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Über dieses Buch

This textbook focuses on cast irons, the second material in production and consumption after steel. The authors describe the Fe-C stable and metastable diagrams from the physical-chemical metallurgy point of view. The main properties of cast irons are presented and justified for all kinds of cast irons: low cost, excellent castability, mechanical properties depending on the graphite morphology (gray irons) and high wear resistance (white irons). The physical metallurgy of highly alloyed cast irons is also described, particularly that one of those used as a consequence of their abrasion, corrosion and heat resistance. The book presents exercises, problems and cases studies, with different sections dedicated to the molding practice. The book finishes with the production cast irons in the cupola furnace. This concise textbook is particularly of interest for students and engineers that work in industries related to cast irons.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Fe–C System. Stable and Metastable Equilibrium Diagrams

In this chapter, first, classification of the cast irons based on the Fe–C binary diagram is carried out. White cast irons are those that follow the metastable Fe–C diagram and give eutectics with ledeburite and cementite. Grey cast irons are those that follow the stable Fe–C diagram and give eutectics with graphite and austenite. In this first chapter, additions (graphitizing elements , inoculants, carbonigenous agents and silicon) used to facilitate either the metastable or the stable solidifications are also described.
José Antonio Pero-Sanz Elorz, Daniel Fernández González, Luis Felipe Verdeja

Chapter 2. Stable Eutectic—Graphite Morphologies

This chapter is entirely dedicated to the stable eutectic , that of austenite and graphite. This eutectic is abnormal due to the significant differences in both the proportions and the melting temperatures of each constituent. This last aspect will have an important influence on the structure and properties of the eutectic. The type and size of the graphite will depend on both the amount of carbon and the cooling conditions. Five types of graphite will be identified. The presence of one or other kind of graphite will condition the properties of the grey cast iron.
José Antonio Pero-Sanz Elorz, Daniel Fernández González, Luis Felipe Verdeja

Chapter 3. Compromise Between Stable and Metastable Solidifications

The solidification according to the stable or metastable diagrams will depend on both the composition, size of the parts to be cast and the superheating . In this way, we have seen in Chap. 1, the elements that favour one or other solidification. In this chapter, we will see the effect of the parts size and the superheating , and we will see that it is possible to obtain a cast iron with simultaneously both white and grey eutectics, known as mottled cast iron . The ternary eutectic composed of Fe3P, Fe3C and Fe (steadite ) is also described in this chapter.
José Antonio Pero-Sanz Elorz, Daniel Fernández González, Luis Felipe Verdeja

Chapter 4. Stable and Metastable Cooling Compromise in Solid State

Transformations that can take place in the cooling of a molten cast iron, with the possibility of obtaining either a white or a grey cast iron, but also a mottled iron depending on several factors were studied in previous chapters. This chapter also studies the transformations that take place during the cooling in solid state, and in this way, the different matrix structures that can be obtained, either of equilibrium or non-equilibrium. The treatment known as ferritizing annealing is also studied as the transformation of cementite into graphite that takes place during this treatment can be used in the obtaining of nodular cast iron. Graphitizing risks in cast irons working at temperatures of around 450 °C are also pointed out as problems of scaling and growth can take place.
José Antonio Pero-Sanz Elorz, Daniel Fernández González, Luis Felipe Verdeja

Chapter 5. General Properties of Non-alloyed Grey Cast Irons (or Low Alloy) and Flake Graphite

This chapter is entirely dedicated to the properties of the grey cast iron s and the main uses of this kind of irons. Grey cast iron s are metal matrix composites with several interesting properties that make them usable in several applications in different fields. Maybe two of the most relevant properties of grey cast irons are their low shrinkage and good castability . For that reason, they find application in ornamental parts, but also, in products that could be obtained directly by moulding taking advantage of this good castability as is the case of different parts used in the automotive industry.
José Antonio Pero-Sanz Elorz, Daniel Fernández González, Luis Felipe Verdeja

Chapter 6. Malleable Irons

The main advantage of cast irons is the possibility of obtaining near-shape parts by moulding, without forging after solidification. The term malleable refers to the possibility of conferring more deformability to the cast irons through heat treatment in solid state. Two kinds of ferritic malleable irons will be described in this chapter, white and black heart malleable cast irons . Malleablizing treatment in white heart malleable cast irons is based on the decomposition of the cementite into iron and carbon atoms, diffusing then the carbon towards the periphery where it oxidizes, being modified the chemical composition of the initial white cast iron. In the case of black heart malleable cast irons , the chemical composition of the original white cast iron is not modified, and cementite is decomposed into carbon, which transforms into nodular graphite, and austenite, which allows obtaining either pearlitic or ferritic matrix depending on the cooling conditions after its transformation.
José Antonio Pero-Sanz Elorz, Daniel Fernández González, Luis Felipe Verdeja

Chapter 7. Spheroidal Graphite Cast Irons (or Ductile Cast Iron)

The main disadvantage of grey cast irons, regarding the mechanical properties, is the notch effect caused by the flakes of graphite. A model proposed to describe the grey cast irons is a steel with cavities filled with graphite. If this lamellar graphite is transformed into spheroidal graphite, mechanical properties will improve. This chapter is, for that reason, dedicated to the cast irons with spheroidal graphite, and particularly to the austempered ductile irons (ADI). ADI irons are spheroidal graphite cast irons of bainitic matrix with growing interest consequence of the excellent mechanical properties that make them competitive with steels.
José Antonio Pero-Sanz Elorz, Daniel Fernández González, Luis Felipe Verdeja

Chapter 8. Fe–C–Cr System

Chromium has been hardly mentioned in previous chapters, and it has only pointed out its carburigen and antigraphitizing character. It is the moment of considering the influence of chromium in the microstructures derived from the Fe–C–Cr system . That is because chromium is an essential element in some high-alloy cast irons. Fe–C–Cr system is also basic when the physical metallurgy of stainless steels is studied.
José Antonio Pero-Sanz Elorz, Daniel Fernández González, Luis Felipe Verdeja

Chapter 9. Composition, Structure and Properties of High-Alloy Cast Irons

In previous chapters, low and medium alloy cast irons were considered. In those cast irons, silicon was the main alloying element, although others in small quantities were considered. However, in this chapter, cast irons with more than 10% in alloying elements will be presented, having as objective improving abrasion, corrosion and heat resistances in cast irons, as specific purposes.
José Antonio Pero-Sanz Elorz, Daniel Fernández González, Luis Felipe Verdeja

Chapter 10. Exercises, Problems and Case Studies

This chapter is entirely dedicated to exercises, problems and case studies. This way, the reader could strength the knowledge acquired during the reading of the book. Different situations, some of them real case-studies, will help the reader in the full understanding of the cast irons applications, with problems of moulding practice as well as exercises for studying the mechanical properties of cast iron parts.
José Antonio Pero-Sanz Elorz, Daniel Fernández González, Luis Felipe Verdeja

Chapter 11. Fundamentals of the Cupola Furnace: Applications—Mass and Energy Balances

This chapter describes the process of cast irons production in cupola furnace, main type of furnace used in the production of this engineering material. Different solved problems about mass and energy balances will help the reader in the understanding of the cast irons production. The importance of raw materials is also considered in this chapter, as optimization problems in the utilization of the raw materials are presented. Solved problems regarding the desulphurization and dephosphorization are also included.
José Antonio Pero-Sanz Elorz, Daniel Fernández González, Luis Felipe Verdeja

Backmatter

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