 up to 3.06 m/s is indicated. The network operation efficiency is estimated based on the proposed technique to predict its utilization duration. It is proposed to work out normative requirements for obligatory hydrodynamic cleaning of waste water gravity flow networks.

O. A. Prodous, D. I. Shlychkov
The Influence of Strong Nonequilibrium on Multifractal Scaling of Two-Dimensional Distributions of Seismic Energy

Spatial distributions of seismic energy (seismic energy fields) in the vicinity of the epicenter of the October 30, 2020 Aegean Sea Earthquake ( $$M \approx 7$$ ) have been investigated by the multifractal analysis methods. It is shown that the singularity spectrum of the seismic energy field before the main shock of this event had undergone significant widening and asymmetry changing. From the physical point of view, these changes can be explained by seismogenerating system transition into strongly nonequilibrium state before the main shock. Quantitative characteristics of the revealed effects which can be used in the methods of seismogenerating medium current state monitoring are proposed.

I. R. Stakhovsky
Geomechanical Modeling During Solving Problems Related to Development of Hard-to-Recover Hydro-carbonate Deposits

The developed geomechanical model to describe deformation, fracture and filtration processes occurring within bottom-hole zone of production well is presented, and the results of mathematical modeling for a particular gas-condensate field are provided. The optimal constructions of the bottom-hole zones were chosen on the base of the conducted analysis. It was demonstrated, a significant increase in flow rate can be achieved by choosing the optimal bottomhole design.

V. I. Karev, Yu. F. Kovalenko, K. B. Ustinov
Micro-CT Analysis of Fractures and Permeability Changes in Low-Permeability Rocks After True Triaxial Loading

This article presents the results of complex studies of changes in the internal structure and evolution of filtration properties of rocks in the Astrakhan gas-condensate field after physical modeling the implementation of the method of directional unloading of the reservoir. The experiments were carried out on the Triaxial Independent Load Test System of the Institute for Problems in Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Scan of one of the samples on a high resolution computed tomography scanner CT-MINI was performed. A digital model of the internal structure of the rock was obtained. Different methods of estimating the finite permeability of a sample using numerical simulation of filtration flows in a rock structure obtained from CT scanning are reviewed and compared. Filtration flow velocity fields and sample permeability values were calculated. It is shown that the use of different approaches to permeability modeling based on scan results can lead to significantly different results. Research results allows to conclude that the method of directional unloading of reservoir can be successfully applied to the rocks of Astrakhan gas condensate field, allowing to significantly improve the filtration properties of rocks in the vicinity of a well.

V. V. Khimulia, V. I. Karev
Investigation of Wave Breaking by Radar Measurements in the Laboratory Modeling

The article describes a series of experiments to study the scattering of microwave radiation by a water surface. Measurements of the NRCS of the water surface were carried out for co- and cross-polarizations in a wide range of wind speeds, including hurricane ones. As part of laboratory modeling, a study was made of the scattering of microwave radiation by wave breaking, for which regular artificial wave breaking was organized at a given point, a specially developed optical method was used to control the wave breaking parameters, with side illumination of the survey area. The dependence of the power of the scattered signal on the area of the wave breaking was obtained.

G. A. Baydakov, N. S. Rusakov, A. A. Kandaurov, D. A. Sergeev, Yu. I. Troitskaya
The First Results of the Study of Sequestration Properties of Coastal Marine Biomorpholithosystems (Sakhalin Region)

The study of the first stage is completed by determining the geospatial position and sequestration capacity of coastal biomorpholithosystems. The general conservative estimate of carbon sequestration by lagoonal biomorpholithosystems alone, in terms of CO2 equivalent, is at least 500,000 tons/year. Taking into account the sequestration properties of marshes and droughts of northwestern Sakhalin, the figure is likely to increase several times. The work of the next stage of the study of coastal marine biomorpholithosystems, along with geospatial inventory, determination of dynamic parameters and material composition of carbon-fixing sediments, involves the creation of a system for obtaining data on the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, water, and soil gas exchange. Particular attention will be paid to the creation of ground experimental industrial sites within the ground, supralittoral zone of the Sakhalin State University carboniferous range, where technologies will be tested and artificial zones of accelerated silty-pelitic and organogenic sedimentation will be created.

V. V. Afanas’ev, A. B. Faustova
New Research on Characteristics RLC Circuit

Currently, there is no textbook on physics or electrical engineering that has a complete description of the amplitude frequency responses of a real RCL circuit. It is shown that the frequency characteristics of the RCL circuit have a special point at which the modulus of the complex resistance is not dependent on resistance. We investigated the application domain of the real model of the circuit. Shown a comparison of different schemes of resonant circuit. Also shown a diagram of the mechanical model with similar properties.

