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2022 | Buch


herausgegeben von: Maulin P. Shah, Arpita Roy

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore


Über dieses Buch

This book provides essential information on the role of phytonanotechnology in the removal of environmental pollutants and covers recent advances in experimental and theoretical studies on plant-derived nanoparticles. It also discusses their current and potential applications and challenges.The combination of nanotechnology and phytoremediation, which is called phytonanotechnology, have the potential to remove contaminants from the environment or degrade them. The efficiency of contaminant removal can be improved by combining both methods as they are complementary to each other.Phytonanotechnology offers the advantages of increased bioavailability, prolongation of heavy metal absorption time, and multiple metal removal, all contributing to improved efficacy and decreased toxicity in plants and surroundings. Therefore, there is immense scope for nature-derived molecules to be formulated into nanotechnology-based phytoremediation approaches targeting the specific heavy metal removal from effluents and surroundings. This encourages research initiatives to synthesize more phytonanotechnology based uptake plant systems with high efficiency. Efficient formulation targeting strategies and the evaluation of targeting efficiency of phytonanotechnology, conforming to international standards of their toxicology and biocompatibility, could pave the way for heavy metal uptake and removal by plant-based systems.This book serves as a valuable resource for postgraduate students, environmental scientists and materials scientists in academia and corporate research.


Plant Synthesized Nanoparticles for Dye Degradation
Dyes are mostly used in many industries such as textile, food, leather, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, paper industry, etc. Industrial dyes when released spoil the ecosystem, they are hazardous to aquatic life, animals, and mankind. So there is a need to degrade the dyes to reduce the toxicity present in them. Among various methods available for the degradation of dyes the best method is to use nanoparticles synthesized from plants because it is promising, eco-friendly, and nontoxic. Plant sources act as reducing agents for nanoparticles synthesis which will replace the toxic chemicals. And how effective they are in the degradation of dye and the mechanism of action of the degradation of dye that will reduce the toxicity is discussed. It also provides information about how this dye degradation helps in reducing pollution.
Varimadugu Aruna, Nainika Chada, Medagam Tejaswini Reddy, Vadakavila Geethikalal, Kiranmai Dornala, C. Nagendranatha Reddy
Plant-Mediated Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Dye Degradation
Due to advancements in industrialization, water pollution has become a major critical issue since it directly affects the quality of global water resources, human beings, organisms, plants, and animals. The main reason for the water pollution is unscientific management of industrial waste and population explosion. Water contamination and treatment technologies are two major topics of interest; water treatment technologies are also being developed in several ways. However, developing an economically feasible and highly efficient water treatment approach for all chemical water pollutants is ongoing. Photodegradation of this effluent is one of the best and simplest ways to convert or degrade contaminants or pollutants into a less harmful or non-toxic substance. Therefore, developing environmentally benign photocatalysts with remarkable stability and recyclability by a cost-effective and green method is becoming a prime requirement. Metal oxide nanomaterials are widely used as efficient photocatalysts due to their outstanding and unique optical properties. Metal oxides can be synthesized by various methods such as electrochemical, Sono-chemical, sol-gel, hydrothermal, polyol, and coprecipitation. However, the plant-mediated route is environmentally benign and straightforward. Hence, in this chapter, we have reviewed plant-mediated metal and metal oxide (M/MO) photocatalyst to dyes degradation. The chapter also focuses on the plausible mechanistic explanation of the photodegradation process. Lastly, we have explained the need for further developments to achieve a highly efficient and stable photocatalyst.
Vikram R. Jadhav, Jayraj S. Aher, Arun M. Bhagare, Akshay C. Dhaygude, Dnyaneshwar D. Lokhande
Plant-Derived Nanoparticles for Heavy Metal Remediation
In the domain of material science, a wide range of materials, such as nanomaterials, hybrid materials, and bio-inspired materials, are synthesized extensively using biological molecules derived from plants to form a truly reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly protocol. Plant-based nanoparticle synthesis is considered to be effective because of the diversity of plant nature and easy availability. The impact of toxic metal ions in water is a serious global problem because of their human and environmental toxicity. Removal of heavy metal ions in water is a complex process. Adsorption is popular with existing methods because of its economic feasibility. The production of nanomaterials from plants, including carbon, zero-valent metals, metal oxides, and nanocomposites, as well as their applications to remove heavy metal ions from wastewater, were systematically reviewed. We compared, discussed the efficiency, limitations, and benefits of plant-based nanoparticles for heavy metals removal. In addition, there was discussion about the perspective of heavy metals removal by plant-based nanomaterials and potential guidance for future work.
