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## Über dieses Buch

This book provides an overview of the current state of the art in novel piezo-composites based on ferroelectrics. Covering aspects ranging from theoretical materials simulation and manufacturing and characterization methods, to the application and performance of these materials, it focuses on the optimization of the material parameters.

Presenting the latest findings on modern composites and highlighting the applications of piezoelectric materials for sensors, transducers and hydro-acoustics, the book addresses an important gap in the physics of active dielectrics and materials science and describes new trends in the research on ferroelectric composites.

## Inhaltsverzeichnis

### Chapter 1. Piezo-Active Composites: Classification and Effective Physical Properties

Abstract
Piezo-active composites are regarded as an important group of piezoelectric materials that belong to heterogeneous dielectrics whose physical properties and related parameters depend on many factors. Among the variety of criteria for the classification of piezo-active composites, their microgeometry and connectivity play an important role. Knowledge of the connectivity pattern enables us to carry out a prediction of the effective physical properties and related parameters in terms of micromechanical methods. Piezo-active composites play a key role among modern functional materials due to the considerable electromechanical coupling, piezoelectric activity, sensitivity and anisotropy, and figures of merit. This is achieved in the presence of highly effective ferroelectric components such as poled ferroelectric ceramics and domain-engineered relaxor-ferroelectric single crystals. The properties of the composites are regarded as effective properties in accordance with features of the microstructure, domain structure, arrangement of components and connectivity. The remarkable piezoelectric properties and related parameters of the composites based on ferroelectrics stimulate the creation of novel highly effective materials and are to be taken into account for potential transducer, hydroacoustic, energy-harvesting and other applications.
Hamideh Khanbareh, Vitaly Yu. Topolov, Christopher R. Bowen

### Chapter 2. Aspects of Composite Manufacturing

Abstract
Methods to manufacture modern composites based on ferroelectrics are described and compared. The overwhelming majority of the well-approved methods are concerned with manufacturing of the ferroelectric ceramic/polymer composites that have been widespread for the past decades. The methods to manufacture the piezo-active composites are based on knowledge of physics, chemistry, materials science and technological principles. In the present work, the main emphasis is placed on applications of dielectrophoresis to form long chains of aligned and closely connected ceramic particles in an electric field, when the matrix polymer is in a low-viscosity state. The methods are suitable for the manufacture piezo-active 0–3, 1–3 and quasi 1–3 ceramic/polymer composites including those for sensor and high-temperature applications. A ceramic-based composite with a foam polymer matrix is also manufactured, and its performance is compared to that of a related 0–3 ceramic/polymer composite.
Hamideh Khanbareh, Vitaly Yu. Topolov, Christopher R. Bowen

### Chapter 3. Experimental Studies on Effective Properties and Related Parameters of Piezo-Particulate Composites

Abstract
Numerous experimental results on the effective dielectric, pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties and related parameters of piezo-particulate composites based on ferroelectric ceramics are described and analysed. The effective properties of the composites structured by means of dielectrophoresis (0–3 and/or 1–3 connectivity patterns) are compared to the properties of related random (or non-structured) composites with 0–3 connectivity. The influence of the composite microgeometry and properties of the components on the effective properties is discussed. Large values of maximum of the piezoelectric coefficient $$g_{33}^{*}$$ describing piezoelectric sensitivity are achieved in the structured composite. The considerable increase of $$g_{33}^{*}$$ is a result of forming a porous structure in the polymer matrix of the composite. Examples of the influence of the porous (foam) polymer matrix on the piezoelectric coefficient $$g_{33}^{*}$$ are considered for composite based on the ferroelectric PZT ceramic. High-temperature piezo-active composites exhibit thermal stability of both the dielectric and piezoelectric properties in the presence of the ferroelectric ceramic component with the high Curie temperature TC and due to the considerable thermal stability of the dielectric properties of the polymer matrix.
Hamideh Khanbareh, Vitaly Yu. Topolov, Christopher R. Bowen

### Chapter 4. Modelling of the Composite Structure Formation During Dielectrophoresis

Abstract
Analytical and computational results concerned with modelling of the piezo-particulate composite structure formation during dielectrophoresis are analysed. A numerical model has been put forward to simulate the ceramic-particle alignment and structure formation in a viscous medium during dielectrophoresis, and the system ‘ferroelectric ceramic particles + medium’ is assumed to be semi-dilute. The main parameters to be considered during this modelling are the order parameter and total chain perfection degree. These parameters are inseparably linked with some microgeometric characteristics of the system of the ceramic particles in the continuous viscous medium. The performance of the aforementioned model is demonstrated for a variety of systems based on ferroelectric ceramic particles in a viscous polymer medium.
Hamideh Khanbareh, Vitaly Yu. Topolov, Christopher R. Bowen

### Chapter 5. Prediction of Effective Properties of Composites Based on Ferroelectric Ceramics

Abstract
The important step at the study of the piezo-particulate composites is concerned with the prediction of their effective properties. Hereby a number of models have been put forward at modelling and interpretation of the properties. Examples of the effective piezoelectric properties and related parameters of 0–3, 1–3 and 2–2 ferroelectric ceramic/polymer composites, and 0–3-type composites with two kinds of the ceramic inclusions are discussed to demonstrate the influence of microgeometric characteristics, components and other factors on the electromechanical coupling and piezoelectric performance of the composites. The effective pyroelectric and dielectric properties of the ceramic-based composites are considered to a lesser degree. The microgeometry of the piezo-active composite plays a key role in determining its piezoelectric sensitivity, and changes in the microgeometry can lead to appreciable changes in the piezoelectric sensitivity and related parameters. Main examples of the piezoelectric sensitivity are concerned with composites that are based on either the PZT-type or PbTiO3-type ceramics. Calculated parameters are compared to the known experimental data.
Hamideh Khanbareh, Vitaly Yu. Topolov, Christopher R. Bowen

### Chapter 6. From Microgeometry to Improved Properties of Piezo-Particulate Composites

Abstract
The manufacture and performance of the structured piezo-particulate composites based on ferroelectric ceramics are considered by taking into account the important role of dielectrophoresis in forming the effective piezoelectric properties and related parameters of these composites. The considerable effect of topology, processing and physical properties of components on the effective properties of the studied composites is discussed to shed light on improving their piezoelectric properties. Some characteristics of related structured two- and three-component composites are compared. These composites can be used in piezo-technical, pyroelectric, energy-harvesting and other applications.
Hamideh Khanbareh, Vitaly Yu. Topolov, Christopher R. Bowen

### Backmatter

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