Parfentev Nikolay Andreevich, Trukhanov Stepan Vikentievich
Inelastic Deformation of Rocks with Deformation and Strength Anisotropy

Problems, related to various types of anisotropy of rocks for elastic and inelastic deformation are considered. Two types of strength anisotropy of rocks are described. Generalizations of the model of plastic deformation of rocks due Drucker and Prager, as well as applicability of associated and non-associated plastic flow lows, are discussed.

K. B. Ustinov
Carbon Sequestration in the Coastal Marine Biomorpholithosystems of the Salmon Bay of Aniva Bay

Determining the carbon sequestration capacity of coastal marine ecosystems in Russia is a process that has just begun. The category of priority tasks includes issues related to determining the geomorphological position and geospatial parameters of areas with an increased intensity of organogenic sedimentation. In this paper, for the first time, numerical values of the dynamics of silt dredges and marshes in the estuary zone of the sea bay are given. The potential of the main processes of coastal-marine sedimentation in relation to the sequestration of organic carbon is considered. It is assumed that the carbon sink capacity of the estuarine zone of the Tsunai and Susuya rivers, which is about 9 thousand tons in CO2 equivalent, will be adjusted upwards.

Victor V. Afanas’ev, E. M. Latkovskaya, A. V. Uba, A. I. Levitsky
Organogenic Sedimentation in the Nyivo Lagoon

The assessment of the role of coastal-marine geosystems in the runoff and emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) to determine their contribution to the overall balance of GHG in the territory of the Sakhalin Region is very relevant due to the limited potential of forestry and the geographical position of the region. The process of studying the emission and absorption of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in coastal marine ecosystems began with determining the geomorphological position of areas with an increased intensity of organogenic sedimentation, i.e. lagoons, studying the dynamics of marshes and silty lands, determining the main parameters of sedimentation in these elements of lagoonal biomorpholithosystems. The paper deals with the issues of sedimentation in the Nyivo lagoon, which receives the maximum amount of solid alluvial runoff for the region and for which the highest rates of horizontal growth of marshes are noted.

Victor V. Afanas’ev, A. V. Uba, A. I. Levitsky, A. B. Faustova
Experimental Determination of Permissible Drawdown for Gas Field Wells on a True Triaxial Loading Unit

One of the typical complications arising during the operation of wells in formations formed by weakly cemented rocks is sand production, when the sand from the reservoir enters the well together with the fluid. To study this issue, it is necessary to conduct experimental modeling of conditions in specific wells. This work is devoted to this method of studying the sand problem in gas fields. A unique research installation triaxial independent loading test system developed in IPMech RAS—TILTS—was used for experimental modeling of gas field bottom-hole zone. Nine specimens were made from core material of real gas field. Samples were used for physical modeling of the bottomhole formation zone. As a result of the studies, a significant anisotropy of strength properties of the studied rocks has been revealed. Due to anisotropy of strength properties, rock destruction along the contour of the well will be uneven—it will begin at the points corresponding to the upper and lower points of the contour of the horizontal well in the formation, and then will continue in this direction, forming a characteristic borehole collapse. Also, from the above data, we can conclude that the maximum pressure draw-down that can be safely given in the wells in the considered field should not be more than 0.5 MPa. Also, during all tests there was observed a decrease in permeability of samples, nevertheless final permeability remained big enough for effective operation of wells.

N. I. Shevtsov, S. O. Barkov
Assessment of Fracture and Pore Permeability in Rocks by Results of X-ray Computed Tomography

The paper presents the results of studies of the filtration properties of rocks carried out on the ProCon X-Ray CT-MINI high-resolution scanner of the Institute for Problems in Mechanics RAS. Images of the internal structure of reservoir rocks of two different types were obtained: a highly porous coarse-grained sandstone from a gas field reservoir and a fine-grained well cemented low-permeability sandstone with a branched network of macrocracks from a gas condensate field reservoir. The approaches to the processing of tomography images in the GeoDict software are described. Numerical modeling of filtration flows through the obtained structures is performed. Filtration fields were calculated using Navier–Stokes and Stokes-only solvers of the FlowDict module of GeoDict package. Differences and difficulties in modeling depending on the type of filtration in the rock: pore permeability and fracture permeability are shown. The differences between the measured and computed permeabilities were evaluated. Conclusions are made about the possibility of using the described methods to assess the filtration properties of rocks.

V. V. Khimulia, N. I. Shevtsov
Report “Overcoming the Limits” and New Solutions to Global Problems

The article discusses specific aspects of the report “Overcoming the Limits”, which presents the Russian view on ways to solve global problems from the standpoint of the current situation in the first quarter of the twenty-first century. The report was presented at M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University at the end of March 2022. The features of the approaches of the authors of the report to the consideration of global problems of mankind and new ideas and approaches for their solution are considered. Some issues insufficiently reflected in the report are noted. The possibility of implementing the plans proposed by the authors to solve the global problems of mankind is discussed.