V. Andal, Karthik Kannan, V. Selvaraj, K. Suba
Biomedical Applications of Phytonanotechnology
Phytonanotechnology is an emerging area of agricultural biotechnology that should consider different physicochemical and biological processes for the formulation of nanoparticles to load the extracts derived from innumerable plant parts. Methods exploited for the synthesis of the plant-based nanoparticles have some potential advantages like simple and fast techniques, cost-effectiveness, eco-friendly, stable for a prolonged time, convenient, and reproducible. Apart from these advantages, the phytonanoparticles have tremendous applications in operations related to catalysis, optoelectronics, diagnostic agents, in making of biosensing devices, antimicrobials, therapeutics, etc. It also allows the controlled release of fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and is involved in the targeted delivery of biomolecules such as nucleotides, proteins, and activators. This chapter summarizes the past, present scenarios of phytonanotechnology in medicinal and pharmaceutical applications. The different classes of nanoformulations using plant extracts with their advantages have been emphasized. The commercial applications of phytonanoparticles in different sectors have been discussed. The use of plant-derived nanoformulations as antimicrobial, wound healing, anticancer agents, diagnostic agents, and targeted drug and gene delivery was discussed. Finally, the future scope of phytonanotechnology was covered in this chapter.
Satya Lakshmi Siragam
Application of Nanotechnology in Plant Secondary Metabolites Production
After decades of research, the crucial role of primary metabolites as necessary compounds for the basic life functions and secondary metabolites as essential compounds for the survival and adapting to the environment during abiotic and biotic stresses conditions were deduced. Various secondary metabolites like alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, steroids, glycosides, tannins, resins, terpenoids, etc., are extensively studied for their commercial applications in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and food industries. Currently, there is a vast scope in enhancing plant secondary metabolite production to obtain high yields appropriate for commercial use. Different elicitation methods like biotic (rhizobacteria and fungus) and abiotic (light, salt, metals, temperatures, and drought) elicitors are used to increase secondary metabolite production. Lately, phytonanotechnology has been gaining more attention in plant biotechnology to develop efficient methods to increase plant growth and enhance the production of plant secondary metabolites. The framework of this chapter summarizes the impact of nanomaterials in promoting the production of secondary plant metabolites and their applications. Based on available scientific reports, the knowledge of nanomaterial–plant interactions, mechanism, factors governing these cross-talks, and their biological significance are explored here. Additionally, to improve the influence of nanoparticles on the production of valuable pant secondary metabolites, future directions and strategies for developing formulations are discussed.
Gyanendra Kumar, Bijesh Puthusseri, Divya Peethambaran, Mohammed Azharuddin Savanur
Applications of Nanotechnology in Preservation and Development of the Plants: A Look Back
In this era of global warming, agrarian strategies across the world are plagued with a slew of issues. Improved nano-engineering is a useful technique for increasing agricultural output and ensuring long-term sustainability in the pursuit of rural livelihoods. Nanotechnology aids in the improvement of agricultural output by boosting input efficiency and reducing relevant losses. Fertilisers and insecticides have a smaller specific surface area than nanomaterials. Nanoparticles also enable regulated, forum nutrition delivery with increased crop protection as distinctive drivers of industrial chemicals. Whilst nanotechnology’s rapid advancement in biomedical sciences has transformed therapeutic and diagnostic techniques in recent years, understanding nanoparticle–plant interactions, such as absorption, mobility, and accumulation, is still in its infancy. Because of their direct and intentional use in the specific administration and management of efforts, nanotools, such as nanobiosensors, enable the growth of high-tech farming (fertilisers, pesticides, herbicides). Nonosensors that combine biology and nanotechnology have substantially enhanced their ability to perceive and recognise environmental circumstances or impairments, with the ultimate goal of improving plant defence and/or enhancing photosynthetic activity, as well as farming methods. Humans also feel that multidisciplinary collaboration approaches will be crucial in narrowing the research gaps in plant nanotechnology and increasing the practice of NMs in farming and plant science research a broad sense.
