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2023 | Buch

Physical Metallurgy and Heat Treatment of Steel

verfasst von: José Ignacio Verdeja González, Daniel Fernández-González, Luis Felipe Verdeja González

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

Buchreihe: Topics in Mining, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering


Über dieses Buch

This book covers the physical metallurgy of steels as well as the heat treatments used to improve the their properties. A full chapter is dedicated to the atmospheres in the steelmaking, including the implications of the own gases generated in the iron and steelmaking factories and how they could be applied in these treatments. This book is specially conceived for graduate and undergraduate courses, being the result of more than 30 years of teaching experience in courses for undergraduate, graduate (master and Ph. D.), and companies (technicians). The trends in the re-utilization of industrial gases in the iron and steelmaking process are discussed by the authors. Additionally, the book comprises 41 solved exercises, problems and case-studies, as a complement of the theoretical sections of the text. These exercises, problems, and case-studies are based on problems observed in the industrial practice.


Chapter 1. Solid-State Transformations in the Iron Carbon System
Steel is an alloy of iron with carbon in different proportions. The maximum carbon content in this alloy is 2.11 wt. % if the alloy does not contain other alloying elements. This chapter is dedicated to the study of the crystalline structures of the iron, as well as to the examination of the solid-state transformations in the iron-carbon system. These include the non-equilibrium transformation by isothermal cooling of the austenite into pearlite, bainite, and martensite. These transformations are studied by means of the TTT curves (Transformation-Temperature–Time). Characteristics of these different phases are described in this chapter, which concludes with the designation and standardization of steels.
José Ignacio Verdeja González, Daniel Fernández-González, Luis Felipe Verdeja González
Chapter 2. Heat Treatment of Steels
This chapter is devoted to the treatments of steel that involve heating the part until a certain temperature followed by cooling. We start with the different types of annealing treatments aimed at different objectives and continue later with one of the most relevant heat treatments applied to steels: the quenching and tempering, which are used with the objective of increasing the hardness of the part while toughness does not get worse. We describe the main parameters of the quenching and tempering process, as well as the process. The chapter concludes with the case hardening, isothermal treatments (patenting), and low-carbon aging steels treatments. Some solved exercises and case studies complement the contents presented in this chapter.
José Ignacio Verdeja González, Daniel Fernández-González, Luis Felipe Verdeja González
Chapter 3. Thermomechanical Treatments of Steels
This chapter deals with the thermochemical treatments of steels. It is relevant since it establishes the fundamentals of three of the most important processes of the steelmaking, recrystallization, hot rolling, and, particularly, controlled rolling. The following section is aimed at the thermomechanical treatment during the transformations of the austenite (isoforming and Transformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP)) as well as the thermomechanical treatments after the transformation of the austenite (pearlite forming, marforming). This chapter is complemented with several solved exercises and examples that would be useful for a better understanding of the proposed concepts.
José Ignacio Verdeja González, Daniel Fernández-González, Luis Felipe Verdeja González
Chapter 4. Controlled Atmospheres in Furnaces for Heat Treatments
The functions of the atmospheres in contact with steels during the heat treatment can be different:
they are an instrument that provides thermal energy by convective heat transfer mechanism to heat the steel;
they are a source that provides oxygen, carbon, or nitrogen to the steel;
they only represent a suitable support for the transfer of either radiant energy or induction energy. The appearance of pilot-industrial projects to apply mechanisms of faster heat transfer (radiant mechanism) or without influence in the molecules that form the gas (heating of the steel by induction heat transfer) is more and more frequent.
In all the cases, the physical–chemical characteristics of the atmospheres that are in contact with the steel have influence on the changes that can be produced on the surface of the steel that is being processed. On many occasions, as we are talking about large productions (millions of tons), it is not the objective to avoid the surface oxidation, which involves important metallurgical losses. The high operation and energy costs that can involve an atmosphere that could avoid the oxidation do not compensate the metallurgical losses associated with the oxidation. This chapter, dedicated to the atmospheres for the heat treatment of steels, is supported with solved exercises. This knowledge is adequate to understand the superficial changes that can be observed in the surface of the steel.
José Ignacio Verdeja González, Daniel Fernández-González, Luis Felipe Verdeja González
Physical Metallurgy and Heat Treatment of Steel
verfasst von
José Ignacio Verdeja González
Daniel Fernández-González
Luis Felipe Verdeja González
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Print ISBN