K. V. Pokazeev, D. A. Solovyev
Wave Dynamics of Stratified Medium with Shear Flows: Main Problems Formulation

The paper considers issues related to the formulation of problems for describing the dynamics of internal gravity waves in stratified media with horizontal shear flows. Physical formulations of problems in which critical levels can arise are discussed. In the first problem, the bottom oscillations are considered, which begin at some point in time, and the establishment of a critical level at large times is studied. We also consider the formulation of the problem of a stratified medium flow running on an obstacle, behind which outgoing waves can arise, with a singularity at the critical level being formed far from the obstacle.

V. V. Bulatov
Changes in a Shoreline Under Influence of a Groin Field

A one-line analytical model of groin impact on a sandy beach suggested before by the authors is further developed in this work. The new version of the model considers trapping capability of groins to be dependent on shoreline displacement associated with infilling of inter-groin compartments. Thus, a feedback is implied between accumulation rate and evolution of shoreline contour which tends to its equilibrium state. It is shown that accumulation in a groin field is governed by rather fine mechanism operating in a relatively narrow range of conditions. The groin system is most efficient when the step of the groin field coincides with the length of an influence zone of a single structure. This in its turn leads to an optimal relation between the length of the structures and the distance between them. The model calculations demonstrate the ability to control the groin system operation by changing its parameters.

I. O. Leont’yev, T. M. Akivis
On the Issue of the Impact of Recreation on Coastal Territories

Recreational human activity, as well as other types of nature management, have a remarkable impact on natural landscapes, including in coastal territories. Its most important consequences include environmental pollution, the activation of dangerous natural processes, in particular, those related to the dynamics of the coasts, the transformation of natural landscapes, a decreasing biodiversity, the degradation of ecosystem services provided by the natural landscapes of coastal territories, visual and noise pollution, and a number of others. Similar consequences are characteristic of other types of human activity, and for some of its types, for example, for industrial human activity, they are much stronger. As a rule, an area attractive for recreation usually holds a high value for many other types of human activity, in particular, for permanent residence, which causes conflicts between them. It is necessary to know the structure of the nature management of the region and the history of its formation in order to understand the causes of conflicts—they are often caused by competition for the same territorial resources. In order to achieve the sustainable development of the territory, it is necessary to mitigate the most intense conflicts between different types of human activity. In many cases, conflict mitigation makes it possible to achieve mutual concessions to different types of economic activity to each other. Another condition for the sustainable development of territories actively used for recreation is the preservation of their tourist potential, which is impossible without control over the flows of recreants, both organized and unorganized (independent). It will allow recreationists to visit the region in the future, and will keep the attractiveness of the territories for tourists at the current level. However, other types of economic activities should also be taken into account, which also have an impact on the recreational potential of the region—its basis is largely untouched or slightly modified natural landscapes. In many cases, the only way to preserve them is to create protected natural areas within their borders and restrict economic activity on them provided by their status.

A. Yu. Sanin, O. D. Vasilyev, V. A. Kulakovskaya
Serpentinization of Olivine in a Kimberlite Pipe Udachnaya

The article presents the results obtained in the study of the Udachnaya-Zapadnaya and Udachnaya-Vostochnaya pipes. The nature of their relationships with each other and with the host rocks, the change in the composition of kimberlite rocks, the distribution of xenogenic and deep ultrabasic and eclogitic inclusions are shown. The isochron age of serpentinites and serpentinized ultramafic rocks is given as 863 ± 45 Ma and 1203 ± 66 Ma, respectively. In the serpentinized varieties of kimberlite rocks of Yakutia, serpentine is represented by two polymorphic modifications, lizardite and chrysotile. In kimberlite breccias with a massive cement texture of the Udachnaya-Vostochnaya pipe, the serpentine of inclusions is filled with lizardite; in the autolithic kimberlite breccias of the Udachnaya-Zapadnaya pipe, it is a mixture of chrysotile and lizardite. Serpentinization of olivine occurred in the prepipe stage of kimberlite formation, allochemically, without changing the volume of olivine. Serpentinization of olivine phenocrysts occurred in the late magmatic stage and decreases with depth.

V. K. Marshintsev, V. G. Gadiyatov, P. I. Kalugin
Analytical and Laboratory Modeling of the Movement of Markers in a Vortex Flow

The changing the direction of floating objects rotation on the vortex surface is discovered and explained. The differences in the behavior of symmetrical and asymmetric objects on the rotating water surface are shown. The proposed model of the transfer of floating markers along the surface of a vortex trough can also be used to study the dynamics of the transfer of “islands” of debris by large-scale oceanic vortices.