Gyanaranjan Sahoo, Pravat Kumar Roul, Prasannajit Mishra, Aruna Kumari Nakella
Environmental Applications of Phytonanotechnology: A Promise to Sustainable Future
Plants have been using phytonanotechnology to boost their capacity to deal against adverse environmental conditions in recent years (e.g., nutritional insufficiency, pollution) and other hazardous compounds, as well as to introduce target-specific nanomaterials into the plant, increasing and improving production. This chapter gives an overview of phytonanotechnology, including its features and functions. This chapter will also look at how this technology affects the environment. The goal of this study is to get a fundamental knowledge of plant species and adjust their functions. Using a cross-analysis of papers measured the results are phytonanotechnology is helpful to our environment. By the use of phytonanotechnology was found to play the greatest role in making, environment and plants. This study definitely answers the questions regarding the correlation between proximity to nanotechnology to its applications and how is it beneficial. Improved development of phytonanotechnology may also ultimately result in the emergence of “advanced plants,” allowing humans to sense and comprehend individual plants and their environs, so ensuring the planet's long-term viability.
Rakhi Chahar, Manishita Das Mukherji
Phytonanotechnological Approach for Silver Nanoparticles: Mechanistic Aspect, Properties, and Reliable Heavy Metal Ion Sensing
The environmentally benign and reliable methods for the nanoparticles (NPs) synthesis are playing significant role in the area of nanotechnology. The traditional methods of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesis are costly, hazardous, and non-eco-friendly. The phytonanotechnology is the alternative method to tackle these problems which includes NPs synthesis using natural sources like plants, fungi, bacteria, and biopolymers as presence of various phytochemicals acting as stabilizing along with capping agents. AgNPs are widely used in the sensing field for the detection of toxic heavy metal ions like mercury (Hg2+), lead (Pb2+), zinc (Zn2+), cadmium (Cd2+), arsenic (As2+), copper (Cu2+) etc. with very low detection limits. The present chapter lights on the green and mechanistic approach towards the synthesis of plant-based AgNPs, its properties, and heavy metal ion sensing applications.
Shubhangi Mane-Gavade, Pratapshingh Gaikwad, Rohant Dhabbe, Suraj Umdale, Sachinkumar Patil, Sandip Sabale
Plant Material Assisted Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNPs) for the Separation of Inorganic Pollutants
Mainly Inorganic pollutants like heavy metals are generated from many industrial processes, agricultural activities and domestic sources. These pollutants enter into water bodies and lead to damage to the entire ecosystem. Consequently, it affects the living organisms, including human health. Therefore, it is essential to develop an effective method for removing heavy metals from water bodies. Recent development in nanotechnology has also directed the progress of novel nanoparticles. Specifically, developing environmentally friendly green methodologies for the synthesis of nanoparticles has been increased to reduce the negative impacts of synthetic strategies, their supplementary chemicals/solvents and derivative materials. Among the various kinds of materials, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) based nanosystems gained significant attention because of their rapid adsorption, highly selective and sensitive and effective removal of heavy metals. The modification of nanomaterials on their surface plays a vital role in the selective adsorption of different metal ions. It is due to electrostatic interaction like complex formation, ligand combination and chemical binding, in addition to regular weak forces between metal ion and adsorbent. Here in this book chapter, we discussed the impact of plant materials, viz. leaves, roots, fruit, etc. for the synthesis of MNPs to remove/separate heavy metals from contaminated water.