T. O. Chaplina
The Thermohaline Structure, Hydrochemical Characteristics and Chlorophyll-A Distribution in the White Sea Based on the Expedition Data Obtained in the Summer of 2019

The article investigates the thermohaline structure and hydrochemical characteristics in the White Sea. The data were obtained during the third stage of the Transarctica-2019 expedition from July 16 to August 2, 2019. An indirect assessment of the productivity of the White Sea waters by the content of chlorophyll-a was also carried out.

N. S. Frolova, E. I. Kharkhordina, A. A. Kirilova
Features of the Formation of the Chemical Composition of the Hydrosphere of the Buzuluk Pine Forest

Buzuluk forest is a specially protected area with the status of a National Park. Hydrocarbon deposits have been explored in the region: Gremyachovskoye, Vorontsovskoye, Mogutovskoye, Elshanskoye, Zhuravlevskoye, Neklyudovskoye, Nikiforovskoye. The first three are located on the territory of the forest. Separate wells drilled outside the forest are operated. Settlements are located along the river valleys. They are supplied with water at the expense of the Upper Tatar complex and the Lower Pliocene-Holocene horizon, fed by atmospheric precipitation. Groundwater is practically not protected from pollution. Areas are identified from hazardous to permissible in terms of the content of harmful components, taking into account the lithological composition of the rocks, the results of standard logging, test pumping with measurements of temperature and water level until its restoration. The results of the conducted research should be used for planning and conducting monitoring work on a unique territory for its further prosperity.

I. V. Kudelina, T. V. Leonteva, M. V. Fatyunina
About the Possible Relationship of the Iceland Hot Spot and the Surrounding Ocean Bottom Relief with the System of Intense Intra-mantle Vortexes

The paper proposes a hypothesis that the Icelandic hot spot with a mantle plume was formed as a result of the contact of an intense intra-mantle vortex with a liquid core. In the area of contact with the stationary liquid core, the rapidly rotating substance of the vortex is decelerated and heated. As a result, a jet of hot mantle matter arises above the contact area between the core and the vortex, ascending to the ocean lithosphere and forming the Icelandic hot spot. The spreading of hot matter rising from the mantle under the oceanic lithosphere leads to the formation of a boundary layer in which the Görtler instability occurs with the formation of rolls with axes oriented along the direction of the main flow. The movement of matter in the structure of swells in the boundary layer under the lithosphere forms the corresponding topography of the ocean floor surrounding the Icelandic hot spot.

S. Yu. Kasyanov
Investigation of Vortex Flows Formed When Ice Melting in Multicomponent Liquids

The results of experimental studies of the spontaneous rotation of ice blocks of different sizes placed both on a solid surface (aluminum, polymethyl methacrylate, glass, foam plastic, ceramics) and on the surface of a pool with water of a certain depth at a given temperature are presented. Observations have shown that if an ice block is placed on the water surface, a pronounced vertical flow is formed under the ice-water interface, which causes rotation. During the experiments, it was found that the speed of rotation of the ice block increases with the temperature of the water on the surface of which the block is placed. It has been experimentally established that with an increase in the mass of an ice block, its rotation speed increases. All observed flow patterns are stably reproduced by repeating the experiments and maintaining the conditions within the accuracy of the experiments.

T. O. Chaplina, O. A. Glebova
Response of an Extended Narrow Bay to Long-Wave Disturbances at Resonant Frequencies on the Example of the Sevastopol Bay

The response of a real bay to long-wave disturbances coming from the open sea, which have periods of potentially extreme seiche modes is studied by based on the ADCIRC hydrodynamic finite element model.

Yu. V. Manilyuk, D. I. Lazorenko
Assessment of the Impact of the Construction of Underground Structures with the Use of Special Methods on Underground Pedestrian Passengers

During the construction of multifunctional complexes in megacities, the task of geomechanical support and ensuring the safety of construction, as well as the operation of transport infrastructure falling into the zone of influence of construction, is very acute. Multifunctional complexes, due to their uniqueness, require scientific support, which includes verification of the correctness of design solutions, control of construction work, geomechanical and geotechnical support, as well as mine surveying and geodetic monitoring of the displacement and deformation processes in the enclosing soil and rock massif. In the process of construction, buildings, structures, communications, as well as capital objects of transport infrastructure fall into the zone of influence, assessing the impact on which this article is devoted, which presents the results of modeling changes in the stress-strain state of the soil mass during the construction of a multifunctional center by the finite element method using elastic and models of hardening soil in a spatial formulation.

D. L. Neguritsa, G. V. Alekseev, E. A. Medvedev, A. A. Tereshin
Metadaten
Titel
Physical and Mathematical Modeling of Earth and Environment Processes—2022
herausgegeben von
V. I. Karev
Copyright-Jahr
2023
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-25962-3
Print ISBN
978-3-031-25961-6
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-25962-3