Gedda Gangaraju, Gollavelli Ganesh, Randhi Uma Devi, Kolli Balakrishna
Environmental Applications of Green Engineered Silver Nanoparticles
Nano materials are used in each and every field like energy storage, environmental science, health, transportation and catalysis, because of their improved, unique and stable properties. Among many materials, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) since decades have attracted many researchers for the usage of these materials in potential areas due its non-toxic nature. These particles are widely known for their inherent and interesting properties like chemical stability, catalytic activity, high conductivity, etc. Known to possess anti-viral, antifungal and antibacterial kind of properties. Physicochemical processes can be used to create such materials. However, in today's world, environmentally friendly synthesis of such elements is getting stronger. Considerable attention is paid by researchers towards the biological and plant-based synthesis protocols due to the low cost, greener, less wastage of resources and employing renewable materials. This book chapter briefly highlights the detailed overview of the AgNPs. It also goes over the various properties of AgNPs, the methods employed towards AgNPs green synthesis with the help of fungi, bacteria and plant extracts as medium. Finally, attention will be given towards the environmental applications of such nanoparticles (NPs) in diverse fields of waste water treatment, its usage as disinfectant, as metal ion detectors, dye removal, etc.
Jyothi C. Abbar, G. A. Swetha, Manjunath D. Meti, Kirthi S. Byadagi
Bioremediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Sites Using Phytogenic Nanoparticles
Heavy metals (HMs) accumulate in milieu due to various human activities that persist leading to biomagnification in food chains and cause unpleasant effects on human health and environment. Pollutants such as organic matter and HMs are remediated traditionally by chemical precipitation, electrochemical treatment, adsorption, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, coagulation, and photo-catalyzation, remained ineffective. Use of nanomaterials conjugated with various compounds showed significant reduction in several contaminated sites. However, existing implication of nanotechnology works with nanoparticles (NPs) synthesis majorly involved the use of chemical raw materials and physical methods which are relatively toxic and unstable. Aforesaid difficulties made researchers and entrepreneurs to reconnoitre effective, newer, and novel synthesis approaches for the replacement over older version. During the past decade, to overcome these issues plant-derived NPs are extensively used because of its less cost, efficiency, and eco-friendly in nature. Hence, advanced alternative technology like phytoremediation using nanomaterials with innovative techniques has been a boon for HM remediation. Efficiency of green synthesized NPs is based on redox reactions which makes metals stable facilitated by flavonoids and polyphenols responding to HM-stress. Several metal complexation processes are known to produce phytochelatins or other metal-chelating peptides helping the bioremediation of HMs. Current chapter throws light on adaptive mechanism employed by NPs coupled with plant or microbial extracts in overcoming the HM stress. Furthermore, here we also focus on the possible mechanism and interaction between NPs and HM in minimizing severity of polluted sites with many examples.
Borehalli Mayegowda Shilpa, R. Rashmi, N. G. Manjula, Athreya Sreekantha
Environmental Applications of Green Engineered Copper Nanoparticles
Naturally engineered nanomaterials in recent times have myriad potential in different fields. Moreover, green derived nanoparticles (NPs) encourage broader implementation for wider applications. Amongst many metals, copper and its oxide-based nanoparticles (CuONPs) have increased utmost consideration owing to its specific characteristics, abundance, and cost-effectiveness. Major setback of chemical and physical methods of synthesising CuONPs involves high cost along with environmental hazards. Aforementioned challenge compelled researchers to explore green synthesised CuONPs that is much cheaper, efficient, economically beneficial, non-toxic, and eco-friendly. Existing plant-based CuONPs have potential efficiency to enhance the toxic effects against the plant pathogens and combating environmental pollution through bioremediation. Several extracts of plant derivatives have been used for the synthesis of CuONPs such as Azadirachta indica, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Murraya koenigii, Moringa oleifera, Tamarindus indica, Eclipta prostrate, Olea europaea, etc. Microbes as cell factories are more efficiently used as NPs compared to larger plants such as, green algae Botryococcus braunii, brown algae Macrocystis pyrifera, Bifurcaria bifurcate etc. Bio-based CuONPs have been applied in numerous fields such as pharmaceutical, molecular biology, bioremediation, cosmetics, textiles etc. Several of them also employed in dye degradation, water treatment, food preservation, Photovoltaic devices, solar energy conversions, and field emission emitters. However, as in clinical setup due to their efficacy these are exclusively used as anticancer, antimicrobial agents. Further, their high antioxidant potential renders them as an invaluable tool for biomedical devices.
N. G. Manjula, Gitartha Sarma, Borehalli Mayegowda Shilpa, K. Suresh Kumar
Plant Mediated Nanocomposites for Water Remediation
The usage of nanocomposites has grown significantly in recent years, due to their exceptionally tiny size and high surface area, which contribute to their mechanical and physiochemical properties with respect to bulk materials of equal chemical composition. Nanomaterials are often synthesized by a combination of physical, chemical, and biological methods. Among them, plant mediated synthesis offers unique properties such as sustainability, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and also many new functionalities in an environmentally friendly manner. Currently, environmental pollution remains a serious global problem that is inextricably associated with various types of anthropogenic activities. Water quality in the modern world is substantially harmed by numerous pollutants and toxins from diverse sources and it can be overcome by the plant-derived nanocomposites as it provides an efficient and cost-effective solution in preventing further pollution and in improving the quality of the water. Thus, this chapter mainly summarizes the purification and remediation of contaminated water with the aid of various plant-derived nanocomposites.
Samudrika Aththanayaka, Nishmitha Ramaraj, Gobika Thiripuranathar, Keerthi Attanayake, Sagarika Ekanayake
Photocatalytic Degradation of Dye from Various Metal/Metal Oxides Derived from Diverse Plants
Toxic dyes are rapidly becoming a big issue in terms of water/soil pollution, as they have an effect the purity of world water bodies, human health and creatures. Unscientific management of industrial dye waste is the primary cause of water pollution. The dyes that come from industries kept a lot of impact on aquatic ecosystems. The ingestion of these dyes through food, vegetables and fish has long-term negative consequences, making them toxic to human health. Therefore, it is a pressing necessity to obtain a simple, quick and low-cost technique for detecting, identifying and purifying these dyes in aqueous medium or from any other source. Various processes, such as sorption, photocatalytic degradation and conversion, can be used to handle industrial waste dyes. Compared to sorption and conversion, photocatalytic degradation has various advantages, including environmental protection and total pollution degradation. Photocatalytic degradation is possible with both metal and non-metal nanoparticles. There are numerous papers on the use of CNTs, ZnO, TiO2 and other nanoparticles for dye degradation, but the preparation of this both metal and non-metal are required harsh reaction condition and which cause a harmful impact on the environment. The production of nanoparticles using various plant extracts (phyto-nanoparticles) has a cleaner approach. To use of such nanoparticles in the dye degradation process has more impact.
Mahendra Pratap Singh, Prakash Baburao Rathod, Subodh Kabirdas Sakhare
Phytonanotechnology for the Removal of Pollutants from the Contaminated Soil Environment
Over-consumption of chemically synthesized components aids country toward industrial revolution, which symbolizes for economic prosperity. On the other hand, industrial revolution is responsible for soil pollution, due to its toxic effluents. The main source of soil pollutants includes fertilizers, pesticides, untreated wastewater used for irrigation, land application of sewage sludge due to rich organic content, petroleum leakage and leaching from landfills, etc. The crops grown out of this contaminated soil make the plant to changes its nutritional valve, bioaccumulates the chemicals, and also hinder with its vigor. Studies proved that prevent measures should prioritize in minimizing the adverse effect on the environment. Use of Phytonanotechnology in wastewater treatment, as nano fertilizer, nanotechnology-based biocontrol agents, and other areas before the hazardous chemicals entering soil. Green synthesized nanoparticles assist as excellent bio remedial agents as they are rich in biomolecules like carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and several enzymes also determine its efficacy of action. Hence, this chapter highlights the various eco-friendly and inexpensive products or formulation used for removal of toxic and recalcitrant materials which are dreadfully risky to human health.
Shilpa Borehalli Mayegowda, Kempahanumakkagari Sureshkumar, R. Yashaswini, Thippeswamy Ramakrishnappa
herausgegeben von
Maulin P. Shah
Arpita Roy
Springer Nature Singapore
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